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Патент USA US2404034

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Fotcuted dial 169 1%‘
Lorna 0.‘ Buxton, Bellevlile, N. J., assignor to
National Oil Products Company, Harrison,
N. J_., a corporation oi’ New Jersey
No Drawing. Application August 14, 1941,
Sci-la! 160,406,831
"1 Claims. (Cl. sac-11s)
invention relates in general to the treat
ment oi’ butter and more particularly to improved
butter products and to correlated
movements in the process for producing the
on vitamin A must be employed. Therefore, one
must either be content with a poor yield of vita
min I) or else risk destroying vitamin A. Fur
thermore, a product produced by such a process
has a tendency to be relatively unstable as a large
It is well imown that the desirable delicate, yet
part of the naturally-occurring antioxidants in
rich taste, of many foods and food products, espe
butter is left behind in the residue, since a. large
cially bakery products. such as cakes, cookies,
portion thereof is non-volatile under the tem
doughnuts, and the like, is largely due to the use
of butter in the preparation of said products. 10 perature and pressure conditions which may be
used and also, by virtue .oithe high tempera
in addition to imparting a very desirable taste
tures which. are employed, some of the anti
and flavor to food products by the use of butter,
oxidants which might be distilled are destroyed
such use will also enhance the nutrient value
in the process.
oi‘ the foods, since butter contains certain vita
It is the object of this invention to provide
mins, notably [l and B, which ere essential to the 15
an emcient and simple process for the produc
health and welhbeing of humans.
tion of a product containing in their natural con
In some cases it would be highly desirable if
and in concentrated form substantially all
one could use a product which would have con
the ?avor-imparting and vitamin constituents
centrated therein all of the i’lavor-imparting and
natural antioxidants contained in butter.
vitamin constituents of butter. Furthermore, at 20 and
Another object of this invention is to produce
times it would be highly desirable to have all the
a product which will be liquid at ordinary ice
?avor-imparting and vitamin constituents of a
certain quantity of butter incorporated into an , box temperatures and which will contain in their
natural condition and in concentrated form sub
equal or smaller quantity oi’ a product which
stantially all the flavor-imparting and vitamin
would remain liquid at ordinary ice box temper
constituents and natural antioxidants of butter.
A further object of this invention is to pro—
it has been proposed to prepare a butter-con
duce a butter concentrate which is stable to
centrate by subjecting water-free butter fat to . wards
oxidative changes.
either short~nath or molecular distillation. Such
another object of this invention is to
has many disadvantages. Some of the 30
produce a butter concentrate containing rela
natural ?avoring constituents of butter have
tively large quantities of vitamins A and D.
relatively high vapor pressures; in fact, some of
Other objects of the invention will in part be
these constituents are volatile at less than 100°
U. when under atmospheric pressure. In order to l obvious and will in part appear hereinafter.
The invention accordingly comprises the sev
, distill the vitamins in butter fat, the butter fat 35
eral steps and the relation of one or more of such
must be heated to temperatures of around 200° C.
steps with respect to each of the others, and
under a high vacuum (0.1 mm. or less). Nat
the composition possessing the features, prop
urally, over such a wide range of conditions, it
erties and the relation of constituents, which are
will be impossible to obtain clear-cut separation
exempli?ed in the following detailed disclosure,
of the desired constituents, but instead it can 40 and the scope of the invention will be indicated
readily be seen that if such a process is used
there will also be obtained in the distillate large
- in the claims.
I have‘now discovered that if butter is contact
with a suitable solvent which is substantially
which it is desired to exclude. It has been ad
miscible with the butter fat at room temperature
mitted by the proposers of such processes that the 45 or
at temperatures substantially above room tem
product obtained by such a process is not all that
and partially immiscible with butter fat
is to be desired as a certain amount of solids
at temperatures substantially below room tem
is not removed. To overcome this, successive dls-'
perature, the solvent layer which separates at the
tillations are usually carried out until the de
lower temperatures contains practically all the
sired product is obtained. Naturally such a proc
?avor-imparting and vitamin constituents and
ess is very costly and not practical commercially.
antioxidants of the butter in their natural
Another disadvantage of a molecular distillation
unchanged condition. This solvent layer may be
process is that in- order to ‘obtain much 01' the
removed-from the immiscible material and the
vitamin D contained in the butter, a temperature
and miscible constituents separated by
which has a very harmful and deleterious eiIect 85 any suitable
means, e. g. by vacuum distillation.
