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July 16, 1946.
-
J. H. HAMMOND, JR.,- ET AL
2,404,062
SELECTIVITY BY PHASE‘ QUADRATURE USING TRIPLE SELECTIVITY CIRCUITS
Filed July 19, 1941
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INVENTOR
JOHN HAYS HAMMOND,JR_
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July 16, 1946.
J. H. HAMMOND, JR., ETAL
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SELECTIVITY BY PHASE QUADRATURE USING TRIPLE SELECTIVITY CIRCUITS
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July 16, 1946.
J- H- HAMMOND, JR, ETA'L'
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SELECTIVITY BYPHASE QUADRATURE USING TRIPLE SELECTIVITY CIRCUITS
Filed July. 19, 1941
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INVENTOR
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JOHN _HAYS HAMM
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A'TrbRNEY
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2,404.062
Patented July 16, 1946
UNITED STATES PATENT
OFFICE '
2,404,062
SELECTIVITY BY PHASE. QUADRATURE
USING TRIPLE SELECTIVITY CIR
CUITS
John Hays Hammond, Jr., and Ellison S. Puring
ton, Gloucester, Mass, assignors, by direct and
mesne assignments, to Radio Corporation of
America, New York, N. Y., a corporation of
Delaware
Application July 19, 1941,VSerial No. 403,132
13 Claims. (01. 250-6)
1
2
The present invention relates to a selective sys
parts will be identi?ed by speci?c names forconQ ‘
tem of communication which is free from stray
venience, but they are intended to belas generic in .
and intentional interference, and in which the
theirapplication to similar parts as the art will _.
radiant energy is universally modulated at a high
frequency to produce side bands which are in 5 permit.
Referring
_
to the drawings Fig. 1 shows a trans
q p
turn universally modulated at a lower frequency.
mitter which includes an A carrier generator,‘ l_l,‘i
Universal modulation means that the relation
a B oscillator l2 anda C oscillator 13, associated ‘
between the carrier and its side bands may cor
with each of which are three wobblers I5, 16 and
respond to amplitude modulation or to phase or
H respectively. ‘There is alsov'providedjan am
frequency modulation as regards ?rst order side 10 pli?er I8 associated with a modulator lv9vand a I
bands under the adjustment of a phase shifter
power ampli?er 20 the output circuit of which is
device at the transmitter. In the present inven
connected to an antenna 2|. There is further
tion the same holds true as regards the main and
provided a phase shifter 22, a push-pull moduj-_ .
side frequencies of the side bands of the carrier.
lator'23, anvampli?er'24 asecond phase shifter.‘
The present invention uses three orders of fre 15 25 and a second push-pull modulator 26.
quency; A the carrier, B the higher modulation
The A carrier generator H is connected to the _
frequency and C the lower modulation'frequency.
ampli?er it which in turn is connectedto ‘the .
In addition the carrier A may be modulated at
power ampli?er2ll through a mixer network; 311‘ .
speech frequencies E. While the C frequency
comprising three resistors 3|, 32 and ‘33, the. last
is preferably higher than speech frequencies there 20 being connected to the rotatable coil, 35, of the '
is no necessary restriction upon the values of A,
phase shifter 22, which is operated by means of’
B and C, and C may be in the audio range if de
a key 36. The ?xeclelements of the phase shifter
sired.
22 comprise coils. 31 and 38, resist0rs39f and All >
It is to be further understood that the A signals
in combination with its side bands due to the
various modulations may be changed in frequency
by a transmitter frequency converter and the re-,
and condenser 4|.
The primary of the phase shifter 22 is con-1 1
nected» to the output-circuit of the push-pull;
modulator 23 which includes diode tubes 42- and ,
43, atuned circuit 45, chokes 46 and 41 and con.
ceived signals changed by a receiving frequency
converter. When such converters are used at the
densers 4-8, 49 and 50.; ‘The chokes 46 andAl,
transmitter or at the receiver or at both, the
are connected in series with the secondaryof {a 1
general operations will be the same as though the
transformer 52, the primary of which, is'jcon- [
A currents Were directly transmitted and received.
nected to the output circuit of the B oscillator] 2.
