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Патент USA US2404038

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2,404,038
Patented July 16, 1946
UNITED
:PATENT OFFICE
,' 7 72,404,038
METHGH 0F 'mEArnvdMUn-LAnEN
William, T. .Cardwell, Jr., Whittier, vcans, assign;
or, by mesne assignmentsrto California Re
search-Corporation, San "Francisco; Calif; a“
corporationof Delaware
No Drawing_.,;. applicationlApriiia, 1944,, , ‘I
Serial-:No. 531,643,.
'
'
21'
tion. The resin. hadrprevibusly.~been,,coa1'sslv'
1.
This invention relates ‘to a'method oftimprove
eroundiand iclassi?edio. b'eLreitained, upon e130: , ,
ing the characteristics of‘ mud-‘laden ,drilling,
?uids, and particularly relates to'a procedure for
mesh‘ screen. After the agitation the _ coarselyf
dividedjresin was‘screenedpoutiof ‘the fluid.‘ . i
increasing the viscosity 'and'decreasing the ?lter;
loss of certain clays which are normally de?cient", 5;,‘
in these properties.
Heretofore it has been proposed to degelor re-,
The resultsof thisyexperiment?, are" .shnwn, 1111fv
Table};
,
\
,
.»
.
Table!‘
duce the viscosity of water-base, mud-ladendrill’;
‘Fluid , stqrmerapparlent- .. Filter. self ‘
ing ?uids in which the colloidal materialsare'
native clays by contacting, them with-complex 10.1.
denslt
‘11.153;
, on
zeolitic, cation-selective; organic, resinous ‘bodies
which are added to the mud '?uids’in a ?nely-di
vided condition and remain in them throughout
the remainder of thelife of isaid?uids." It is‘
Untteafedsuspensicnt?
Treated-suspension?" i
'
'
~
g
* viscosity at'GOO
.
testy-101.1.
in?? minutes,
73,111,
v73.6~ 100+ (too-highito
'
»
taught, for example, in<Patent ‘No. 2,331,281, is- '
'
sued Octoberl2, 1943, thatv such additionswill
standardAP'Ii
J REIPIJM-J
.
I cent1poises,
I
‘
I,
' 31-}
714142
./
measure-convene
-'
ientlyl-
;
‘Table I shows that
greatly reduce the viscosity‘ of these, drilling"
i
‘
'
iii-115,.‘
increased the viscosity of'the clay suspension.
Actually i such. a. .hignwiscosity. would not bead;
Yvantageo'us ,for; drilling _; however; TablegI. shows,
This invention comprehendssbroadly 'a-‘proce
dure for treating certain clay-suspensions in'wa
ter, for example Otay claywhich is mined‘near
that v~as_' the viscosity increased, the} ?lterv loss ,de-v
creased.vvv The simultaneityoi .these,,two_;.e?ects,
indicates that .the, clay {was made, more, colloidal.
the town of Otay in California‘and which-,isnot >
normally usable as a colloidal, material for --dri-ll=
by treatment‘ with sodium ions.
'.
I
ing purposes, presumably due'to its content of
exchangeable alkaline earth or other polyvalent 25 Table II shows the results of additional ex
periments on the same clay, in which water-was
cations, to produce a suitable mud ?uid having
added to the treated suspension to bring it to the
the desired viscosity, wall-building and ?lter loss
same viscosity as that of the untreated suspen
characteristics. The preferred procedure out
lined consists essentially of preparing a water
sion.
Table II
insoluble zeolitic, cation-selective or water-insol
uble cation-selective organic, resinous material
by grinding and classifying it so that it will be
Stormer
retained upon about a 30-mesh screen, contact
ing this material with a source of alkali metal
ions, for example, sodium chloride solution, re
moving the unreacted alkali metal solution as
Fluid apparent
density viscosity
lbs per’ at 600
cu‘ it
'
'
Filter loss
standard
API test,
Yield
barrels of
drilling
B. P. M.
on. em. in
?uid per
centl-
30 minutes
ton of clay
polses
by a washing operation, adding this coarsely di
vided and treated material to the clay-water sus
Untreated suspen
pension, agitating the suspension until the de
sired viscosity increase or the desired wall-build 40
ing property or the desired ?lter loss has been
obtained, separating the coarsely divided mate
rial from the treated clay suspension and using
the latter in the drilling of oil or gas wells.
The following examples will illustrate the pro
cedure just outlined:
S1011 _________ _____.
