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Патент USA US2404127

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July 16, 1946.
H. ERNST
'
_
2,404,121»
SENS ITIVE CONTROL MECHANISM
Filed Aug. 2, 1933
' 6 Sheets-Sheet 1
3 mm ‘
f/q/vs ERNST‘
July 16, 1946.
H. ERNST
2,404,127
SENSITIVE CONTROL MECHANISM
Filed Aug. 2, 1-933
268
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6 Sheets-Sheet 2
July 16, 1946.
H. ERNST
2,404,127 4
SENS I'I'IVE CONTROL MECHANISM
Filed Aug. 2, 1933
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July 16, 1946.
H. ERNST
2,404,127
SENS ITIVE CONTROL MECHANISM
Filed Aug. 2, 1933
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July 16, 1946.1
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SENSI'VI'IVE CONTROL MECHANISM
Filed Aug. 2, 1933
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July 16, 1946.
H. ERNST
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SENSITIVE CONTROL MECHANISM
Filed Aug. 2, 1933
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Patented July 16, 1946
2,404,127,
UNITED STATES PATENT: OFFICE *
2,404,127
SENSITIVE CONTROL MECHANISM
Hans Ernst, Cincinnati, Ohio, assignor to The
Cincinnati Milling Machine Co., Cincinnati,
()hio, a corporation of Ohio
1
Application August 2, 1933, Serial No. 683,330
70 Claims. (01. s9_41)
This invention relates to improvements in sen
sitive control mechanism and particularly to
mechanism of this character which may be ad
vantageously employed in connection with the
control of the training or elevation of naval guns
or proper determination of azimuth and eleva
tion in connection with anti-aircraft or coast de
fense artillery weapons.
One of the principal objects of the present in
vention is the provision of a control mechanism
of extreme sensitivity and accuracy, particularly
installation of the present invention for control
of the training of a naval gun turret and the
elevational adjustment of the guns within! the
turret.
.
‘A
-
.
_
1
Figure 2‘ is a detailed diagrammatic, view ofthe
high speed approximate adjustment and r, the
minute or more accurate ?nal adjusting circuits
and the self-synchronous devices as utilized for.
effecting adjustment of the piece either for azi
muth or for elevation.
~
._ r
, f
Figure 3 is a plan view of one form of the pres
sure di?erentiator for the hydraulic; ampli?ca
intended for use in connection with or substitu
tion for the turret and gun control mechanisms
at present utilized by the land and naval forces.
tion
Figure
‘control
4 iscircuit.
a section through‘
or
. the.
pump.adjust
I
Another object of the present invention is the 15 ment control motor as on the line 4-4 of, Figure 2.v
provision of a mechanism readily adaptable to
Figure 5 is a section on the line ‘5—5 of Figure .3.
and utilizable in conjunction with control mech
Figure 6 is a section on the line 6-6 of Figure‘5.
anisms of the types now employed and which will
Figure 7 is a section on the line ‘l—‘! of Figure 4.
render possible elimination of manual control of
Figure 8 is a section through a self-synchro~
guns and co-ordination of self-synchronous sig 20 nous motor unit having a rotatable ?elds _' 1 _. .
naling motors and indicators, thus eliminating
Figure 9 is a modi?ed form of one portion. of
the inaccuracies due to the human element, re
the control circuit shown in Figure, 2. , 1
‘ ,
ducing the crew required for operation of a given
Figure 10 is a modified form of manual control
piece or battery and insuring maximum accuracy
of gun setting comparable with the instrument £25 mechanism.
Figure v11 is a sectional view
. of the gun
.
t‘elevat
v
determined desired position therefore.
A further object of the present invention is the
provision of a novel and improved form 01" power
control mechanism in which the original deter
minator of direction and amount of adjustment 5
shall be subject to so little friction or opposition
to movement as to be capable of operation by
and as a part of a standard type self-synchroniz
ing electric motor unit of either the stationary or
movable pointer system and which in any event
shall accurately transmit to the heavy drive
mechanism necessary for attaining the adjust~
ments the exact positional Variation indicated
and e?ected by the minute power transmitting
electrical signaling system.
Other objects and advantages of the present
invention should be readily apparent by reference
to the following speci?cation considered in con
junction with the accompanying drawings in
which the principles of my invention have been»
diagrammatically indicated in conjunction with
selected structural units particularly adapted for
carrying out the principles thereof, but it Will
ing mechanism shown in Figure 1.
.
Figure 12 is a detailed view of the elevating I
mechanism‘ taken on the line |2-—l2r of Figure 1.
Figure .13 is a modi?ed form of the pressure
differentiator shown in Figure 3_with a self-sym
chronous motor unit of the stationary?eld type.
Figure 14 is a diagram showing the connece
tions to the device shown in Figure 13.
_
Figure 15 is an end View of the control dials
as viewed on the line l5—l5 of Figure 13;
,
'
Figure 16 is an end view of the control dials
as viewed on the line l6—l6 of Figure 8.
. _ _
Figure 17 is a detail section of the rate and
direction determinator of the pump-motel power
unit.
.
Figure 18 is a detail end view of one‘of theports
of the pressure di?erentiator as viewed on‘the
line l8—-l8.of Figure 5.
.
Figure 19 is a section on the line Ill-I 9 of Fig
ure 2.
>
. -
Figure 19a is a section on the line vI lid-I911 of
Figure 19.
i
g
a
Figure 20 is a modi?ed form of pressure differ
be understood that any modi?cations may be made
in the speci?c structural details chosen for pur 50
Figure '21 is a diagrammatic view illustrating .
poses of illustration, within the scope of the ap
one. of. the hydraulic principles involved in this '
pended claims, without departing from or ex
invention. 1
t
entiator.
ceeding the spirit of the invention.
Figure 1 represents a diagrammatic view indi
cating the general relationship of the parts in an
-
-
‘
Figure v22 is a simpli?ed diagram of the ele-,
mentsv involved in the hydraulic ampli?cation
system.
r
.
2,404,127
3
transmitter and the other at the gun mount
which may be termed the receiver. These de
vices are electrically interconnected, in the man
ner more particularly shown in Figure 2, whereby
any angular movement of one rotor will be im
parted to the other rotor. The reference nu
Figure 23 is an expanded sectional View of the
dilierentiator disc of Figure 20 showing the pro
?ling of the opposite faces thereof.
Figure 24 is a section on the line 24—-24 of
Figure 9.
It is conventional gunnery practice among
meral 25 indicates the self-synchronous trans
combat forces to depend upon the intelligence
mitter at the ?re control station, the rotor 42 of
and physical force of the gunner in actually ef
which is connected by shaft 26 to the fire con
fecting the angular position of the gun in its
trol unit 21. The stator 28 of the transmitter
10
various planes of adjustment in accordance with
may be made up of three legs or poles 29, 30
the signals communicated to him from the ?re
and 3| which are Y-connected at one end and
control stations. With heavy, long-range pieces,
separately connected at the other to leads 29',
such practice may consume valuable time under
30’ and 3|’ which extend from the fire control
conditions of stress or emergency; and further
station to the receiver motor at the gun mount.
15
more since the human element enters into the
In the construction shown in Figure 2, the trans
?nal setting, the possibility of inaccuracy in the
mitter 25 has a ?xed ?eld, or stator, while the
setting is ever present.
receiver motor 32 at the gun mount has a rotat
This invention contemplates the use of an in
able ?eld. Therefore in this case the leads 29',
terponent motive power means which may be sub
3G’ and 3|’ terminate in brushes 33, 34 and 35
20
stituted for the intelligence and physical force
riding respectively on the collector rings 36, 31
of the gunner and which is so organized that it
and 38, these rings being connected in turn re
will be responsive on the one hand to signals
spectively to the three ?eld coils 39, 40 and 4|
received over a communication system from the
which are also Y-connected.
‘
‘
?re control station which now imparts the range
In the construction shown in Figures 13 and
settings to the gunner, and which, on the other 25 14, however, both the transmitter and receiver
hand, has sufficient power to effect the actual
?elds are ?xed, and thus the leads 29’, 30’, and
physical adjustment of the gun in an accurate
3|’ are directly connected respectively to the ?eld
and expeditious manner.
coils 39, 40 and 4|. In each case the rotor 42
In naval gunnery, particularly, there are two
is connected by means of‘ collector rings 43 and
different systems of communicating range set
30
tings from the remote ?re control station to the
gun, and indicating their completion, one of
which is known as the ?xed pointer'system, and
the other as the movable pointer system. In the
?rst system, ‘a ?xed pointer such as l8], Figure
16, is established in convenient position relative
to the gun mount together with a movable pointer
carried by disc I80 operatively connected by re
mote control means to the ?re control station,
at which station suitable means are established
for sighting the target and for computing the
range which is communicated to the gunner
through movement of the pointer I30. As this
44, and brushes 45, and 46, to a pair of leads 4'!
and 48 constituting a rotor-excitation circuit.