The invention also consists in certain new and
The condensers 4B and 49 are connected?in;
original features of construction and combina
tively
series
with
coupled
twotocoils
a coil
55 and
51in56 the
Whichare
.output induc-;
circuit,:
tions of parts hereinafter set forth and claimed. 35
Although the novel features which are believed
of pentode tube 58 which forms part of thef'am-f... I
pli?er 24.
_
to be characteristic of this invention will be par
The ?rst grid of the‘ tube 58 is_ con;
'
ticularly pointed out in the claims appended here
nected through a resistor 59 to therotatable coil
60 of the phase shifter‘25 which is operated by. a 1
to, the invention itself, as to its object and advan
tages, the mode of its operation and the manner 40 key 6!. The phasevshifter 25 issimilarin con-1;
of its organization may be better understood by
struction tov the phase shifter 22 and comprises
referring to the following description taken in
connection with the accompanying drawings
forming a part thereof, in which
Fig. 1 illustrates diagrammatically the inven
coils 62 and 63, resistors 65 and 66 and con.
denser 61.
The ?rst grid
of the tube ‘58 is also connected ,
g
push-pull
through a resistor
modulator
69 to26thewhich
outputincludes
circuit diodes
ofuthe
tubes’ 10 and TI, a tuned circuit 12,._chokes ‘l3
and ‘M and condensers ‘l5, ‘l6 and 71. The chokes
tion as applied to a transmitter;
Figs. 2, 3 and 4 illustrate the various types of
radiation from the transmitter;
Fig. 5 depicts diagrammatically the general
features of a receiver; and
‘I3 and 14 are connected in series with the. sec-» _
50
Fig. 6 illustrates a type of radiation received
by the receiver depicted in Fig. 5.
Like reference characters denote like parts ,in
the several ?gures of the drawings.
In the following description and in the claims ~ Cl
ondary of a transformer ‘E8, the primary of which
is connected to the output circuit of the C o'scil- '
later [3. The condensers 15 and 16 are connected .7
in series with two coils 841 and 8| which are in- »
ductively coupled to a coil 82 in, the output circuit
of the A carrier generator I l. I
-
2,404,062
3
Operation
In the operation of the transmitter shown in
Fig. 1 carrier energy at A frequency is produced
by the A carrier generator I! and if desired may
be modi?ed by the wobbler I5 which preferably
operates at a low audible or at a sub-audible rate
of speed. B and C frequency energy are pro
duced by the B and C oscillators I2 and I3 re
4
modulations are of the amplitude type. Here
the central group C comprises a carrier band con
sisting of a main spectral line of frequency cor
responding to the carrier generator“ II of Fig. 1.
This is modulated at speech frequencies E to
produce side bands intimately associated with the
carrier.
These are here indicated as of the
speech inverted type. The outer groups are the
lower and upper side bands S— and S+, each
spectively which if desired may be wobbled in fre 10 including a central line C1 and C2 spaced from
quency by the devices I6 and I‘! respectively and
the center of the carrier band C by the B fre
may also be keyed by change of. frequency or
amplitude of the signals produced. Usually, how
ever, the key will not be used to vary the fre
quency of the signals when the Wobbler is opera
quency. Spaced from the lines C1 and G2 at a
frequency distance equal to the C oscillator are
secondary side frequencies S1——, 81+, 52-, Sz+.
The operation. of the A Wobbler I5 will change
tive unless to supplement the Wobbler operations.
the location of the central group of lines C, that
The carrier generator I l actutaes the ampli
of the B Wobbler will change the B spacing and
?er [8, which may be modulated at speech fre
that. of the C Wobbler I‘! will change the C
quencies by the modulator I9. The ampli?er I8.
spacing.
‘feeds the power ampli?er 20 through the resistor 20
In Fig. 3 the carrier radiations are depicted
32 of the mixer network 30.
as being “quasi-phase” modulated at the B fre
Some of the energy from. the carrier generator
II. is delivered through the phase shifter 25 and
resistor 59 to the ?rst grid of the tube 58. Some
of the energy from. the carrier generator I Iv is de
livered through the coils 80, BI and 82 to the
push-pull modulator 26 which is. also actuated
from the C oscillator I3.
The side band energy
output of the push-pull modulator 2B is deliv
ered through the. resistor 69 to the ?rst grid of
the tube 58-.
