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Патент USA US2404126

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July ,16, 1946.
J. c. buDDY _
‘2,404,126 .
Fiied Aug. 28, 1941 ‘
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2 Sheets-Sheet 1
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“awn” 65W”
July 16, 1946.
Filed Aug. 28, 1941
‘ 2 Sheéts-Shegt: 2"
<1mmm m-a
W/771/535 .'
Patented July 16, ‘1946'
I ‘
" 'BA'T'rERYoo ' TAINER AND 'METHOD or‘ f 1'
Joseph Charlesil‘lu'ddy, Philadelphia, Baglfassignor , I i _
‘to ‘The Electric Y'Storage Battery ‘Company, - . .
" ‘Philadelphia, Payaeorporationpf NewTJ er‘sey v
Application August as, 1941, Serial‘No.~'4\0'8,‘630
' 2
This invention relates to a battery "container
and the method .of making the z-sarne andiha's
for its primary object the manufacture ‘at a 310W
cost of an improved .light iweightbattery econ‘
tainer of this ‘invention-applied as ‘an electrical ‘
shield ‘fora-naircraftibattery.»
Referring‘ to the ‘drawings jit --will be observed
that the~improved battery container of ithiswin
vention'e'compri-ses 'a metallic ‘container’ f0. "I‘liisv
container-f0 ‘is preferably die cast-‘from an alu
‘While not limited “thereto, this invention re
lates to an improved‘ battery“ container suitable
minum alloy although it may, if desired,~"be>‘*fab
ricated‘ Tfrbm- anal-uminum sheet. While it is
preferred to employ ‘aluminum, it Wil1~be under.
stood'that any other metal may‘be employed and
for .use ;1With aircraft .batteriesi; Because. of .its
electrical ‘shielding properties, it :isdesirable to
.have a metallic ‘container for, such batteries.
However, such metallic,cont-ainers andparticuy
may-lbe-lined in accordance with this-inventionto .
larly those ‘ made from light iweightmeta'ls ‘.are
resist #corrosi‘on. illowever, since weight lislo‘f' im
subject to attackby therelectrolyte 20f theta-t
portance in vmost-Fio'atteries andl-particularlyin
‘batte‘ri'eskto be :used with iaircraftyit is ‘preferred
tery.- ‘It has beendproposedto :prevent lsuchat- -
tack and the resulting corrosion bywsecuring-a 15 ‘to- employ ea light- weight metal ‘such aluminum
rubber lining inside .the metallic container.
The light ‘weight -'~meta'ls have proven' ‘to “be
While such anarrangement ZIJIBVBIIESLCOI'I‘DSlOIl, I
readily 'corrodible “by the electrolyte. 1‘I’heiegis
the rubber lining is difficult and expensive to
apply and the ?nished productis.heaviersthan
vide a new and improved battery container which
therefore provided on the inner surface’ offthe
container 450- ‘an intimately “bonded vcontinuous
coating of ‘material capable of ‘protecting v‘the
metal against the (corrosive effect of the "battery
comprises a light weight metallic container-“hav
electrolyte. ‘In accordance with thisdnvention,
It isaspeci?c object ofthisinvention ztorproa
the lining ‘H is a coating ‘of polymerized ‘vinyl
tinuous “layer of material which'has Ihig'h .die'lec 25 resin and particularly "a coating eo'f-a' copolymer
tricis'trength, is capable of withstandingmechani
‘of vinyl» chloride ‘and vinylacetate. Such *a "coat
caland ‘thermal stresses,_§and resists attack .by
ing when applied ‘in accordance with ‘the i process
the battery electrolyte.
o '
to beset forth "more fully "hereinafterih'as “been
It ‘is a ~further specificlobjectlof this “inven
found to ‘have the requisite “acid-‘and ‘alkali "re
tion ‘to provide a ‘light Weight metallic {battery
sistance, ' abrasion resistance, ‘ and dielectric‘ prop
container which is suitable .forguse as .an .elec
erties, and “moreover ito be unaffected by expan
trical s'hieldfor .aircraftJoatteries .and which. @is
sion and ‘contraction of the container "With' tem
provided on its inner-surface with ai?rnilylhond
ed continuous coating of polymerized vinyl'resin. .