The leads 4‘! and 48 are connected with a suit
able source of single phase alternating current
and serve to supply current for exciting the ro
tors. The rotor 49 of the receiver 32 is similarly
connected by a pair of leads 50 and 5| to a sim
ilar excitation circuit which may be ‘the same
power lines 41 and 48. The operation of the
device is such that when the excitation circuit is
closed, an alternating current voltage is im
pressed on the rotors of both the transmitter and
receiver. ‘Since the receiver rotor is free to turn,
it assumes a position similar to that of the trans
pointer is rotated by the control station through 45 mitter rotor. As the transmitter rotor is turned,
an indicated angle equal to the desired angular
the receiver rotor follows at the same speed and
movement of the piece, the gunner actually
in the same direction. The reason for this self
moves the gun, which in turn will react in a
synchronous action is that the single phase cur
de?nite manner on the movable pointer at his
rent in the rotors induces voltages in the. three
station to rotate the same in an opposite direc 60 legs of each ?eld system. These three voltages
tion to maintain the same in an alignment with
are unequal in magnitude and vary with the po
the'?xed pointer, and so long as this alignment
sition of the rotor. When the two rotors are in
is maintained, the gun is in the position desired
exactly corresponding positions, the voltages in
by the control station.
duced in the transmitter ?eld are equal and 0p
In the other system of communication two
posite to those induced in the receiver ?eld; that
55
movable pointers are utilized, the ?rst one 52,
is, they are balanced, so that no current flows
Figure 15, being under the direction of and moved
in either ?eld winding.
‘
by the ?re control station to indicate or signal
If, however, the transmitter rotor is moved from
the angular adjustment desired, and the second
the original position, the induced voltages are no
one '53 being moved by the gun in response to
longer equal and opposite, and current flows in
60
movement imparted thereto by the gunner, so
the ?eld windings. This current flow sets up a
that the gunner’s duties are reduced to the sim
torque tending'to turn the receiver rotor to the
ple proposition of so moving the gun as to main
synchronous position relative to its ?eld. This
tain the two movable pointers in alignment.
position corresponds to the new position of‘ the
It will thus be seen that in either case there 65 transmitter rotor relative to its ?eld.
are two relatively movable pointers; that rela
Thus, if the transmitter rotor is moved, whether
tive movement or‘ separation between them is
mechanically by gears or manually by an operator
effected by the ?re control station to communi
for a signaling or control operation, the‘ receiver
cate or signal an angular movement and that
realignment of the pointers is effected by move
ment of the gun through the signalled angle.
A common form of means for communicating
motion to the pointer from the ?re control sta
tion consists of two self-synchronous electric mo
tor devices, of known form, one of which is at
the ?re control station and may be termed the
rotor immediately assumes a similar position
70 relative to its ?eld.
'
If now, the rotor 439 is operatively connected to
a pointer such as 52, as more particularlyshown
in Figures 13 and 15, it will be seen that any
movement imparted to the shaft 26 by the ?re
control unit will eiiect rotation of the pointer 52.
5
2,404,127
Further, if a second pointer, such as 53, is opera
tively connected to a gun, so as to be responsive to
angular movement thereof and to move simulta
neously through the same indicated angle that the
gun moves, it will be apparent that by keeping
movement about an axis coaxially with the axis
54 for varying the angular position of the swash
plate relative to the plane of the cylinder block
59 so that upon rotation of the shaft 5'! the'pis
tons 6| will be caused to reciprocate in the cylin
ders 60. It will be evident that when the swash
of the gun will always be in accordance with the
plate 63 is parallel to the cylinder block 59 orv in
position desired by the ?re control station. The
other-words in a position as shown in Figure 2,
rotor 49 and pointer 52 thus constitute a receiver
of the communication system through which the 10 that rotation of the shaft 51 will not impart any
reciprocating movement to the pistons 6i, and
gunner receives his instructions for changing the
therefore no fluid will be pumped to the motor
azimuth or elevation of the gun.
unit and ‘the parts will be at rest except for the
As previously pointed out, this invention con
continuous rotation by the electric motor.
templates the substitution of an organized power
The motor unit is similar to the pump unit in
control means for the intelligence and physical 15
that it has a cylinder block '66 in which is formed
effort of the gunner, which control means may be
a plurality of cylinders 6'! similar to the cylinders
connected on the one hand to the receiver of the
Bl! and each cylinder has a piston 68 operatively
communication system for response to signals re
connected by a piston rod 69 to a second swash
ceived thereby, and, on the other hand, to the gun
plate
19. This swash ‘plate is supported upon an
adjusting mechanism, in such a manner that upon 20
output shaft ll, but usually at a predetermined
reception of a signal as witnessed by the slightest
angle thereto, all adjustment being taken care of
movement of a pointer, the required gun adjust
in the pump unit. A medial plate 12’ separates
ment. will immediately be power e?ected; and the
:le cylinder blocks and has a pair of arcuate
fact that this adjustment has been made will be
shaped openings 13’, Figure 24, one of which
evidenced by a return signal from the gun in the
serves to deliver fluid under pressure from the
form of pointer movement depending upon the
pump cylinders to the motor cylinders to cause
pointer system being utilized.
the two pointers in alignment the angular position
The chief elements of this sensitive power con
trol mechanism comprise a large motive power
outward movement of the contained pistons, and
the other to return ?uid to the pump, from the
unit capable of developing the necessary torque 30 motor cylinders during the inward movement of
their pistons; the function of these openings
to perform the physical work of translating or ele
being reversed upon reverse operation of ‘the
vating the gun, and an hydraulic control system
operatively coupling the receiver of the communi
pump.
cation or signaling system for control of the power
unit and capable of starting, stopping, and de
termining the rate and direction of movement
thereof and thereby of the gun. The actual con
nection to the receiver rotor 49 is by an hydraulic
'
7
When the plate 63 is adjusted counterclock
wise from the position shown in Figure 2, the
" pump will deliver fluid to the motor ‘in such a
direction as to cause rotation of the shaft 'H_ in
one direction, while if it is adjusted counter
clockwise, the direction of rotation will be re
ampli?cation system of the pressure differential
type comprising a part which is very light and 40 versed. Also, the angle of adjustment of the
swash plate 53 determines the speed of rotation
sensitive to movement and may therefore be di—
of the motor unit, a slight angular adjustment
rectly connected to the receiver rotor for move
imparting a slow rate of speed, while a'large an
ment thereby without imposing any appreciable
gular adjustment will impart a high rate of
load on it, or in any way acting to retard its free
speed.
5
movement. It is obvious that for complete control 45
The angle block 65 is provided with an adjust
of the gun in a given plane, the power unit must
ing- arm which may be actuated directly by are
be capable of being started and stopped, as well
ciprocating member through a piston and cylin
as subject to reversal and change of rate in either
der, but for accurate and minute adjustment,it
direction, and that all of these functions should
preferably be combined for control 'by a single unit 50 is preferable that‘ it be connected by means of a
screw and nut to its actuator in the manner
for simplicity.
shown in Figure 17. The arm 12 may be con
A power unit which best satis?es these re
nected to a threaded member 13 passing through
quirements is a hydraulic variable speed trans
a nut member 14 secured to the end of a rotatable
mission gear composed of a variable speed pump
unit, a motor unit and a single control member 55 shaft 15. The pitch of the screw and nut may
be such that a partial rotation of the shaft'75‘
for obtaining all of the various functional adjust
to either side of a'central position will effect the
ments. Such hydraulic devices are well known
complete range of adjustment of the swash plate. ,
and therefore are only conventionally illustrated.
The manner of
The reference numeral 54 in Figure 2 indicates a
known form of hydraulic variable speed trans
mission gear, the operative principle of which is
the same as that shown in Patent No. 924,787 is
sued to R. Janney, having a pump end 55 and 2
motor end 56. The pump end comprises a rotat~
able shaft 5'! which may be continuously rotated
by suitable means such as an electric motor 58. A
cylinder barrel 59 is keyed to the shaft 51 for ro
tation therewith and has a plurality of cylinders
60 formed therein. each containing a reciprocable
piston 6|. The pistons are connected by piston
rods 62 to a swash plate 53 which is supported by
the shaft 57 not only for rotation therewith but
also for movement about an axis 64 at right angles
to the axis of the shaft. An angle box 65, Figure
17, is trunnioned behind the swash plate 53 for
assembling this power unit
with a gun mount is more particularly illustrated
in Figure 1 which shows a typical form of turret
such as used on naval vessels.