It. should .be. understood that the present in
vention contemplates signalling with the C oscil
quency, while the side‘ groups are also “quasi
phase” modulated
at the C frequency. By
_ “quasi-phase” modulated is meant that the car
' rier and side bands are related as in the carrier
and. ?rst order side bands of a phase modulated
wave.
Amplitude modulation of the‘ main carrier at
the B frequency is shown in Fig; 4 and the side
groups are modulated intermediately between
amplitude and quasi-phase modulation.
By the use of this type of depiction a more
complete identi?cation of the- properties of‘ the
lator I3 inoperative in which case only carrier
radiation may be obtained. Thus a standard
energy from. the generator I I actuates the ampli
broadcast type of receiver tuned centrally to the
?er 24 and the main. side band modulator 2.3.
lower group S- would produce a current of fre
With the. C oscillator operative the. modulator 23
quency C if tuned to the radiations depicted in
is. actuated by the carrier energy and. the C side
Fig. 2; a current of frequency 2C if tuned‘ to the
bands. The push-pull modulator 23. is also ac
radiations shown in Fig. 3, and currents of‘ both
tuated from the B oscillator I2.
40 frequencies C and 20 if tuned to the radiations"
In the operation of the. modulator 23 the input
illustrated in Fig. 4.
frequencies do not appear in the output, and
If the C frequency as well as the B frequency
thereforev the carrier energy modulated by the
is above audibility the standard broadcast type
C frequency does not pass through the resistor
of receiver would be incapable of distinguishing
33 and interfere with the carrier energy modu
between the three» sample types of radiation here
lated by the speech frequencies E. The main side
depicted. But these radiations can be distin
frequencies, which are. due to the B oscillator
guished by receivers of suitable design and-with
with the C.‘ oscillator inoperative, and the sec
highly accurately adjusted receivers the signals
ondary side frequencies. on the main side fre
may be sent with very slight changes of the rela
quencies when the C oscillator is operative are
tive phase relations. It is to be understood that
inserted through the resistor 33 upon the power
these are only samples of‘ the various radiations
ampli?er 2D.
which can be produced by- the transmitter de
The phase shifters. 22 and 25, ‘which may vbe. of
pleted in Fig. 1 under the actions of'the con
similar or identical construction; are here shown
as of the continuously variable type with key 55 tinuously rotatable phase shifters 22 and 25'.
Figure 6 of the drawings illustrates the’ “quasi
arranement for variation of the setting either
phase modulation” of the carrier at the B fre
way from a mean which is manually" adjustable.
quency and the intermediate type modulation of
The push-pull modulators 23 and 2B are shown
the main side frequency at the C frequency. If
as of the diode recti?er type with the high fre
the C frequency is audible, producing an audible
quency energy fed through blocking condensers
tone in a broadcast type receiver tuned at S+
48', 4‘9 and ‘I5, ‘I6 respectively and the low fre
or at S- of Figure 6, the signals- sent by oper
quency energy fed through the chokes 4B, 41
ating the key 36 will be private.
and ‘I3, ‘14 respectively to build up voltages of
The receiver shown in Figure 5' is adapted to‘
both frequencies on the plates of the diodes. The
receiving the signals from the transmitter ar
modulated or side band output is delivered to
rangement shown in Figure 1 when so arranged
suitable output circuits 45 and ‘I2 respectively
to produce the radiations illustrated in Figure‘
between the cathodes of the diodes and ground.
6. That is, in Figure‘ 5 the back-to-back de
Figs. 2, 3 and 4 depict the spectral distribution
modulators 93 and \94‘ are used because the B.
of energy delivered by the power ampli?er 20‘
energies produces by demodulating C with 5+,
to the antenna 21-. These diagrams show the
Figure 6, and C with 3-, Figure 6, are 180° out
frequencies of the spectral lines and also the phase
of phase, but the phase advancer and lagger cir
angles of the various spectral lines and must be
cuits I M, IUI of Figure 5 are used because’ the
regarded as pertaining to a ?xed setting of the
secondary modulations are related so thatv the
Wobbler devices.
outputs of the detectors are 90° out of phase.