In ‘Figure v'2 ‘of the ‘drawings there is ‘shown'one
.‘It is a still‘jfurther speci?c object of this in-" application of the "improvedbattery container of
vention ‘to ‘provide a new and improved method
this invention. More "particularly, the container
for applying to .the inner surface ore, battery
is shown employed ‘as an outer container adapted
container‘ an .acid and ,alkaline resisting, abrasion
to shield electrically an aircraft battery from
the remaining equipment of the craft. It’is ‘toi‘be
resisting‘, high dielectric gstrength coating at a
ing on its inner surface a ?rmly ‘bonded con
40 understood howeve'r'that thisapplicationis shown
me'rely’for ‘the' purposes of illustration and other
applications can ‘be made ‘of ‘the improved .eqn
vention will ‘appear as the following description
tainer'of this invention. For example, itmay .be
proceeds and the features of novelty which char
used 'as'the ‘sole container or casing for'battery
acterize this invention will (be set iforth .in the
elements "in "certain applications, the lining "Hf
claims appended to and 'stormin'gra part :of this
relatively vlow cost.
vvFurther objects and advantages of this in;
:For ‘a more ‘complete understanding 101“ this '
invention, reference fs'hould ‘be had ‘to the
cempasnying drawings in which:
'Figure V1 is -a longitudinal sectional view show
serving‘t'o "properly insulate the metallic frame.
Referring ‘to .iFig. 2 in more detail, it will ‘be
observed that ‘the ‘particular battery illustrated
comprises 'theusual elements or ‘electrodes/l2
50 which are supported on projections ‘[3 provided
in‘githe iimproved battery container vof this inven;
in the bottom ‘of a casing M which is'made ‘from
a suitable acid resisting material, such as 'ihar'd
' i"=.E'ig1ure<2 is alview, partiyllnseetionjandrpartiy
rubber, As is welllknown in the art. the?éle
ments 1'2 .are immersed in ,a-suitableelectrdlite
55 and Ya plurality of ‘such elements is‘ provided ‘so
broken away, showing vthe improved ‘batterycon
cleaned and etched aluminum surface. This
prime coat may consistof a resin paint having
The elements are connected together in groups
and the groups are connected to suitable termi
nal means [5 projecting through the cover 16 for
the casing M. The cover is sealed in place by
means of a suitable sealing compound 11.
Per cent
benzine, I xylol,
or I ’
-» ~62 to 6:5
Chlorinated rubber _________________ __ 15 to 18
I8 is provided to enclose the assembly. Flexible
Pigments consisting substantially of
connectors H] are provided for connecting the ter-i
titanium and silica_____' ____ _'_____I_
minals 15 to the external terminals 29_ mounted
' ' ' " " ' " ' a’
Solvent“ naphtha;
the‘metallicicontainer l0 and a'cove'r
in the side Wall of the container.
AfterQJ-the'battery: has,‘ been assembled, itjis
coat applied is one which readily sticks to the
as to produce the required battery characteristics.
. -jiiikprimercoat having the above composition has
I The battery assembly is secured in the‘ con‘; ifbeen found to be unsuitable for spraying, par
‘ tainer H] in accordance with the invention'fully'.
ticularly in a'closely con?ned space such as the
described and claimed in my co'pending applicaf-l'
inside of vthe container 10. However, by'diluting
the prime coat and spraying at ‘a relatively high
pressurera coating free from “stringing” may be
. tion, Serial No. 409,443, ?led1‘Septe'rri-ber4,"1941, ,
and assigned to the assignee of the present iIi-?;
Brie?y‘ however the securing means
I ' applied to the inner surface ‘of the container. ' In
. comprises a layer of wax 2| which seals and I
accordance withythis invention the prime mate- "
secures the bottom portion of the casing 14 and
.a layer of'sealing compound, Zlwhich seals and
rial is diluted with a'solvent of the'class of
xylene. toluene ‘or benzine, or'a mixture thereof,
secures the upper portion of _»t_he; casing._ i Both 7
in the‘ proportion of ten parts'iof primeyto' six
parts of solvent. ~Afterdilution therprime'coat
isthoroughly agitated, and’ this agitation con
the wax and sealing ,compound are. appliedpin
the 1 liquid state _(hot)_, -;and upon‘ cooling they
securely hold the battery inposition. . As shown
inthe drawingatm sealing compound 23 - moi
tectspmt ofthe Way down-between the..$id_e-.Wa11 '
tinues throughout the spraying operation.~ -'I;'he
spraying ‘operation is carried -:on at the relatively
high air ’pressure of 180 to 100 pounds per square
of the battery casing. and the contaitiqrandsome
inch and 'at'a paint pressure of‘2 to 5 pounds
per square inch, After spraying, the prime coat
.of, the wax 2| projects up around the bottom of
the battery casing. This combination of Wax and .30 is air dried until practically all the liquids there
sealing compound ._ has ‘been found tov secure the
in have been evaporated.
battery in the container irrespectire of thetem
.rerature :tqlwhich the, battery. isv subiegtea. for
- »
‘ '
Following therprime coat‘ an intermediate coat
is applied so .as toform a bond or adhesive be
.the‘sealinewax has send high irmperaturecha?