The ‘gun 16 is
pivotally mounted on trunnions at 1'! in the tur
ret for elevation and the turret 78 is supported
as by a plurality of tapered rollers 19 on the hull
structure 80 of the vessel for rotation in a hori
zontal plane to train the gun.
The training
mechanism usually comprises an internal gear
8|, which is ?xed to the structure 80-, and has
meshing therewith a large pinionv gear 82 sup
ported ‘on the end of the depending‘ rotatable
shaft 83 carried by the turret.
Elevation of the gun may be effected by a
mechanism such as shown in Figures 11 and 12,
comprising a large screw B4, pivotally connected
at 85 to the breach end of the gun a considerable
2,404,127
distance from the trunnion 11. The screw 84
passes through a nut 86, which. is rotatably
mounted in pivoted bracket 81, and has inte
grally secured to one end a bevel pinion 88 mesh
ing with a bevel gear 89. The bracket 81 is trun
ioned at 90 and 3| in a bifurcated ?xed support
92. The bevel gear 89 is secured to the end of a
shaft 93 which passes through the center of one
of the trunnions and has secured to the outer 10
end a worm gear 04 meshing with a worm 95.
The worm 95 is secured to a shaft 96 which is
connected through bevel gearing 91 to a hori
zontal operating shaft 98. It Will now be seen
that rotation of the shaft 98 will cause through
theinterconnecting mechanism, rotation of the
bevel gear 88 and its integral nut 86 and thereby
axial movement of the screw 84. This axial
movement will cause elevation or depression of
the gun, and as the same moves upward or down
ward, the bracket 81 will automatically angu
larly adjust itself about its trunnions. The shaft
83 of the training mechanism is also connected
8
The sleeve has an annular pressure groove III
formed therein to which is connected the pres
sure channel II2’, the pressure fluid being sup
plied by a pump I I3. A reservoir tank I I4 is pro
vided from which ?uid is withdrawn through a
pipe H5 by the pump II3. In order to maintain
constant pressure in the pump delivery line- I I2,
a relief valve H6 is connected thereto by the
branch line II1. A plunger H3 is reciprocably
mounted in the valve and. has a spool H9
which controls the flow through the exhaust port
I20. The pressure in line H1 is connected by
an- axial bore I2l in the plunger to the end- I22
of the valve housing to normally force the valve
in a direction to increase the volume of the
escaping ?ow. This movement is opposed, how
ever, by a spring j23, the opposition of which
may be adjusted by the set screw I24. By. this
means the spool I I9 may be adjusted and main
tained to prevent variation of pressure in line
II2.
'
The plunger I It! has a spool I25 formed thereon
which may be of sufficient width to close the
radial holes formed in the bottom of the groove
III and thereby prevent flow to either annular
groove I26 0r I21 to which the pressural control
channels E08 and I01 are connected. Flanking
by a worm wheel 99 and a Worm I00 to a hori
zontal driving shaft I0 I .
In the past each of these shafts 98 and IOI
have been operatively connected to manual con
trol means for operation by the gunner. By the
grooves I23 and I21 are another pair of grooves
present invention, each of these shafts is provided
I28 and I29 which may be connected by branch
with a power unit 54 operatively connected there
lines
I30 and I3I to acommon return line. It
to and an independently operable automatic con 30 will now be seen that if the plunger I 50 is moved
trol system for each unit. In other words, there
from the position shown in Figure 2 toward the
may be two separate independent automatic con
left, that pressure will new from channel “2' to
trol systems, one of which may be a duplicate- of
channel I01 and that the channel I08 will be
the other and therefore only one will be . de
connected to the exhaust channel I30; or if
scribed. For the sake of economy, or simplicity 35 moved to the right the channel II2' will be con
of construction, however, where functional re
nected to channel I00 and channel I01 will be
quirements permit, certain of the elements may
connected to the exhaust line I3I. Tnus by
be common to both systems. Furthermore, if the
movement of the valve plunger III} to the right
?re control unit is of such a construction that it 40 or left the direction of rotation of the shaft 15
provides a master controller for both systems, it
can be controlled, and furthermore that the rate
is obvious that their independence will apply to
of this rotation may be determined by the amount
their operative functions only.
that the plunger H0 is moved off center,
Rotation of the power unit control shaft 15 is
The shifting of this valve plunger is controlled
effected by a hydraulic motor I02 which’ may
45 through a relay in the form of a sensitive hy
comprise, as shown in Figures 4 and '7, a plu
draulic ampli?cation system, which is responsive
rality of pistons I03 carrying anti-frictionally
to movement of the rotor 49 on the one hand
mounted rollers I04 on the inner end thereof en
which, as previously explained, is the receiver
gaging a multiple lobe cam I05 carried by a ro
of the communication system; and to the move
tatable shaft I06. Although a rotatable type mo
50 ment of the gun on the other hand. The hy
tor has been shown, it is obvious that a double
draulic ampli?cation system comprises a means
acting cylinder and piston type motor could be
for magnifying the movement and power output
used, either to cause a rotation of the pump con
of the rotor so that a very slight weak movement
trol shaft 15 as by means of a rack and pinion,
thereof will effect sufficient opening of the valve
or else to actuate the swash plate 63 directly, as
IIO to develop a strong force for controlling op
heretofore mentioned. In either case two pipes
eration of the hydraulic variable speed transmis
I01 and I08 supply ?uid to the motor and are
sion gear. The valve plunger H0 is moved by
so connected thereto that when pressure is sup
a pair of piston portions I33 and I34 formed on
plied through pipe I01, and pipe I08 is connectec"
opposite ends of the plunger, and actual move
to exhaust, the motor will cause movement of the
ment is effected by unbalancing the opposing
60
swash plate 63 in one direction, and when pres
forces on the pistons by a pressure di?erentiator
sure is supplied through pipe I08, and pipe I01
I35 which may be in the form of a disc rotatable
is connected to exhaust, the motor will cause
relative to a pair of ports or jets I36 and I31
movement of the swash plate in the opposite di
rection; while if pipes I01 and I08 are both kept
which are respectively connected by channels I38
and I39 to opposite ends of the valve plunger I I0.
When a pressure differential is .created by the
disc I35, the plunger H0 will be moved and will
under an equal pressure, the motor will stop and i'
be held in any given angular position. A valve
mechanism has been provided for controlling the
flow in these pipes, and although two valves, such
as I09 and 2M, are shown in Figure 2, in its
simplest form and for limited purposes only, the
invention may be practiced by the use of only
'
continue to move until a pressure equilibrating
means has re-equalized the pressures on opposite
ends of the plunger. Fluid for this purpose is
continuously supplied from channel II2 through
branch lines I40 and MI which are respectively
one valve.
connected to annular groovesIAZ and I43 formed
This valve may comprise a fixed sleeve I09’, as
in the sleeve I00’. Carried by and movable with
more particularly shown in Figures 2 and 5, hav
the valve plunger I I0 are variable resistance por
ing a reciprocable plunger I I0 contained therein. .1 75
2,404,127
9
tions which may be in the form of tapered spools
I44 and I45 associated with the elongated radial
clear, that the total resistance’ of the path from
the constant pressure channel IIZ through the
ports formed on the bottoms of grooves I42 and
I43.
port I 31 will be higher than that through the port
These spools are so dimensioned with re
136,; endings the quantity 9f. '?llia ?ow'i?g
throughI-SIS will bevhigher than-through I3‘I. .B__i1t
this';higher quantity also ?ows‘througlilthe re
sistanceformed by the spool museums lower
quantity?ows through the resistance formed by
spect to the ports that when the plunger III! is
in its mid-position, the resistances to escape of
?uid from the grooves I42 and I43 are exactly,
equal.