73. 8
31
31
18.2
Treated suspensmn
68. 6
31
i9
34. 2
Table II shows that treatment with sodium ions
makes it possible to prepare a fluid of a given vis
cosity that is less dense than one prepared from
the untreated clay. Thus it is apparent that
nearly twice as much ?uid can be prepared from
a given amount of this clay after it has been
treated according to this invention. The ?lter
prising water and a commercial drilling ?uid clay
loss characteristics of the treated and diluted clay
from section 15-? at Kettleman Hills were gently
agitated for 4 hours with 10 parts by Weight of a 50 are much better than those of the untreated clay,
which is not usually the case when'the ?uid has
synthetic resin ion exchanger (Amberlite IR-l
100 parts by weight of a clay suspension com
manufactured by the Resinous Products and
Chemical Company, Inc. of Philadelphia, Penn
sylvania) , which had previously been left in ‘con
tact with a concentrated sodium'chloride solu
been diluted to this extent.
1
Table III shows the results of experiments sim
ilar to those described above on another commer
55 cial clay (Otay clay). This clay is widely used in
2,404,038
3
the contact ?ltration treatment of lubricating oils
but heretofore has not ‘been successfully utilized
as a colloidal material for drilling ?uid.
Table III
Fluid
density,
4
such properties presumably due to the presence
of exchangeable alkaline earth or other poly
valent cations, which comprises commingling said
mud with a coarsely divided, water-insoluble cat
in ion- selective material ‘adapted to substitute
alkali metal cations for alkaline earth or other
_ polyvalent cations present in said mud, agitating
' said mixture to improve its ?lter loss character
Stormcr apparent V Filter'loss
viscosity at 600 standard API
lbs. per
R. P. M.
test, on. cm.
cu. ft.
centipoises
in 30 minutes
Untreated suspension
67. 0
5
Treated suspension__.
67, 0
51
‘
-
29
10 ‘istics to the desired extent, and separating from
said improved mud said materials.
2. A method of treating aqueous drilling mud
to produce a drilling ?uid which will possess de
12
Table III shows that the ?lter loss has been
reduced from that of a poor ?uid to that of a
good ?uid. Although the viscosity has been in
lsirable viscosity,‘ wall-building and water loss
15
creased, it is still Within the range of that con- . ‘
sidered practical for drilling ?uid and so may be
Y used in place of Aquagel, Wyogel and other highly
colloidal bentonitic materials widely use
in
water-base drilling ?uids.
-
properties-when used in the process of drilling a
well from a mud which does not originally possess
such properties presumably due to the presence
of exchangeable alkaline earth or other poly
valent cations, which comprises commingling said
20 mud with a coarsely divided, water-insoluble, cat
ion-selective
material
adapted
to substitute
The term "cation-selective body” used in they
alkali metal cations for alkaline earth or other
treatment of these or analogous clays is intended
polyvalent cations present in said mud, agitating
to include the various types of ion selective bodies,
said mixture to increase its viscosity to the de
both organic and inorganic, that have the ability
siredrextent and separating from said thickened
25
to adsorb cations from aqueous solution, or to
?uid said material.
V
l
exchange their adsorbed or chemically combined
3. A method according to claim 2, with the
cations for those of the solution in which they are
added step of pretreating said zeolitic material by
immersed. Examples of such bodies are the
contacting it with a concentrated alkali metal
synthetic resin ion exchangers that are condensa
salt solution.
>
30
tion products of phenolic bodies with aldehydes,
4. The process of preparing an aqueous mud
and the synthetic resin ion exchangers that are
laden ?uid for well drilling from a clay which is
produced by the action of dehydrating agents on
normally not suitablegfror such use presumably
substances containing polyhydric phenols, or sub
due to the presence ‘of exchangeable polyvalent
stances decomposable to give polyhydric phenols.
cations, comprising the step of forming a suspen
Other examples are the organic and inorganic 35 sion of said clay in water, mixingrwith said sus
zeolites, and zeolitic bodies that are familiar in
pension a coarsely divided,water-insoluble, cat
ion-selective material containing alkali metal
I claim:
_
ions which can ‘be substituted for those originally
l. A method of treating aqueous drilling mud 40 present in said clay, agitating said mixture to im»
to produce a drilling ?uid Which will possess de
prove the properties of said suspension forwell
sirable viscosity, wall-building and water loss
drilling and separating said suspension from said
water conditioning processes.
properties when used in the process of drilling a
well from a mud which does not originally possess
material.
. WILLIAM T. CARDWELL, JR. 7
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