quantities of high molecular weight alycerides
imparting constituents is obtained. Substantial
temperature; furthermore it will be noted that
the majority of these solvents have relatively low
freezing points. While butter oil is not soluble
ly all the vitamin D, as well as vitamin A, which
were present in the original butter are contained
in the concentrate. Furthermore, the concen
trate is highly resistant to oxidative changes
used in accordance with the process of this in
vention, function to produce a concentrate of
whereby a product containing a high concentra
tion of vitamins, natural antioxidants and ?avor
since it has concentrated therein substantially
all the natural antioxidants originally present in
in methanol and ethanol to a substantial degree
at elevated temperatures, these solvents will, when
substantially the same type as that produced by
the use of the other solvents speci?cally set forth
M) supra. The constituents in butter which it is
the butter.
desired to concentrate are soluble in methanol
In carrying out the process of my invention
and ethanol; hence for the purposes of this in
the solvents which may be employed may be se
vention these solvents may be used and in ac
lected from a large number of solvents found
cordance therewith they are to be included with
to be useful as a result of my extensive experi
mentation. *Usually the solvent shouldbe one 35 in the class of solvents which are characterized
by being miscible with butter oil at temperatures
whose vapor pressure is not any less than that of
substantially above room temperature and par
any of the constituents of the butter as in re‘
tially immiscible therewith at temperatures sub
moving the solvent ‘from the miscible portion
stantially below room temperature.
of the butter, fat, part of the ?avor-imparting
constituents may be lost. If desired or necessary, M Although it is preferred to remove most of the
water from the butter before treating with the
solvents of slightly lower vapor pressures may be
solvent, it is not absolutely necessary to do so.
used, but the ?avoring quality of the product ob
it may be found that when most of
tained will not'be as good as in the case where
the water has been removed from the butter, cer
a solvent of higher vapor pressure is employed.
In any event the antioxidant and vitamin con 25 tain of the solvents mentioned hereinabove may
be too miscible with the butter fat to produce by
tent of the product will not be affected by the
the process of my invention as highly a concen
vapor pressure of the solvent used.
trated'product as desired. However this condi
The solvent employed in accordance with my
tion may be readily controlled by cooling to very
invention may be selected from a large number of
aliphatic solvents found to be useful as a result 30 low temperatures, or by diluting the solvent either
with a small amount of water or with some liquid
of my extensive experimentation. My results
organic solvent relatively immiscible with butter
have indicated that the solvents preferably em
ployed are members of well recognized chemical ‘ fat. In general it may be'said that the effect
of diluting any of the above solvents with water
classes. I have also found that the number of
carbon atoms in the solvents to be used is a par~ 35 will be to render the solvents more immiscible
with the butter fat, so that if di?lculty is en
tlcularly important factor in determining the
countered in effecting proper separation of the
availability thereof for use in the practice of this
desired products from the balance of the butter
invention. The following table embodies the re
fat, this di?lculty may be generally overcome by
sults of my experiments and sets forth the classes
the addition of a small amount of water to the
of solvents which I have found to be particularly
solvent. Of the solvents which I have found to“
Table 1
l. Aliphatic monohydroxy alcohols containing 1
be useful, isopropanol and acetone-have proved
to be the most successful; consequently their use
in the process of this invention is preferred.
In carrying out the preferred process of my in
to 3 carbon atoms.
vention butter is first melted by warming slowly,
2. Hydrocarbons containing 5 to 8 carbon atoms.
3. Chlorinated hydrocarbons containing 1 to 3
thus allowing the whey (water) portion to sep
arate from the butter oil; The butter oil is then
?ltered while fluid in order to remove any traces
£50) of moisture. The relatively dry butter oil is then
treated with the particular solvent to be em
5. Aliphatic ketones containing 3 to 5 carbon
ployed. The relative proportion of oil to solvent
may vary widely; preferably the ratio of solvent
Solvents falling in the classes above listed are
to oil should .be greater than one and in most
all liquid organic solvents having the property of
cases 4 to 50 parts of solvent to one of butter oil
selectively extracting out from butter or butter
is preferred. This solvent-butter oil mixture may
carbon atoms.
4. Aliphatic esters containing z to 5 carbon
oil the vitamins, antioxidants and flavor-impart
ing constituents thereof.