‘
Holes I46 and I4‘! are drilled in oppositeends
of the plunger and connected by radially drilled 10 the spool ‘I45, and. "st‘hésé resistancesarél‘béihg
maintained. equal‘, 1 as‘ above" statedLQtHen the‘ pres; '
holes I48 to the annular space adjacent to: the
sure drop past the spool I44 will be il?gl‘ierlthan
spools I44 and I45. The ?uid from the channel
that past the spool I4 Therefore, 'as‘the pres
H2 is thus connected through the branch lines
sure in the channel 'I I 2_ is maintained at. a con
I40 and MI, the hydraulic resistances formed by
the spools I44 and I45, and the drilled holes in 15 stant value, the pressure in the channel I39 will
be higher than that in the channel I38, and so
opposite ends of the plunger to the cylinder por
there will be a pressure ‘differential acting upon
tions formed at opposite ends of the sleeve I09.
the valve plunger II'ii tending to move it‘ toward
The ?uid then ?ows from these cylinder portions
the-left; If, we now assume
n
,
that ‘this ‘plunger
is r
through channels I38 and I39 to be discharged
at the ports I35 and I3?‘ against the periphery
20
of the disc I35.
of the ports I35 and I31 minus a few thousandths
of an inch clearance.
25
ured from the point I49 counterclockwise to the
point I50 is a few degrees less than 180 degrees.
The disc has also a concentric peripheral'portion 30
to the point I52 which has a radius of a few
'
'
ever,v will decrease the ‘value’ of the lresistance past
The included angle meas
extending from the point I5I’ counterclockwise
?overnenttoward the left, how.
the spool I44,_and increase ‘the resistance past
the spool I45. The decrease and increase of, these
resistances will respectively decreaseland increase
diifferentialr
This disc has a circular peripheral portion ex
tending from the point I49 counterclockwise to
the point I59, and of a radius equal to the dis
tance from the center I 5I of the disc to the faces
not held but free to move, as. is agiualiy the
oasagit ‘will ‘be-moved to the left by this pressure
the-total resistances. of the.iwepare11e1?QWi5e5ths
from-channel i'IZ to chamber’ I54, therebyfur
the: increasing. and decreasing thgrespective
?ows therethrough. Increase and decrease, re
spectiveiy, oi‘ the now through the resistances
past the ports I36 and I31‘ will cause a respective
rise and fall in the pressure drop across. these
ports, and consequently a rise and fall, respect
ively, in the pressures in the :channels I38 and
thousandths less than the radius of the portion
I4'I—I5il. The included angle measured from
the point I5I’ counterclockwise to the point I52 35
I39. This rise and fall, it will be noted, is in the
is likewise only slightly less than 180 degrees.
opposite direction to the change in pressure proThe points I49 and I52 as well as the points I55
duced by the movement of the disc I35, thus it
and I5I' are connected by a pro?led portion
is evident that continued movement of the
which has a continually decreasing radius so as
to provide a resistance to the ?ow of ?uid
plunger I ill to the left will. eventually bring about
a ire-‘equalization of pressure‘in these channels
and .thus a cessationof movement of the plunger.
' With this device, ‘therefore, every increment‘of
through the ports I36 and I3‘! which will vary
with the angular position of the disc. When the
angular position of the disc is such that the
spaces between the ports and the respective pro
?led positions are equal, as shown in Figure 2, the
resistance to ?ow of ?uid therethrough will like
movement of ‘the disc I 35 will’cause a correspond
ing increment of movement of the plunger III].
As the increment of movement of the latter is
of the housing I55 and discharged freely through
with motionof the spools I44 and I45 in relation
in their respective mid-positions, there will be two
be more readily understood .by reference. to Fig
?owing through these two paths will be equal,
mathematical: analysis of the vunderlying rela
limited in each. casevto the amount required to
wise be equal.
bring abouts ré-fequali'aationjof ‘pressure upon its
The disc I35 is mounted on the shaft I53 which
ends an'dthis'in‘ t'ur'nis determined-by the, change
is con-axial with rotor 49 and permanently con
nected therewith so that the slightest movement 60 in resistance past the spools, I44 and I45, any
desired relation between these increments, 'i. 42.,
thereof will cause rotation of the disc. The ?uid
any desired ampli?cation, can be obtained by pro
discharging from the ports I35 and I31 is col
viding the proper rate of change of resistance
lected in the chamber I54 formed in the bottom
to the rate of change of resistance by motion of
a suitable channel I56 to the reservoir I I4.
55 the disc I35.
I
From the foregoing it will be evident that, if
The
above
described
principle
of operation will
the valve plunger H0 and the disc I35 are both
urel22 whichis a diagrammatic representation of
parallel paths of equal total resistance for the
the
hydraulic resistances andicontrofl elements
?uid to traverse from the supply channel II2 to 60
involved‘ a'ndarrang'ed in Simple form tofacilitate
the chamber I54. Thus the quantity of ?uid
tio'hs“.
f
:
-..',
and as the resistances at the ports I35 and I3’!
lnzth‘is'?gur'e
Rb
and
Rm‘.
respectivelyqrepresent
are themselves equal, the pressures in the chan
nels I 38 and £35 will also be equal, and thevalve 65 the instantaneousvalues of the hydraulic resist
ance's betweenthe .por'ts I36 and :I37 and the ad.
plunger Hi3 will thus tend to remain in its'mid
jacent pro?led portions of the. disc I35, while 'Rv
and
Rw respectively‘ represent the instantaneous
If we now assume that the disc I35 is rotated
values oitheresistances formed bythe spools. I44
through a small angle in a counterclockwise di
rection, the resistance to out?ow of ?uid from the 70 and 145.‘; Q'b;Qm,‘ Qv. and Qw'represent the quanti
ties, “or rates of. flow, [through theresistances
port I31 will be increased while the resistance at
RaiRm, Rv,,.and Rw; P1 isthe pressure in thewsup
the port I35 will be decreased. If the plunger IIIl
position.
could meanwhile be held in its mid-position so as
to retain the initial equal values of the resist
my channel il'lirPzandPa the-pressures in. the
channels 139. and I33..-and P4, the-pressurein-?he
ances to flow past the spools I44 and I45, it is 76 collecting, chamber '- I54, ~ (usually, atmospheric
pressure) .~ ~ The link 3B5 illustrates the mechani
2,404,127
.
,
12
and II’ respectively to the complementally vari
11'
cal connection between the piston portions I33
and I34 and the variable resistance spool por
tions I44 and I45.
If we express the resistances Rb, Rm, Rv, and
Rw in terms of the opposition or reaction to unit
flow under the conditions encountered in each
particular case, then the pressure drop across
each resistance will be equal to the quantity or
rate of ?ow, through the resistance, multiplied by
able hydraulic resistances R'm and R’b corre
sponding to resistances Rm and Rb of Figure 22
which combine in a common return line I3’ simi
lar to the common return line I56, and having a
pressure P4. It will also be noted that channels
8’ and II’ have operating branches I4’ and I5’
respectively which are responsive to the equal or
unequal pressures P2 and P3 existing respectively
in channels 8' and II’.
the value‘ of the resistance itself or P=QR. Thus 1
That the work resistanceris in effect an hy
draulic resistance may be shown in the follow
ing way.
In Figure 21, the opposition to free
movement of the work piston connected by the
rod 6' to the slide 1' is provided by the cutter
C’ acting against the work piece W’. For a
given total opposition to movement, and a given
equivalent piston area, there will be a given unit
pressure difference across the piston. For a given
But if Pi-P2 is not equal to P1—-P2, then P2
and P3 will themselves be unequal and thus‘ the
piston portions I33 and I34 will be moved toward
the end acted upon by the lower pressure. Such
movement, however, will cause a change in the
values of the resistances Rv and Rw in such a
direction as to make P2 equal to P3.
' When P2 is equal to P3, P1——P2 will be equal
to -P1—P3, and P2——P4 must then be equal to
_ equivalent quantity, or rate of ?ow Qw, the equiv
alent resistance may be expressed in terms of
P3-—P4, therefore QwRw must equal QvRv, and
QmRm must equal QbRb. Furthermore, when pis
tons- I33 and I34 are stationary, Qw must equal
Qm, and Qv must equal Qb, thus we may write:
reaction to unit ?ow as
P 1:13 2
Q“,
‘ which is the resistance Rw, and therefore directly
comparable to the hydraulic resistance Rw of Fig
ure 22.
The system in Figure 21 is thus similar to
1 that in Figure 22 and therefore the same equa
tions must apply, that is, that
James
Therefore
*
R’,,,'_R',,
anal and Q1~=E1
b
w
b
1n
and, thus
a -Rv
R,,,_ Rw
whenever P2=P3, that is, whenever the system is
in equilibrium.
Thus any movement of the disc I35, which
causes a ‘change in the resistance ratio
it
.
Rm
will bring about a movement of the valve plunger
I II] which will continue until the resistances past
the spools I44 and I45 will have assumed such
values that the ratio
a
whenever P2=P3.