Fig. 2 illustrates in detail the spectrum of the
radiated energy when, for- example, all Of the 75 Signalling could be made to change the indica
2,404,062
5
6
tor I 09 in a number of manners as for example,
'
a
the system is made highlyselective against dis
turbances which produce like effect throughout?
keying the C oscillator on and o? thereby chang
ing the magnitude of the outputs of 91 and 98,
the band. And by the use of the second modular
or by operating shifters 22 and 25 by keys 36 and
tion at C frequencies the system is made highly
selective against amplitude or phase modulation
BI, so that the phases of the outputs of '97 and
98 change but not the magnitudes.
at the vicinity of the C frequency.
,
This receiver shown in Figure 5 comprises an
Signalling may be accomplished by the key 35
antenna 90, a preampli?er 9|, a voice circuit 92,
of the transmitter shown in Fig. 1 which due to
two selectors 93 and 94 connected by a transform
the dual channel radio selector circuit changes
er 95 to an ampli?er 99, two selectors 91 and 10 the strength of the signal to the ampli?er‘ 96 of
98, two shifter ampli?ers I00 and ml the out
the receiver depicted in Fig. 5 which in turn
puts of which are connected through tuned cir
changes the strength of indication of the indi
cuits I02 and I03 and coupling coils I04-I0'I to
cator I09. The signalling may also be accom
a dual recti?er circuit I08 and an indicator I 09.
plished by the key 6| which changes the nature
15 of the modulation of the B frequency in the am
Operation
pli?er 96 and therefore changes the amount of
In the operation of the receiver shown in Fig. 5
indication produced in the'indicator I09.
the signals are received by the antenna 90 and
If the A, B and C frequencies are all above
are ampli?ed by the preampli?er 9|. The sig
audibility and suitable minor precautions are
nals are then distributed to the voice circuit 92 20 taken to avoid dot-dash phase modulation re- ‘
and to the two radio frequency selectors 93 and
ception, then the signalling is private against re
94. The selector 93 selects energy from the car
ception by continuous wave on broadcast re
rier and the lower side band regions and detects
ceivers.
~
7‘
them to produce currents of the B frequency
The circuit arrangement illustrated in Fig. 5‘
modulated at the C frequency. Similarly the se 25 is but one of the many possible arrangements
lector 94 selects energy from the carrier and the
which may be used with the transmitter shown
upper side band regions and detects them to pro
in Fig. 1. Other systems of signalling and re
duce like currents of the B frequency modulated
ception based on these principles can readily be
at the C frequency.
devised by those skilled in the art. - The broad
The two detected B frequencies are 180° out
feature of the invention is in the superior selec
of phase, but the modulations are similar. The
tivity and superior degree of privacy which can
two detected B frequency currents modulated at
be accomplished by successive modulation, es-v
the C frequencies are combined to give an ac
pecially by other than amplitude modulations at
cumulated effect using the push pull transformer
the condition of maximum indicator response.
95 and the resulting signals are ampli?ed by the 35
Although only a few of the various forms in
ampli?er 96.
which this invention may be embodied have been
Although the energy for the ampli?er 96 could
shown herein, it is to be'understood that the in!
be supplied from either selector 93 or 94 it is
vention is not limited to any speci?c'zconstruc
preferable to use the arrangement shown in Fig. 5
tion but might be embodied in various forms with
so as to utilize the advantages of the “back to 40 out departing from the spirit of the invention or
back” detectors.
the scope of the appended claims wherein'for
From the output of the ampli?er 96, which
brevity the term intensity of modulation-will
consists of B frequency modulated at 0 frequency,
be used to denote the ratio of a side frequency
some of the energy is diverted to the selector and
amplitude, produced‘ by modulation, to one half
detector 91, responsive to B and B—C frequencies 45 the carrier amplitude, and the term argument
and some of the energy is diverted to the selector
of modulation will be used to denote the ‘phase
and detector 90, responsive to the B and B—l-C
relation between the carrier of a modulated sig
frequencies. The outputs of the detectors 9‘! and
nal relative to that of the resulting side fre
98 are of C frequency, but the two outputs in gen
quencies; "
i
eral are of different phase.