In order to more clearly illustrate the nature of
the solvents which may be employed, I will give
then be treated until the oil or the greater part
thereof is dissolved in the solvent. I prefer to
form the solution of oil in the solvent by ?rst
heating the solvent to be 'used to a predeter
speci?c examples of representative solvents fall to mined
temperature at which» the oil when added
ing within the respective groups in Table I. (l)
will substantially completely dissolve in the sol
Methanol, ‘ethanol, n-propanol, isopropanol and
vent, and then adding the oil to the solvent with
allyl alcohol; (2) heptane, octane and petroleum
ether; (3) ethylene dichloride, trichlorethylene, % agitation.
The solution of the butter oil in the solvent
carbon tetrachloride, chloroform and propylene
prepared as hereinabove described may then, in
chloride; (4) methyl formate, ethyl formate, eth
accordance with the process of my invention, be
yl acetate, s-hydroxy ethyl acetate and vinyl ace
permitted to cool to effect a separation of the
tate; (5) acetone, methyl ethyl ketone and di
solution of the highly concentrated butter prod
ethyl ketone.
from the remainder of the oil. The temper
It will be noted that most of the solvents men- w uct
to which the solution is cooled may vary
tioned belong to that class of aliphatic organic
compounds which have the property of being
miscible with fatty oils at temperatures above
room temperature and partially miscible there rs
with at temperatures substantially below room
In some cases it may be desirable to ,
cool the solution to as low as —'70‘’ C. or lower.
1 have found, however, that ‘proper layer forma
tion is obtained if the mass is cooled to a tem
perature between about 105 C. and —20°'C.
Upon cooling, that part of the butter oil which
Example [I
will ordinarily solidify may be removed from the
solvent-oil mixture by ?ltration. This solid may
again be extracted as hereinabove described, and
the final residue which will thus be obtained is
practically white in color,‘ solid at room temper
450 parts of butter were slowly melted and the
clear butter oil was removed from water and salts
by decanting. The butter oil was then ?ltered
through a hot tunnel to remove any traces of
moisture. 100 parts of the pure butter oil were
treated with 95% acetone by the procedure given
ature and contains very little aroma or flavor.
in Example I. The concentrated product which This residue is a pure tat which may be used as
a shortening or in the production of margarine Nil vwas obtained was deep golden yellow in color,
or for other similar purposes. ,
had a very concentrated butter odor, and was
The combined solvent-oil extracts may then be , liquid at 0° 0. The product was very stable as
upon standing for'a long period of time it showed
treated in any usual manner to separate the sol
no tendency to become‘ rancid. The residue
vent from the oil, e. g. vacuum distillation, where
which was obtained on ?ltering the cooled sol
by an oil is obtained which is exceedingly more
potent in carotene and vitamins A and D and
vent-oil mixture was white. odorless and solid at
room temperature.
contains most of the flavors of the original but
While the use of heat with subsequent cooling
ter. This oil also contains practically all the
is necessary when most of the solvents listed in‘
natural antioxidants which were originally pres
ent in the butter. Thus the concentrated prod~
Table} are used, it has been found that when
not produced by the process of my invention is
methanol, ethanol and aqueous (91% to 95%)
isopropanol are used, the heating and?coollng
far more' stable than the original butter.
steps may be dispensed with. Thus, extraction oi?
Butter concentrates prepared as above de
the butter with these latter solvents may be
scribed are especially adapted for ?avoring oi7
foods, forti?cation of food products, cooking, 25 practiced at‘ room temperature, whereby a frac
tion rich in vitamins, ?avor-imparting and anti
carriers for vitamins, etc. These concentrates
oxidant constituents is obtained.
are liquid at ice box temperatures and may he
If desired, the concentrated butter oil may be
used as such; or if a liquid butter which is less I
added to lard or other no -butter fats to produce
concentrated is desired, the concentrates may be
added to some bland oil, such as corn oil, cot 30 shortening agents for ‘the preparation of high
class bakery products. vFor some purposes butter
tonseed oil, soybean oil, etc, which itself is liquid
is not as suitable a shortening agent as some
at ice box temperatures Such a liquid product
other types of oleaginous materials, c. g. hydro
is excellent for use as a coolringoil and for sim
genated cottonseed oil. The product of my in~
ilar purposes and is very stable againstonida
vention may be incorporated into hydrogenated
tive changes.