Any movement of the valve spool relative to
the ports 9' and I2’ from its central position will
e?ect a complementary change in the value of
the resistances R'm and R's. If moved in a direc
tion to make R'm>rR'b then there will be a fall in
P3-P4 and a rise in Pz-P4 which means that
P2>P3 which inequality will be communicated
to the operative branches I4 and I5 to effect a
reproportioning of the in'tial resistances R'w and
R’v to thereby re-equalize pressures P2 and P3.
In the construction- shown in Figure 21 this re
proportioning or change is all effected in the re
sistance R'v while in Figure 22 the change is
e?ected by complementally changing resistances
- Rw, Rv. The e?ect is the same because in either
case we seek to make the ratio
R1,
Rm‘
will be equal to the new value of the ratio
Therefore, if we make Rm>Rb, we decrease the
value of the fraction or ratio
a
It will thus be seen that this device is in effect
Rm
A corresponding change may be brought about
a self-regulating hydraulic Wheatstone bridge,
similar in principle to that disclosed in co-pend
ing application, Serial #490,154, ?led October 21,
1930, by Hans Ernst, et al., Figure 10 of which
application is reproduced here as Figure 21 for
the purposes of comparison with Figure 22; the
only change made from the original is that the
original reference numerals have been primed
for ‘obvious reasons.
In Figure 21 it will be seen that there is a pres
surepump which delivers ?uid at a pressure P1
totwubranches 4' and 5' which include the vari
able resistances R'w and R'v equivalent to the
diagrammatically illustrated resistances of Fig
ure 22 and comprising in the case of R'w, a vari
able work resistance, and in the case of R'v a vari
able compensating hydraulic resistance.
R,
in the fraction
.121
R",
v
in two ways: (1) by decreasing only the value of
' Rv, or (2) partially decreasing Rv and partially
increasing the value Rw. In either case the same
result follows, i. e., the value of the ratio
a
'
it?
changed to equal
in
R'
These resistances are connected by channels 8’ F5 and by the same means, that is a-pair of operat
9,404,127
ing branches responsive to pressure changes in
the main channels operating on opposed piston
elements, operatively connected to change» the
value of the ratio of the initial resistances in the
respective ?ow paths, which change will continue
until the ratios are equal because at that time
the pressures P2, P3 are themselves equal.
From the foregoing it will be evident that with
the construction shown in Fig. 2 (diagrammati
cally illustrated in Figure 22) by properly propor
tioning the values of the hydraulic resistances
Rb, Rm, Rv and Rw, and their rate of change of
14
differentiator is shown in Figures 5 and. Brand“
comprises the housing I55 having an upper rec
tangular shaped space IE2 in which is rotated
the disc I35. This disc is supported for ‘rotation
on anti-friction bearings I 53 to insure easy move
ment thereof and prevent any frictionalload on
the rotor '49. The disc has a peripheral ?ange
"54- which is of su?icient width as shown in Fig
ure ‘I8 to insure against the free lateral ‘escape of
?uid from the ports I36 and, I31 and ‘permit
proper operation of the device. The ports are
formed in shoulderedmembersw "ch are ‘longi
resistance with respect to movement of their con
tudinally divided as shown in Figures ~5 and '18
trolling means, a highly sensitive remote control
toform two halves I35 and I66 which are milled
system is obtained, in which a secondary or relay
at the end to form a long narrow slot which ‘forms
member, such as the Valve plunger 1 I0, may be
the ports I 36 and I31. The two halves are
’ as- a
incrementally progressed by incremental move
sembled
in
a
sleeve-I61
and
held
tightly
therein
ment of a sensitive primary member, such as the
by the threaded plug member I168. An vaxial Ibore
disc I35, without any mechanical connection be
IE9 is formed in the shouldered members ‘and ter
tween them.
20 minates in the elongated port at one end thereof;
The operation of the device as described thus
The sleeve IE1 is slidably mounted in a bore ‘I110 .
far is as follows: referring to Figure 2, the shaft
which is ‘formed in the housing and ‘has a radial
26 will be rotated by the ?re control unit which
port I1I which communicates at one end with the
in turn will cause rotation of the rotor of the synchronous generator or transmitter 25 which by 25 channel I39 and at the other end with 'a radial .
bore I12 in the shouldered member comm-uni
means of electrical phenomena will cause a sim
cating with the axial bore I69. A set screw I113
ilar angular movement of the receiver rotor 49.
engages a keyway I14 ‘formed in ‘the periphery
The shaft I 53, which is connected for rotation
of the sleeve to vprevent the same from rotating.
with the rotor 49, will cause angular displace
The
sleeve I10 is axially adjusted toward and
ment of the disc I35 and thereby create a pres 30
from the periphery of the disc by means of a
sure differential between channels I 38 and I39
screw I15 which isthreaded in the plug member
which will be communicated to opposite ends
I 68 and which passes freely through a hole I16
of the plunger H0. This unbalancing of pres-‘
in a second adjustable member I11. r This ‘last I
sure will cause the plunger to move in the direc
tion of the lower pressure and to continue mov 35 member is adjusted to the desired position and
then the screw I 15 is tightened to draw the sleeve
ing until the pressure has been re-equalized, as
back into clamping engagement with the mem
previously described. Since the resistance spools
ber
I11. This makes it possible to adjust the
I44 and I45 may be made of any length and thus
distance between the periphery of the» disc and
provide any desired rate of change of resistance,
it will be apparent that the length of plunger 40 the face of the port, which distance is approxi~
mately ?Ve-thousandths' of an inch when the disc ‘
movement may be independent of theangular
is in‘ its normal position shown in Figure 2. The
movement of the disc I35 which thus" makes it
peripheral portions between the points I58 and
possible to magnify a very slight movement of the
I51’, as well as between the points I49 and I52,
disc I35 into a large movement of the plunger I II].
are
so pro?led as to increase or decrease this
When the plunger ‘I I5 is moved tov the left, ?uid 45
spacing'by approximately one-thousandth of an
will ?ow in line I83 and line I31 will be 'con
inch so that upon rotation ‘of the disc the space
nected to exhaust whereby the motor I02 will con
will be increased at one port and decreased at the
tinue to rotate until the plunger vIII) has v‘been
other to create the pressure differential.
moved back to a central position. The rate of
The rotor shaft I53 ‘may be connected by a col
rotation will furthermore depend on the ‘amount 50 lar I18, Figures '6 and 8 to the disc supporting
of displacement of the plungers. Rotation of the
motor I02 will cause an angular displacement of
the swash plate 63 and thereby initiate and con
tinue to increase the displacement of the pump
which will thus supply ?uid to the connected *
motor unit and e?ect rotation of the shaft 1I.
As a matter of practical operation, the shaft H
is connected to the shaft IBI through a shiftable
clutch member I51 which is splined on the shaft
IDI for movement by the manual control lever
I58. Clutch teeth I59 on one face of the clutch
are adapted to engage clutch teeth on end of
shaft "II for power rotation of the shaft ‘Illi.
Clutch teeth I65) on the opposite face of the clutch
are adapted to engage similar clutch teeth on the ‘
face of a large bevel gear ItI which is normally
free to rotate, but intended for manual rotation
of shaft IOI by means of bevel pinion I61’ and
hand wheel I58’ in case of emergency.
It will thus be seen that a means has been
provided whereby movement of a control shaft
such as 26 at a remote station may be trans
mitted to the gun and impart movement toyithe
gun adjusting mechanism.
'
“
The actual construction of one for-m ‘of pressure
shaft I19.
If the ?xed pointer system of com‘- '
munication is used, the movable pointer’ I80 is
also ?xed to shaft I53 for rotation therewith as
more particularly shown in Figures 8 and 16.
The ?xed pointer I8I is secured to an annular
?ange I82 projecting from the ?xed casting I83
of the self-synchronous motor 32. The member
I82 has a ?anged portion I84 which is suitably
graduated for cooperation with a second mov
able pointer I85 which is ?xed to the sleeve I86’.
carrying the rotatable ?eld of the motor. In this
system of operation the pointer I 85 really plays
no important part but simply gives an vindica
tion to the operator of the actual angular posi
tion of the gun.
As previously explained in connection with this
system, the pointers I 80 and I'BI must'be main
tained in alignment at the gunner’s station in
order to position the gun in accordance with
the ?re control unit. Therefore after the pointer
has been moved upon rotation of- the rotor 49
by the ?re control unit, ‘there must be some form
of answer or feed back coming from the gun
operating mechanism to tell that the gun has
been moved the desired amount andto ‘stop its
2,404,127
15
further movement.