50' What we claim is:
'
"
It is preferable to utilize a phase comparator
1. The steps in a method of signalling which
circuit giving null response if the transmitted
comprise generating a carrier frequency and two
radiation corresponds to amplitude modulations
auxiliary frequencies, combining the carrier fre
or phase modulations in the regions of 8+ or S.—,
quency and the two auxiliary frequencies to pro
since these are most prevalent in potentially 55 duce a spectrum comprising the carrier and two
interfering transmitters. The phase comparison
groups of three side frequencies, said two groups
system is, therefore, designed to pass the out
being symmetrically located‘ one above and'the
puts of the detectors 9‘! and 98 through opposite
other below the carrier frequency, and signalling
45° shifter ampli?ers I09 and I0] with tuned out
by varying the phase-relation prevailing among
put circuits I02 and I93. As the output circuits 60 the seven components of said spectrum.
' '
I02 and I03 are additively and subtractively con
2. The steps in a method of signalling which
nected by coils I04—I01 to the dual recti?er cir
comprise generating a carrier frequency'and two
cuit I08 the indicator I09 will show which recti
auxiliary frequencies, combining the carrier fre.-.
?er is more strongly actuated. Thus the indi
quency and the two auxiliary frequencies to‘pro-i
cator I09 is most strongly operative in one sense 65 duce a spectrum comprising the carrier and two
when the output of the ampli?er I00 leads the
groups of three side frequencies. said twogroups
output of the ampli?er IIiI by 90° and is most
being symmetrically located one above and the
strongly operative in the other sense when the
other below the carrier frequency, and signalling
output of the ampli?er I90 lags behind the out
by varying the phase relation prevailing among
put of the ampli?er IOI by 90°. The indicator 70 the seven components of said. spectrum while
I09 is non-responsive if the outputs of the am
maintaining their amplitudes constant. .
pli?ers I 00 and I 0| are in phase or 180° out of
3. The steps in a. method of signalling which
phase.
-
comprise generating a carrier frequencyanditwo
It is thus seen that by the use of the ?rst mod;
auxiliary frequencies, combining the carrier free
ulation at B frequency, of a quasi-phase nature, 75 quency and the two auxiliary frequencies to pro?
2,404,062.
7
8
duce a spectrum comprising, the carrier andtwo
named- combination- and signalling by varying:
groups; of three side frequencies, said two groups
being. symmetrically located one above and the
other below the carrier frequency, Varying the
phase relation prevailing among the seven com—
the‘ adjustment; of one; of said phase relations.
7. In signalling apparatus a carrier frequency‘
generator, a ?rst‘ auxiliary frequency generator
and a second auxiliary frequency generator;
ponents of said spectrum in accordance withsig
means including a balanced modulator for modu
nals- desired to be transmitted, radiating the en
ergy as thus varied, receiving the radiated energy
and indicating changes in the phase relation pre
vailing among the received seven components.
4. The steps in the method of receiving the
energy transmitted by the method described in
claim. 1, which comprise selecting the transmit
lating a portion of: the carrier frequency energy
by said ?rst auxiliary frequency energy whereby
only side bands are present: in the outputiof. said.
?rst named means, means» for combining: the
output of the ?rst’ named’ means with another.
portion of the carrier, frequency energy: in ad
justable phase relation,~ means including a bal
anced modulator for- modulating the output; of
ted carrier and one group of said frequencies,
detecting said selected energy‘ to produce one of 15 said last named means. with the other auxiliary
frequency whereby only side bands are present
said; auxiliary frequencies modulated by the other
in the output of said last named balanced modu
auxiliary frequency, selecting and detecting said
lator, means for combining said last named out‘
?rst named auxiliary frequency and one of its
put with another portion of said carrier fre
accompanying side frequencies, separately select
quency energy in adjustable phase relation, a
ing- and detecting said one of its accompanying
radiating system and‘ means for impressing the
side frequencies and another of its accompany
energy resulting from said last named combina—
ing‘. side frequencies, and comparing and indicat
tion upon said radiating system and means for
ing the relative phases of the resulting detected
varying the adjustment of one of said phase re
currents.