cottonseed oil or like shortening, thus producing
By arti?cially irradiating the milk from which
- the butter is made or irradiating the butter it
self with ultra-violet light to produce arti?cially '
a product having the desirable characteristics of
a good shortening agent in addition to the highly
valuable nutritive and ?avor-imparting "charac
activated vitamin Din the butter and then treet
lng the butter by the process of my invention, a 40 teristics of butter. The product of the invention
may be used in lieu of drawn (melted) butter
concentrated product is obtained which is highly
which is usually served with various seafood
potent in vitamin D besides possessing all the
other desirable characteristics hereinabove men
dishes such as lobster, steamed clams, and other
dishes, such as wames, wheat cakes, etc. The
For a fuller understanding of the nature and to expression "butter” is used herein to connote
objects of the invention, reference should be had
to the following examples which are given merely
ordinary butter, butter fat and butter oil.
Since certain changes in carrying out the above
to further illustrate the invention and are not ‘ process and certain modi?cations in the products
which embody the invention may be made with
to be construed in a limiting sense, all parts given
being by weight.
50) out departing from its scope, it is intended that
all matter contained in the above description
Example I
shall be interpreted as illustrative and not in a
500 parts of sweet butter were placed in a con
tainer and the same warmed slowly to melt the
‘ limiting sense.
It is also to be understoodthat the following
butter, thus allowingr the whey (water) portion to
claims are intended to cover all the generic and
separate from the butter oil.
speci?c features of the invention herein described
The butter oil was
then ?ltered while hot to remove any traces of
and all statements of the scope of ‘the invention,
which as a matter of language might be said to
moisture. 100 parts of the dry butter oilthus
obtained were dissolved in 900 parts of warm (35°
fall therebetween; and that they are intended to
C.) isopropanol and the solution gradually cooled W be inclusive in scope and not exclusive, in that if
to 5° C. The mixture was then ?ltered and the
desired other materials may be added to my novel
residue was redissolved in 600 parts of warm
composition of matter herein claimed without de
(35° C.) isopropanol and the solution cooled to 5°
parting from the spirit of the invention. Par
C. [titer ?ltering, the combined ?ltrates were
ticularly it is to be understood that in said claims,
subjected to vacuum distillation in the presencev 495 ingredients or components recited in the singular
of an inert atmosphere of nitrogen gas to remove
the solvent. The resulting concentrate was more
than eight times as potent in carotene and live
times as potent in vitamins A and D as the
original butter; moreover it contained most
of the flavors and natural antioxidants of the
original butter. The residue which solidi?ed out
was substantially colorless, solid at room tem
perature and contained very little aroma or
are intended to include compatible mixtures of ‘
said ingredients wherever the sense permits.
Having described my invention, what I claim
as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
1. A process for producing a butter concentrate,
the steps which comprise contacting butter with
isopropanol at a temperature substantially above i
room temperature, cooling the mass to a tem
perature at least as low as 10° C. and separating
76 the isopropanol bearing in solution a major por
methanol and separating the methanol hearing
in solution a major portion oi the vitamin, ?avor
tion 0! the vitamin, ?avor-imparting and anti
oxidant constituents of the butter.
impartins and antioxidant constituents of the
2. The process of claim 1 wherein the ratio or
solvent to butter is greater than one.
B. A process for producing a butter concen
3. A process for producing a butter concentrate,
the steps which comprise dissolving at least the
major portion of butter oil in a greater volume oi’
isopropanol, cooling the mass to a temperature
trate, the steps which comprise contacting butter
with a monohydrow alcohol containing one to
three carbon atoms and separating the ‘alcohol
bearing in solution a major portion of the vita
below 10° C. and separating the isopropanol layer
w min, ?avor-imparting and antioxidant constitu- .
ents of the butter.
7. A process for producing a butter concentrate,
trate, the steps which comprise contacting butter
the steps which comprise contacting butter with
with aqueous isopropanol and separating the iso
ethanol and separating the ethanol hearing in
propanol bearing in solution a major portion of
_ from the solidi?ed residue.
4. A process for producing a butter concen
the vitamin, ?avor-imparting and antioxidant
constituents of the butter.
5. A process for producing a butter concentrate,
the steps which comprise contacting butter with
solution a major portion of the vitsmin,‘ ?avor
imparting and antioxidant constituents of the
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