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Патент USA US2404029

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July 16,‘ 1946.‘
P. M. BIIRK
_ 2,404,029
TORQUE WRENCH
Filed May a, 1944
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INVENTOR.
PAUL
M. BIRK
BY
ATTORNEY
Patentecl July 16, 1946
2,404,029
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,404,029
TORQUE WRENCH
Paul M. Birk, Kenmore, N. Y., assignor to Curtiss
Wright Corporation, a corporation of Dela
ware
Application May 6, 1944, Serial No. 534,476
6 Claims. ( Cl. 73-139)
1
This invention relates to improvements in
torque measuring and indicating wrenches, and
more particularly the invention is concerned with
a wrench of the type characterized by a resilient
beam by which the torsional forces are trans
mitted to the part to be turned, the de?ection
of the said beam varying directly as the magni
tude of such forces and hence being readily trans
2
working stroke of the wrench is utilized to meas
ure and indicate the magnitude of the forces act
ing upon the part to which such forces are
transmitted. To this end a U-shaped element I6
is carried by the head I I. The terminal portions
of the legs of the said element carry screws I‘!
which provide pivots for indicators l8, the latter
being located at opposite sides of the beam ID.
latable into appropriate force units. Although
The indicators overlie similar arms l9 which are
not necessarily limited to such use, the wrench 10 ?xed to opposite sides of the handle l2. The
may be employed to particular advantage for
said arms are supported by the handle preferably
winding the spring actuators which are associated
in spaced relation with respect to the beam and
with the shell feeding mechanisms of aircraft can
the respective indicators and terminate at their
non and for indicating when such actuators have
inner ends in the vicinity of the head I I. Oppo
been wound to the proper degree.
15 sitely extending studs 20, which are carried at
One object of the invention is to provide a
the inner ends of the arms l9, occupy elongated
wrench which is compact and of light-weight con
slots 2| which are formed in the indicators N3,
struction and which may be manipulated in con
the outer ends of the arms l9 carrying lateral
?ned areas and stored in a minimum of space.
extensions 22.
The latter bear suitably gradu
A further object is a wrench wherein provision 20 ated scales 23 with which the indicators coop
is made for amplifying the de?ection of the beam
crate.
in such a manner that, although a short, rela
It will be apparent that in the use of the wrench
tively stiif beam may be employed, the magnitude
the beam ID will be de?ected more or less depend
of the forces acting upon the part being turned
ing upon the force being applied to the handle
will be clearly and accurately indicated.
25 12 and that such de?ection will be accompanied
A still further object is to provide a wrench
by a corresponding de?ection of the free ends of
which may be availed of to apply turning forces
the arms 19 in an opposite direction. As such
to a part either in a clockwise or a counterclock
movement of the outer ends of the arms I9 is
wise direction and which will measure and indi
transmitted to the indicators I8 by the studs 20,
cate the magnitude of such forces in either direc 30 the indicators will traverse the scales 23 to indi
tion.
cate the value of the torsional forces acting upon
The invention is illustrated in the accompany
the part being turned and thereby indicate
ing drawing in which:
whether and to what extent such turning should
Figure 1 is a top plan view of a wrench em
be continued.
bodying the features of the invention.
35
It will be noted that the magnitude of the
Figure 2 is a side elevational view of the wrench.
de?ection of the indicators with respect to the
Figure 3 is a longitudinal section taken along
deflection of the beam depends not only upon
line 3-3 of Figure 2.
the resiliency of the beam but also upon the
Figure 4 is a detail sectional view taken along
length of the arms l9 and the points at which
line 4—-4 of Figure 1.
40 the arms are connected to the indicators. The
Figure 5 is a transverse section taken along
construction described, therefore, has the advan
line 5—5 of Figure 1.
tage that the de?ection of the beam may, within
The wrench, as illustrated, includes a resilient
limits, be ampli?ed to any desired degree. Hence,
beam l0, one end of which carries a head H and
a relatively stiff beam may be employed, when
the other end of which carries a handle l2. The 45 for any reason this is desired, it being only nec
wrench being of the ratchet type, the head ll
essary in such case to increase the ampli?cation
carries a socket l3 in which a terminal portion
of the beam de?ection to obtain the desired accu
of the part to be turned is adapted to be accom
racy of measurement and indication. The use of
modated. A spring-loaded pawl l4 (Figure 4)
dual indicators in the manner described has the
is engageable with teeth I5 on the socket in such 50 advantage that the wrench may be availed of to
a manner that a movement of the beam ID with
equal advantage in turning parts either in a clock
respect to the socket is permitted in one direc
wise or counterclockwise direction. This is ef
tion but prevented in the other.
fected by merely reversing the position of the
In accordance with the invention the magni
wrench, so that one of the indicators 22 lies
tude of the de?ection of the beam l0 during a 55 uppermost for clockwise turning and the oppo
n].