.acter'istiés and the. sealing compound
tween the prime coat and succeeding coats of
.35 .vinyl.applied thereto. 1 'I‘hishintermediate ‘coat
low’ temperature characteristics. ‘ Mqreoyer ‘the
W348" and . Sealing I epmnound .fgnction. t9. Prevent
7 consists of an enamel. having the following-ap
proximate composition by Weight:
reeileg?. 0?. ?hé ?leetrqlyte aloha; the inner Wall
_ of the container.’
7 V
atcbrdemewithtliis avenue theieis'pm
vided a new and improved. but ‘not necessarily
the only method ‘for producing the improved bat
' ?etrsb?tai?sr silpwn. Fig; _1 and particularly
_for ‘applying the lining “to the inside of ‘the
container. ,Among the factors to be considered .45
in applying the lining or coating ‘__l [ltdtliebatj- ’
?ery container‘ 1 o is ('1') f obtaining a lining" which :7
by the
to electrolyte
the corrodible
the life-9f
salient features of the improved process of this
1 16
The vehicle may consist of approximately 60%
butyl‘acetate and‘ of 40% methyli'sobutyl ketone.
The pigment is'made‘ up largely of silica (sand)",
titanium" oxide, lithopone and'graphite. When
suspended in solution theps'ilica. ‘is presentfffin. V
I about 25% by "volume. ‘This amount of silica
the battery, and, (‘2)1' obtaining a material which 50
can‘ be simply and easily applied totheiriner sur
facéfof the ‘container to form an intimately bond-v
ed ‘continuous coating thereon. One of l the
Vinyl, snlirk
gives body to» the ?nishedjjcoat and presents a
surface roughness ‘desirable for good adhesion" of
V "Y "
To the composition'set forth abovexis added a
plasticizer ‘ such ' as " dibutyl ' phthalate ‘in ‘the
amount of 60, c.c.’s per gallon'of solution. This
' invention is‘ that the lining Il may be" applied 55 plasticizer has been found to keep the film soft
.by a spraying ‘opération,thus' permitting the prcié '
.duction of large quantities of such containers
and pliable andpadds to the lasting adhesion
The intermediate coat is likewise applied bya
‘and effecting a substantial saving in the cost
' spraying operation. Since an enamel relatively
‘ The complete process for ‘producing the, above 60 high in vinyl solids is being sprayed, it is neces;
sary to apply a wet coat. In'other words it- is
' ‘described lined'container Willnowb'e described.
The metallic container’!!! isjformed,'preferably
by ‘die casting it from a suitable aluminum alloy;
and after ' the forming operation is 1 completed,
the casing" is inspected" and, thoroughly cleaned
to remove any g'reaselorv mold'lubricant' which
mayTfbeon the ‘surfaces; The surfaces are ‘fur
therfplfepared by dippin‘g'in a solution including
phosphoric acid so‘ as’ tofetcli the aluminum‘ and
leave thereon a deposit" of. aluminum'phosphate
whichv forms a base for' further ‘coating opera
“ _'
" '_
"'Aften the containers have been thoroughly
cleaned‘ and prepared in this 'manner, a prime
7 coat is applied'to ‘the inner _s1urface._'_'_ The
a necessary to have a heavy ?ow of material, yet
not so heavy as tocause runsi of'Sa'ggingof-such
a relatively dense material.
It has been found
65 that if the material flow is too li’ghtior the air'
pressure toohigh, a blowing or solidifying action
of the vinyl solids occurs in the spray due to'the
con?ned space in» which; the spraying. operation 7
is being carried on‘. If the solidi?ed viny'lpari
ticles' deposit on an already wettedor'sprayed
surface, the result is“ an’ extremely ro'ugh?or
porous surfacethat is hard to cover. ?nally with;
a seal coat, thusgiving rise to poor insulation
rssistanqeof the lining as, a whale-H Thisblqwing'
75. Qr. q?sting.phenqmenqn..lias beenrpuiia to. circus
most along the bottom edge of ‘the inner side
walls-of the container, and’particularly the side
wall ?rst sprayed.