16
electrically to the rotor 49 in a one to one ratio.
It will thus been seen that the ratio of the feed
This is effected in the fol
back mechanism determines in the ?nal analysis
the amount of angular movement that will be
lowing manner.
The shaft IOI, which e?ects rotation of the
pinion 82, has a spur gear I81 connected there
imparted to the gun for one rotation of the
shaft 26. If the feed back mechanism is geared
to a higher ratio so as to produce a higher speed
of the worm gear I93, then the angular move
ment imparted to the gun by the shaft 26 will be
with and intermeshing with a spur gear [88 ?xed
to shaft I89, the latter being connected by bevel
gearing I90 to a shaft I9I which has a worm
I92 meshing with a worm wheel I93. The worm
wheel I93, as shown in Figure 8, is connected to 10 reduced, while if the ratio is stepped down, the
the sleeve I94 which carries the rotatable ?eld
coils suchas 39, 40 and 4|. Thus as the shaft
IOI and pinion 82 are rotated, there is a feed
back to the self-synchronous motor which con
tinuously rotates the ?eld in the opposite direc
tion to that in which the rotor turned. The ro
tation of the ?eld in space thus completely neu
angular movement will be increased.
The situation often arises under actual operat
ing conditions that a particular turret may have
to be selectively controlled byvdi?erent ?re con
15 trol stations so that if one station is swept away
tralizes the advance made by the rotor relative
to its ?eld; thus the rotor remains in a substan
tially ?xed position in space as hereinafter de
in the stress of battle, another may assume con
trol. This change may be effected by a suitable
switch which will disconnect the lines 29', 30'
and 3I' from the ?re control transmitter 25 and
connect them through lines I95, I96 and I91 to
scribed. Thus, if the pointer I80 has been ad 20 a new ?re control unit. Since in the case de
vanced a fraction of a degree and the gun posi
scribed above, one revolution of the control shaft
tioned the same amount, the movement of the
26 and its rotor 43 only effects ten degrees of
gun will react to bring this pointer back into
gun movement, it is apparent that any given po
alignment with the ?xed pointer IBI. In order
sition of the shaft 25 will correspond to a plural
25
to understand the principle of operation, it must
ity of gun positions. Thus it might so'happen
be kept in mind that the whole chain of events
that the corresponding control shaft and rotor at
from the ?re control unit through the motors,
the new station may have the same operating po
the hydraulic control system, the power unit and
sition relative to its ?eld, as the previous control
the feed back mechanism to worm I93 takes
shaft 26, but may actually be advanced or re
30
place by minute amounts and almost simultane—
ously.
tracted therefrom by one or more complete revo
In other words, as soon as the shaft 26
lutions, and therefore no reaction would be set up
between the new transmitter rotor and the re
is moved to a new position in relation to its ?eld
ceiver rotor 49 to correct this situation.’ It is
coils which electrical reaction moves the rotor
therefore necessary to provide additional means
35
49 to the same relative position with respect to
whereby this contingency cannot occur. It is
is rotated the slightest amount, the armature 43
its ?eld coils and once this position is established,
the electrical ?eld in the motor is such as to
maintain their relative positions so that when the
returning answer rotates the worm I93 and
proposed by this invention to provide a supple
mental hydraulic control system which is con
nected in parallel with the system just described
but which is operable for the full 360 degrees so
thereby the ?eld coil, the rotor 49 will be carried 40 that the transmitter and receiver rotors cannot
with it as a unit. It will be obvious that the
get out of phase with the gun.
connected shaft I53 and disc I35 will also be
Since as previously described the controlling
rotated a slight amount to set up through the
hydraulic relay a rotation of pinion 82 for in
stance, and that almost simultaneous therewith
the feed back or follow-up mechanism will ro
tate the ?eld a slight amount in the opposite di
rection, turning the rotor 49 with it to recentral
ize the disc I35. Thus the disc I35 really need 50
move no more than a fraction of a degree to one
factor is the ratio of the feed-back mechanism,
a second such mechanism is provided which has
a one to one ratio with the gun rather than a
36 to 1 ratio as did the previous mechanism,
so that the ?nal driven member of this mecha
nism, such as the worm wheel I98, would be
rotated only one revolution by each complete
side or the other of its center position, and as
fast as it is moved the slightest amount by the
revolution of the gun. This worm wheel is con
nected to the rotatable ?eld I99 of a self-syn
chronous motor or receiver 200. This motor has a
?re control unit the servo-mechanism will repo
rotor 20I, one revolution of which relative to its
sition it, or in other words return it to a neutral
?eld will correspond to one complete revolution
position. This constitutes the elements of a 55 of the gun, because the ?eld I99 is only rotated
'one revolution for each 360 degrees of gun move
simple control system.
It will be noted from the previous description
that the feed back mechanism to the worm I93
may be connected to the worm shaft I0] and not
ment. The ?eld I99 is connected by three trans
mission lines 202, 203 and 204 to the ?eld 205 of a
transmitter 206 located at the ?re control sta
to the pinion rotating shaft 83 which means that 60 tion adjacent the high speed transmitter 25. The
the speed of the feed back mechanism would not
rotor 201 of the transmitter may be connected by
be reduced by the reduction between the worm
the worm wheel 208 and the worm 209 to the con
I00 and the worm wheel 99 but rather it Was
trol shaft 25 but in a reduction ratio of one to
speeded up over the rate of rotation of the drive
65 36 whereby one revolution of the shaft 26 will
shaft NH. The actual ratio between the shaft
only effect one thirty-sixth of a revolution of the
83 and the worm wheel I93 is usually such that
transmitter rotor 201. It will thus be apparent
the latter makes one revolution for every ten de
that the shaft 26 must make 36 revolutions to
grees of angular movement of the turret. This
rotate the transmitter rotor 201 through one revo
ratio is the controlling factor which determines
lution which in turn will cause one revolution of
the number of degrees of angular movement that 70 the rotor 20I relative to its ?eld. Thus the gun
will be imparted to the gun by each rotation of
must make one complete revolution in order to
the rotor 49 relative to its ?eld. Likewise, it de
cause one revolution of the ?eld I99 and thereby
termines the angular movement that will be im
parted to the gun by one rotation of the shaft
26 since this shaft is connected mechanically and
maintain the rotor 20I in a substantially fixed
position in space.
2,404,127
The rotor 2M is connected by suitable means,
such as the shaft 2“), to a second pressure diifer
entiator 2H similar to the one previously de
18
The pressure diiferentiator disc 235 has a por
ticn of its circumference extending counteri
scribed, and which is connected by channels 2l2
clockwise from the point 248 to the point 243
ofja radius equal to the distance from the center
and 2| 3 to a control valve 2l4 containing a slid
2530f the disc 235‘ to the faces of the ports 1,3,6’
able valve plunger 215. This valve has a pres
and 131' minus .a very small clearance distance,‘
sure port 216 which is connected to the pump de
and ‘the included angle .of this are is greater
livery channel H2 and a pair of ports 2|] and
than 1,80 degrees and may be equal to 185 degrees
2l8 which are connected respectively to the lines
I 31 and H18 leading to the control motor I32. 10' to permit a two and oh'ehali decree overlap at
each port. Since the disc I35 does ‘not normally
A spool 219 on the plunger 2l5 determines the
oscillate more than a fraction of a degreefrcm its
alternate connection of ports 2 I1, 218 to the pres
central position, with respect to its associated
sure port 2|6. The valve also has another pair
ports, it will be apparent that during normal 0P
of ports 220 and 22! which are connected by
branch lines 222 and 223 to the reservoir return 15 eration of the disc I35 no change in pressure will
occur at the ports of disc 235. The remaining
line 224. It will thus be seen that this valve
portion of the periphery of the disc .235 extends
plunger operates in the same way as the previ
ing clockwise from the point 248 to the
ously described control valve I39 for alternately
249
is concentric with the center, but of a radius'which
102 and connecting the other line to reservoir. 20 is less by about 1/32 of an inch, so that when
the idiscis rotated a sui?cieht distance a very
This valve is also provided with a pressure equili
sudden decrease in resistance at one of the ports
brator comprising two resistance spools 225 and
135i or 131' and thus a sudden drop in'pressiire
226 which are adapted to move relative to the
will occur in one of the channels ,2I2, 2l3'?and
elongated pressure ports 221 and 228 which are
thereby insure .a sudden shifting of the valve
connected by branch lines 223 and 230 to the
main supply line H2. Each spool carries a re 25 plungcrl2l5. The formation of the reduced por
tions ‘23] and 232 of spools 225 and 226 is such
duced portion 23! and 232 which cooperate with
that they effect a small rate of change of hy
these ports to form variable resistances similar to
connecting pressure .to one of the lines of motor
those in valve “)9, and thus provide a means for
creating a pressure drop in the fluid entering
draulie resistance per unit or length of movement
bores 233 and 234 near the end of the valve,
thereby acting upon opposite ends of the plunger
pressure in channels 212 and 213‘ In fact they
of plunger 215 and thereby act slowly relative
the valve, the ?uid escaping freely through axial 30 to valve plunger movement in ire-equalizing the
are so formed that the plunger will hit‘the end
of ‘the valve housing before reeequalization of
pressures in channels 2|! and 12 13 occurs. there
to shift the same back and forth when the re
spective pressures are unbalanced by the pres
35 by'ihsurins that the plunger will move the hill
sure difierentiator.