2,404,029
4
3
site indicator 22 lies uppermost for counterclock
wise turning.
It is to be understood that any reference to
the use of the wrench in connection with the
winding of the spring actuators of shell feeding
mechanisms is intended by way of example only,
being noted particularly because of the special
adaptability of the .wrench for uses wherein the
space in which the wrench must be manipulated
direction and to prevent pivotal movement of
said beam with respect to said head in the op
posite direction, a handle at the outer end of said
beam, a pair of indicators, a pair of pivots carried
by said head, each said pivot carrying one of
said indicators, a pair of actuating arms ?xed
to said handle at one end, and a pair of slot and
pin actuating connections between the inner
ends of said actuating arms and said indicators in
is limited or the small size and light weight of _ 10 the vicinity of said pivots.
the wrench may be of importance.
Obviously
' ' 4. In a torque measuring wrench, the combi
nation of a head which is engageable with a part
to be turned, a resilient beam connected to said
head and which is de?ected by the force applied
15 to‘ it in turning ‘said part, a handle at the outer
I claim as my invention:
end of said beam, an indicator, an actuating con
1. In a torque measuring wrench, the combi~
nection between said indicator and said head, an
nation of a head which is engageable with a part
actuating arm ?xed at its outer end to said han
to be turned, a resilient beam connected to said
dle, and-an actuating connection between said
head and which is de?ected by the force applied
to it in turning said part, a handle at the outer 20 indicator and the inner end of said arm in the
vicinity of the ?rst mentioned actuating connec
end of said beam, an indicator, a pivot for said
tion, one of said actuating connections being a
indicator carried by said head, an actuating arm
pivot connection and the other a pin and slot
?xed at its outer end to said handle, and a slot
connection.
and pin connection between said indicator and
5. In a torque measuring wrench, the combi
the inner end of said arm in the vicinity of said 2.5
the wrench may be employed to equal advantage >
for other purposes wherein the factors of size
and. weight may not be so important.
nation of a head which is engageable with a part
to be turned, a resilient beam connected to said
2. In a torque measuring wrench, the combi
head and which is deflected by the force applied
nation of a head which is engageable with a part
to it in turning said part, a handle at the outer
to be turned, a resilient beam connected to said
end of said beam, a pair of indicatorsya pivot
.30
head and which is de?ected by the force applied
connection between each indicator and the head,
to it in turning said part, a handle at the outer
an actuating arm for each indicator ?xed at its
end of said beam, a U-shaped element ?xed to
outer end to said handle and having a graduated
said head and carrying pivots at the opposite
lateral extension which the indicator may trav
sides of the latter, indicators connected to said
erse, and. an actuating connection between the
head by said pivots, slots formed in said indi .35 inner end of each arm and its indicator in the
pivot.
cators in the vicinity of said pivots, arms which
said indicators overlie, which at their outer ends
vicinity of said pivot.
'
6. In a torque measuring wrench, the combi
are ?xed to said handle and which at such ends
nation of a head which is engageable with a
are formed with graduated lateral extensions
40 part to be turned, a resilient beam connected to
which said indicators may traverse, and studs
said head and which is de?ected by the force
carried at the inner ends of said arms and ac
applied to it in turning said part, a handle at the
commodated in said slots.
outer end of said beam, a pair of indicators, a
' " 3. In a torque measuring wrench, the combi
pivot connection between each indicator and the
nation of a head which is engageable with a part
head, an actuating arm for each indicator ?xed
to be turned, a resilient beam pivotally conat its outer end to said handle and having a grad‘
nected to said head and which is de?ected by the
uated lateral extension which the indicator may
force applied to it in turning said part, a ratchet
and pawl connection between said beam and said
head arranged to permit free pivotal movement
of said beam with respect to said head in one
traverse, and a pin and slot connection‘between
the-inner end of .each arm and its indicator in
the vicinity of said pivot.
PAUL M. BIRK.
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