~ ‘It has been found that by employing anair pres
sure of approximately :40 pounds per. square inch
and a paint pressure of approximately ‘15 pounds
perisquare inch, an intermediate coat having the
con?ned space and sticks to the wet surfaces
causing the aforementioned “blow’v’ which pro
duces ‘a veryporous ?lm. To prevent ‘this ‘it is
necessary to reduce the spray pressures 'tola
composition set forth above may ‘be sprayed into
the con?ned space with “blow”.greatly'minimized
or substantially eliminated.
such a spraying
drying takes
place by
virtue‘ of ‘the
high air circulation, and if high air pressures
areused, solidi?ed plastic ?ows around in the
value where “blow” is a minimum.
After ‘spraying, theenamel coat is preferably
permitted 'to'dry thoroughly in :air but, if ‘desired,
‘ '
vIIn- accordance with this invention three seal
coats are employed. The approximate composi
tion of the ?rst seal'coat by weight is as ‘follows:
succeeding coats may be» applied before the ena
mel ‘has dried.
‘Per cent
.Up to this pointin the process, the lining on 15 Vinyl solids ________ __‘_________ _1_____'
Approximately dibutyl-phthalate ____ __ .
the‘inside surface of the casing has relatively
Mesityl' oxide _____________________ ____ 19.54825
poor ‘insulation'resistance and is not acid proof.
Mesityl oxide is the 'preferredsolvent. How
The two coats- applied, the prime coat and the
ever, a solvent mixture consisting of approximate
intermediate or enamel coat, have as their vprin
cipal' purpose the presenting ‘of a surface on 20 ly 54% butyl acetate and 29% methyl isobu'ty
ketone, parts by weight,'maybe used.
which it is possible to spray and have adhere
As explained above, this material is sprayedat
satisfactorily one or more ‘seal coats consisting
substantially of a solution of a copolymer of ‘
vinyl chloride and vinyl. acetate in. a suitable
solvent without ‘the ‘use ‘of a high temperature
bake which is characteristic of successful adhe
sions of Vinylite coatings when applied totbare
metal. The adhesion of the seal coats described
below is probably due to two conditions. First,
satisfactory spraying of this vmaterial in the con
?ned space.
consistsof vinyl solidsan'd, .of course, one vinyl
solid will stick'to ‘the other. Second, the filler
in :the enamel coat is silica or sand which pre
sents 3.3, Iroughened surface which is desirable
' After spraying, the ?rst seal coat is permitted
to dry for about 5 to 10 minutes in 'airiandithen /
the binderin the intermediate or enamel coat
fnom'ttheadhesion standpoint.
a relativelylow air pressure andthe flow of :ma
terial is relatively heavy was to eliminate fog :or
“blow.” It has been found that an air pressure of
20 to 40 pounds per square inch and a paint pres
sure of 15 to 20 pounds per square inch permits
.a'second seal coat having .the following'composie
tion. by weight is applied.
.lSince the prime coat is not inert‘ and since the
vintermediate coat is porous the combination‘does
not have the requisite dielectric and acid re
sisting properties. It is therefore necessary to
'f Percent ‘
Vinyl solids; ________________ __‘__,______ ..~ ' '_22
phthalate__' _______ -s __________ __
. {415
Carbon black _______________________ _‘_'__
' .75
Mesityl' oxide__' ______________ __; ________ __ ‘72175
cover this combination with a material which 40
In spraying this material a heavy ?ow is main
tained but the atomization is complete enough to
will adhere thereto, will have the ability to re
sist attack by the electrolyte of the battery, and
will have high dielectric strength. As mentioned
above a copolymer of vinyl chloride and vinyl
an air pressure of about 30-40 pounds per square ‘
acetate dissolved in a suitable solvent has been
found to be such a material.
inch and a paint pressure of about 30 pounds per
square inch. After the ?rst coat of this mate
eliminate many air bubbles. It has been found
that the material can be effectively sprayed with
Since high dielectric strength or the ability
rial has been applied, the container is permitted
to resist voltage break down is a desirable prop
erty of the ?nished lining, the more vinyl solids
that can be incorporated in the composition of
to dry in air for ?ve to ten minutes. A second
seal coat of this material is then applied in the
afore-described manner, thus making three seal
coats in all. The air dry between successive seal
coats functions to give each applied coat suf
?cient set to prevent runs or sags in the ?lm.
It will be understood however that this brief dry
the seal coats, the greatepwill be the covering
power and the thicker will be the ?lm for a. given
coat. Because of this it is desirable to incorpo
rate as much dissolved vinyl solids as possible
in the seal solutions without exceeding a ?gure 55 ing period does not produce complete drying and
hence the succeeding coats are applied while the
of viscosity that is prohibitive from a spray
preceding coats are still wet.