lchsth'cf its possible movement in its ‘housing
The pressure differentiator disc 235 has a
and thus provide immediate full opening or clos
slightly different contour than the previously
ins 0i the various controlled ports _
,
described disc I35 so that the valve 2M will nor
previously mentioned this cnlyiocciirs when
mally not take control of the motor I02 ex 40
.a
control station which is considerably out
cept in the contingency previously mentioned.
of phase with the gun is connected therctc, so
that a large movement must take place before
the parts are brought into proper phase with one
another. This sudden [shitting 0f the valve
in other words inoperative to prevent improper
operation or loss of ?uid pressure through that 45 plunger 254 el her to the right or to the left ‘will
cut off the pressure line H 2' and the return lines
part of the system. For this reason the pressure
l3!) and i3] vof control valve H3 and immediately
supply line H2’ to, as Well as the return line 231
connect either line i5? ,or line “)8 to pressure
from, the valve IE9, is led through the valve 214,
through valye 2L4 so that the motor 10.2 Will be
so that these lines will be closed when the valve
When it does take control, however, it is desir
able that the previously described ten degree
control mechanism be entirely disconnected, .or
plunger 215 is shifted to a position to control
the ?ow in lines I01 and H18. In other words
the return lines I30 and I3! are connected by
channel 231 to a port 238 in valve 2M and pres
50
actuated tc'causc high speed operation of the sun
adjusting motive power imit- ' While the gun is
belngproperly coordinated, the feed back mecha
nism is operating on the Worm Wheel 1.9.8 and
thereby, through the shaft 210,129 reposition the
sure line H 2’ or port 236 of said valve. Each of
these ports communicates with narrow annular 5.5 disc .zes again in its normal ‘position shown in
Figure
However, due to the fact that the in
grooves 239 and 240 respectively formed in the
cluded angle of the peripheral portion having the
valve plunger 2 45. A second pair of narrow annu
larger radius is greater than ,180 degrees, it will ‘
lar grooves 24! and 242 are formed in the plunger
be obvious that the valve 2M will relinquish
2I5 in spaced relation to the previous grooves
but interconnected therewith through equally 6.0 control before the .disc 23.5 has complctclyfre
turned whereby the other valve I 09 will again
assume control to eiicct the ‘?nal accurate posi
riphery of the intervening spools 244 and 245.
spaced ?ats or grooves 243 formed on the pe
Each groove 24! and 242 communicates respec
tioning of the gun.
a
If‘ the control shaft 26 happens to be displaced
tively with ports 246 and 241, the port 241 being 65
a fraction of a revolution greater than .oheshalf
connected to the pressure line H2 and the port
(or any numher 0f revolutions plus said fraction)
245 being connected to the return line 224. When
from-the corresponding shaft of the new control
the plunger 2 i5 is in a central position as shown
station’ when the latter is connected for opera.
in Figure 2 the pressure line H2 is connected to
the pressure line I I2’ and the return line 231 from 70 tion of the gun, the receiverrotor >49 will-attempt '
to assume itsnew correct position relative .to its
valve I09 is connected to the return line 224 there
by permitting the valve plunger IH) to operate
in the manner previously described, while ports
21-’! and 2l8 are dead-ended so that no flow passes
to or from through these ports,
-
?eld to synchronize with the positionrof the new
transmitter. rotor relative to its ?eld by turning
.throughtheshortest possible angle which ,obvi,
ously will be in the wrong direction. If permitted
76 to do this, howeventdisc 1325 would alsoibe turnedv
2,464,127
20
19
The valve housing 3I6 has a pair of longitudi
in the wrong direction, that is, in the opposite
direction to which it should have been turned in
nally spaced ports 3I9 and 320 to which the line
I08 is connected. Upon movement of the plunger
order to synchronize the gun with the new con
trol station resulting in the gun itself and also the
rotary ?eld 49’ being moved in the wrong direc
tion which movement will continue until a posi
tion is reached which corresponds to an incorrect
3I1 against the resistance of spring 32I by ex
cessive pressure in channel 3I5, the spool 322 on
displacement of the control shaft 26 equal to the
nearest whole number of revolutions greater than
the previous fractional displacement. It will thus
be seen that in such a case all of the elements of
the control system from shaft 26 to and includ
ing the valve I59 will be in synchronism with one
another but that the gun itself will still be out
of phase with the new control station by an an
gular displacement corresponding to one or more
complete revolutions of the transmitter control
shaft.
’
As previously described, however, there is pro
vided a supplemental hydraulic control system
including the disc 235 which will assume control
whenever the displacement between the new
transmitter control shaft and the gun is greater
than the overlap of said disc with respect to its
ports. This overlap must be made su?iciently
plunger 3I1 will close ports 3I9 and 329 and stop
operation of motor I02.
A modi?ed form of pressure diiferentiator is
shown in Figures 20 and 23, in which the ports
I36 and I31 discharge against opposite faces 323
and 324 of the disc 325, an expanded sectional
view of which is shown in Figure 23. The dash
and dot lines 326 and 321 are 180 degrees apart
and the axis of the ports may lie on either one
of these lines and thereby normally in the cen
ter of the pro?led portions 328 and 329 whereby
movement of the disc either right or left as
viewed in Figure 23 will complementally change
the pressure drops at these ports in a manner
similar to that described in connection with the
pro?led portions of disc I35.
In Figures 13 and 14 there is shown a modi?ed
form of connecting the feed back mechanism to
the pressure diiferentiator. In the prior con
struction, as described in connection with Figures
2 and 8, the feed back worm I92 acted through
small so that the disc 235 and associated control
valve 2I4 will assume control of positioning of
the gun whenever the displacement of the control
shaft 25 is more than one-half of a revolution
the worm wheel I93 to rotate the ?eld in order to
with'respect to the corresponding control shaft
self-synchronous device was such as to cause the
of the new station, but in order to provide a prop
maintain the disc I35 in substantially the same
position relative to the'opposed ports. This was
possible because the‘electrical ?eld created in the
rotor to move simultaneously with the ?eld, the
two moving as a ‘unit and therefore rotating the
shaft I53 connected to disc I35. It will be seen
It will now be apparent that when a new con 35 that the main purpose of this feed back mecha
trol station is coupled in which is out of phase
nism is to always maintain the disc I35 in sub
with the gun in the manner explained that the
stantially the same position at all times with re
two discs I35 and 235 will immediately be moved
spect to its ports, its total rotary movement nor
through large angles whereas small angles of
mally never exceeding more than a fraction of a
movement will be su?icient to cause movement 40 degree. In the modi?ed form, shown in Figures
of the gun at its highest rate. Therefore in order
13 and 14, the ?eld 25I is stationary which means
to prevent too much unnecessary or undesirable
that the rotor 252 may be moved continuously in
movement of the discs, stops 3B6, 301 and 359,
one direction and‘dikewise the connected differen
3H1 have been provided on discs 23-5 and I35 re
tiator disc 253.
spectively which engage opposite sides of ?xed 45
It is desirable, however, to maintain the op
posed ports always opposite to the pro?led por
pins 358 and 3H to limit the movement.