5-. The steps in a method of signalling which 25 lations in. accordance with signals desired to be
transmitted.
comprise generating a carrier frequency and two
8. The steps in a method of signalling which
auxiliary frequencies, modulating a portion of
comprise generating a carrier frequency and two
the carrier frequency by one of the auxiliary fre
auxiliary frequencies, modulating a portion of
quencies, combining only the side bands result
ing‘ from said modulation with another portion 30 the carrier frequency’ by one of said auxiliary
frequencies, combining only the side bands re
of the carrier frequency in adjustable phase re
sulting from said modulation with another por
lation to produce energy of the carrier frequency
tion of the carrier frequency energy in adjust
modulated by said side frequencies with a ?xed
able phase relation, modulating the energy re
magnitude of modulation but adjustable modu
sulting from said combination with .the otherv of
lation argument, modulating the resulting en
said auxiliary frequencies combining only the side
ergy with the other auxiliary frequency, modu
bands resulting from said last named modula
lating another portion of said carrier frequency
tion with another portion of ‘the carrier frequency
with the signal energy desired to be transmit
energy in adjustable‘ phase relation, said last
ted, combining said’ modulated portion of the
carrier frequency with the side bands only re 40 named portion of the carrier frequency energy
being itself modulated in accordance with sig
sulting from the last named modulation with
nals desired to be transmitted, radiating the en
the last- named auxiliary frequency in adjust
ergy resulting from said last named combination
able phase relation to produce energy of carrier
and varying the adjustment of one of said phase
frequency modulated by said last named result
relations in accordance with other'signals desired
ing side bands with a ?xed magnitude of modu
to be transmitted.
lation but adjustable modulation argument, vary
9. The method described in claim 8 wherein the
ing the adjustment of one of said phase relations
carrier frequency energy is wobbled in a prede
in accordance with other signals desired to be
transmitted and radiating the energy resulting 5.0 termined manner.
10. The method described in claim 8 charac
from said last named combination.
terized by that at least one of the auxiliary fre
6‘. The steps in a method of signalling which
quencies is wobbled in a predetermined manner.
comprise generating a carrier frequency A and
11.. The method described in claim 8 character
two auxiliary frequencies B and C, modulating
ized by that the carrier and at least‘ one‘ of the
a portion of carrier A by the auxiliary frequency
. auxiliary frequencies are wobbled in a predeter
C‘, eliminating from the products of said modu
mined manner.
lation both the carrier A and the auxiliary fre
12. The steps in a‘ method of signalling which
quency C while retaining only the resulting side
comprise generating a carrier‘ frequency and an
bands, combining said resulting side bands with
auxiliary frequency, modulating a- portion of the
another portion of the carrier A in adjustable
carrier frequency by the auxiliary frequency,
phase relation to produce energy of the carrier
combining only‘ the side- bands resulting‘ from
frequency A moduated by said side frequencies
said modulation and another portion of the car
with a ?xed magnitude of modulation but adjust~
rier frequency in adjustable phase‘ relation to pro
able modulation argument, modulating said pro
duce
energy of the carrier frequency modulated
duced energy with the B frequency, eliminating 65 by said side frequencies, with a ?xed magnitude
from the products of said last named modulation
of modulation but adjustable’ modulation argu
the produced energy and the B frequency while
ment, varying said phase relation in accordance
retaining, the resulting side bands, combining said
with signals desired to‘ be transmitted, and modu
last named resulting side bands with another
lating said last named‘portion of‘ the carrier en
portion of said carrier frequency A in adjust
ergy with other signals desired to" be transmitted.
able phase relation to produce energy of carrier
13. The steps in a method of signalling which
frequency A modulated by said last named re
comprise generating a carrier frequency and an
sulting side bands with a ?xed magnitude of
auxiliary frequency, modulating a portion of the
modulation but adjustable modulation argument,
carrier frequency by the auxiliary frequency,
radiating the energy resulting from said last
‘ combining only the. side bandsresulting from said
2,404,062
l0
of modulation but adjustable modulation argu
ment, transmitting the energy so combined, vary
ing said phase relation in accordance with sig
nals desired to be transmitted, utilizing other
7
signals to modulate said other portion of said
modulation and another portion of the carrier
frequency in adjustable phase relation to pro
duce energy of the carrier frequency modulated
by said side frequencies with a ?xed magnitude
carrier frequency energy, receiving the radiated -
energy and indicating changes in the phase re
lation prevailing among the received components
5
of the received energy.
JOHN II-IAYS HAMMOND, JR;
ELLISON s. PURINGTON.
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