After the last seal coat has been applied, the
A further factor which must be considered in
container is permitted to air dry until it is touch
the composition of the seal'coat is the character
of the solvent employed. If solvents are used 60 proof. This requires from eight to twenty-four
which have high evaporation rates, entrapped
hours. Subsequent to this air dry the container
air (bubbles) in the wet ?lm is not released and
the resulting ?lm is porous. If a solvent having
a lower evaporation rate is used, assuming that
the substance is a good solvent for the Vinyl
is baked at a temperature of approximately 200° '
F., for 11/2 to 2 hours. That is what may be called
a low temperature bake, and its function is to rid ‘ '
the coating of any excess solvent. The temper-v
compounds employed, it has been found that
ature employed is below the boiling point of, the
spraying can be accomplished at a. low pressure,
and since the ?lm does not set up so readily, any
entrapped air in the ?lm escapes, thus ‘pro
ducing a substantially continuous surface free 70
solvent and thus some solvent is retained. This
retained solvent acts as a plasticizer and imparts
abrasion resistance and toughness to the coating.
Moreover, it has been found that the small
amount of solvent retained does not adversely
affect the dielectric properties of the coating.
from pin holes.
A further factor to be considered in the appli
cation of the seal coat is its ability to be sprayed
With the ?nal low temperature bake the proc
inside the container where all of the air shot
ess of lining the container is completed, and in
into the space is ejected into the atmosphere. 75 order to test its dielectric properties it is ?lled
a seal coat of a copolymer of vinyl chloride and
withan acid electrolyte or an aqueous solution
of awetting agent and subjected to a voltage
stress of 500 voltsA. C. Any breaks or discon
tinuities in the lining will be detected by such .
vinyl acetate ?rmly adhering to said enamel coat.
2. The method of providing ‘an intimately’
bonded continuous acid-resisting lining of high
dielectric‘ strength on the interior surface of .a
By following the foregoing. process it has been
found that an intimately bonded continuous lin-'
ing of a polymerized vinyl resin is provided 'on
‘metallic container which includes the steps of
treating said surface to remove undesirable
?lms, applying a prime coat of a chlorinated rub
ber base‘ resin paint, air drying to remove the
the interior surface of a battery container made .
from a corrodible metal. ,This lining forms an 10 solvents, then applying to said'pr'ime coat an 7
intermediate enamel coat comprising a vehicle of
acid and alkaliwresisting, abrasion resisting, high
dielectric strength coating which is unaffected by i butyl’ acetate and , methyl-isobutyl ketone, in
the. expansion and contraction of the metallic
casing with temperature. Thus there is pro
which is suspended vinyl solids and a pigment in_
cluding silica ‘and titanium oxide‘. to which is
vided in accordance with‘ thisinvention a light
added aplasticizer, applying to this intermediate '
weight batterycontainer, having aftough, long
life, acid resisting lining which is capable of rini-‘
coat a layer comprising asolution of a copolymer
of vinyl chloride. and vinyl acetate in a suitable
tially withstanding a voltage'stress of at least 1'
solvent, allowing this ?nal layer to air-dry until
touch-proof, and then baking at a temperature
"-500 volts A. C.
. 1,While this invention has been 'set forth in 20
detail, it will be understood that modi?cations
Vmaybe made therein, and it is intended in the
appended claims to cover all such modi?cations
as come within the true spirit and scope-of this
I. claim: "
below the boiling point of the solvent to, retain
"'a small proportion of the solvent.
3. The method of ‘providing an intimately
bonded continuous acid-resisting liningof high
dielectric strength on ari inner surface ,of a
metallic container which includes the step of
treating said surface to remove undesirable ?lms; ‘
‘1. Arlight weight battery container comprising
“applying a prime coat of a chlorinated rubber
‘I an .aluminumcontainer, therinner surface of
which is provided with an acid and‘ alkali resist-V
ing,. abrasion resisting continuous coating which
issu?iciently ?exible to withstand the expansion
base resin paint, air drying ‘toremove the sol
vents, then applying to said prime coat- an inter
mediate enamel' coat containing vinyl solids and
a substantial’ proportion by volume of silica, ap
j and contraction of said aluminum container'with
plying to this intermediate .coat a layer compris
ing a solution of a copolymer of vinyl chloride and
vinyl acetate in a suitable solvent and then‘ bak
temperature’ and is capable of withstanding an‘
initial voltage stress of at least 500 volts A. 0.,
I ' said coating comprising a prime coat of a ch1o-‘
rinateid'rubb'er base resin paint having the prop
' erty of adhering to the surface of said aluminum
container, an enamel coat including a substantial
amount. of silica bonded to said prime coat, and
35 ing at a temperature below the boiling pointof
the solvent to retain ‘a small proportion of the
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