Attention is invited to the fact that the holes in
tions I49, I52 and I55, I5I’ and this may still be
accomplished by mounting the ports in a rotat
the bottom of grooves 221, 228, I42 and I43 are
all shaped, as shown in Figure 19A, as parallel
able member 254 and connecting the feed back
sided slots 221' with semi-circular ends so that
worm I52 and worm wheel I93 to a reduced por
the hydraulic resistance will vary uniformly upon
tion 255 of this member. In such a case, of
longitudinal movement of the valve plungers.
course, the channels, such as I38 and I39, shown
It will be recalled in connection with Figure
in Figure 2 must be so connected as to maintain
?ow through the ports regardless of the angular
24, that the arcuate shaped passages 13' were al
ternately subjectible to pressure depending upon 55 position of the member 254. To this end the two
the manner of operation of the pump 59. Since
lines are connected respectively to spaced annu
the pressure in these passages might become un
lar grooves 256 and 251 formed in the hub 255 and
duly excessive due to sudden movement of the
connected through interdrilling to a pair of chan
gun at a rapid rate under the abnormal condition
nels 258 and 259, which are connected as before
previously described, means have been provided 60 to ports I12. The various connections are dia
for relieving this excessive pressure. A pair of
grammatically illustrated in Figure 14 in which
channels 3 I 2 and 3 I 3 are connected to the respec
it will be noted that the receiver stator winding
tive passages as shown in Figure 2 and each has a
is not provided with brushes and collector rings
check valve 3M therein, as shown in Figure 2,
as in the construction shown in Figure 2.
set to cause a predetermined pressure drop. 65
In accordance with the standards of naval
authorities of maintaining gun batteries in com
These two channels merge into a common chan
nel 3I5 which is connected to one end of a valve
mission as long as possible, and in spite of various
housing 3I6 so that the pressure ?uid will act
contingencies, there has been provided various
on one end of the contained plunger 3I1. An
alternate controls for utilizing as much of the
hydraulic resistance coil 3I8 is connected in series
present equipment that might remain in com
70
between the end of the valve housing and reser
mission as far as possible. For instance, the
voir IIII to cause a further pressure drop and
communication system from the ?re control sta
thereby maintain a suitable operating pressure on
tion to the turret may be intact, but the hydraulic
the plunger 3I1. In fact, the value of resistances
relaysystem from the receiver to the motive
become incapacitated for some
3M and 3I8 may be the same whereby half of
76 power unit may
the pressure drop may occur at each.
er margin of safety, the overlap is actually made
substantially less than this.
2,404,12'?
21
reason.
Means have been provided, as shown in
Figure 2, for utilizing the motive power unit .by
controlling the same by hand. To this end the
22
On thelother hand, the-communication sys-' ~.
tem may be rendered inoperative, inwwhioh‘ case
the rotor may .be turned by hand through con-‘ ‘
shaft 15 which controls the position of the swash
trol knob .330 secured to the end of shaft I 5.3.
plate is provided with a pinion 260 which is
On this case the pointer I80 would move rela
mounted for free rotation on the shaft but may
tive to graduated dial I84 through-the desired
be operatively coupled thereto by a clutch mem
angle and the pointer I85 would be‘ caused to
ber 26I. This clutch member has clutch teeth
follow up by the feed back mechanism.
252 on one face engageable with similar clutch
Should the motorunit become incapacitated
teeth 263 on the end of the drive shaft of motor 10
the gun may still be positioned from the bevel
I02 and a, single clutch tooth socket 264 engage
gear I 6|, at which time the motor unit willibe
able by clutch‘ tooth 265 carried by the pinion.
disconnected by the clutch member l59..inx:the
The member 26! is shiftable by a shifter fork 266
manner previously explained.
pivotally mounted at 261 for operation by the
A modi?ed form of this manual operation is
hand lever 268.
It is thus apparent that if the hydraulic control 15 shown in Figure 9, in which the motor I02 in
stead of being connected to the shafti1.5.~is con- ‘
system from the receiver rotor to the motor I02
nected to the bevel gearing 282 by means ofua
should become incapacitated, the member I02
bevel gear 295 so that the swash plate is con
may be disconnected from the swash-plate and
trolled entirely from the rack 269 and pinion 260.
this plate may be connected to the pinion ‘260.
This pinion meshes with a rack 269 fixed to the 20 In this case the shaft 23I will be moved by the
motor, but if the hydraulic system becomes‘in
end of a longitudinally shiftable rod 210 which is
operable the device may be controlled manually
pivotally connected at 21I to one end of a lever
by the gunner without the necessity of making
212. This lever is pivoted at a middle point .213
any changes. However, if the motor IQZia’nd-the
to a ?xed part of the turret and has a bifurcated
arm 214 engaging a ?ange 215 formed on the end 25 fluid therein does form a drag ‘or resistance to
manual operation the fluid therein‘ may. be‘ re'—'
of shaft 216. This shaft has a threaded portion
leased to reservoir by providing a suitable .re
211 meshing with a rotatable nut 218 which has
versing valve 295, having spools for closing off
a bevel gear 219 surrounding the same and mesh
the incoming lines I01 and I08 and connecting
ing with a bevel gear 280. The bevel gear 280 is
secured to one end of a shaft 28I which extends 30 the‘ports of motor I02 to-the return line 2911.
to the gunner’s position ‘adjacent the gun where
it is interconnected through bevel gearing 282 to
This valve may be shifted‘ by» the manually- oper
able lever 298 which may be suitably connected
a manually operable shaft 283. A pair of manual
control levers 284 are secured to opposite ends of
to the plunger .299 of the reversing valve.v 7
Instead ‘of providing a reversing ‘valve the sim- .
another for operation by the gunner.
ure 10 between the motor. I102 and the gear 295, ~
this shaft, but in 180 degree phase relation to one 35 plec1utc‘h-i309 may be provided as shown in Fig
: ’
The shaft 216 has a flanged end 285 which has
a toothed periphery engaging similar formed in
ternal teeth 283 carried by the tubular member
281. This member has clutch teeth 238 on the
the clutch normally having a position to main
tain power operation, but upon downward-move
ment of the :control lever 30I the clutch may "be
disconnected to permit manual operation of’ the
levers 12% without resistance from the motor I02.
one end engageable with clutch teeth 2.80 on the
There has thus ‘been provided a sensitive con
clutch member 129i! which is splined on the end of
trol~ mechanism which may be connected on- the
shaft IBI. The clutch 290 is shifted by the fork
29I which is pivotally mounted at 292 in a ?xed 45 one hand'to a sensitive communication system
and .on the other hand to agun adjusting motive
part of the turret and operatively connected by
a link 293 to the manually operated lever 258. I.
When it is desired to use the manual control
levers 285, the lever 268 is thrown to the left of
the position shown in Figure 2, thereby engaging
power unit for - automatically relaying signals
from a remote control station to the power unit
without human intervention, together with a
suitable‘feed back mechanism for limiting and
stopping the movement. This mechanismmakes ’
‘it possiblefor the fire control station of a naval
vessel‘ to directly and immediately control the"
clutch 26d with pinion 250 and clutch 29.0 with
the tubular member 281. Upon rotation .of the
shaft 283 by levers 284 the nut member 21.8 will
position, both azimuth and elevation, of'all guns
be rotated, but since it is held against longitudi
nal movement by the abutments 294‘, the shaft 55 on the ship in an easy and expeditious ‘manner.
What is claimed is:
'
'
"
'
216 will be moved longitudinally instead. As the
shaft 216 moves it operates through the link 210
‘1. In a gun control mechanism the combina-vv .7
tion of a power unit including a pump and mo
and rack 269 to rotate pinion 299 and thereby
tor,‘ va prime mover for continuously actuating
angularly position the swash plate .of the power
said pump, means coupling the motorv to said
unit which in turn will cause rotation of shaft IM
to angularly position the gun. Rotation of the 60 gun, an oscillatable member for controlling vthe
displacement of said pump, said member having
shaft II“ will, however, through the clutch 290
a zero displacement position, a communication
and the tubular member 281 effect rotation of the
system including a transmitter and receiver,
shaft 216 in the opposite direction through the
member 285. This will cause the shaft 276 to 65 means coupling the receiver to said pump. dis
placement control member including .a fluid ‘ro
move in the opposite direction from the previous
tatable device for moving said memberylout of
movement imparted by the hand levers and re
said‘ last .named position upon signal reception
position the swash plate to stop power actuation
from the transmitter to effect actuation of the
of the gun adjusting mechanism. Since the com
motor, and means controlled by the .‘gunfor ef
munication system from the ?re control station
fecting reverse rotation of said device to move
is assumed to be still in operation the feed back
said member into its ?rstnamed positionvon com
mechanism from shaft IOI will still react on the
pietion by the gun: of .movement .as'determined
pointers so that the gunner may still utilize the
communication system for determining the posi
tion of his guns.
’
by the transmitter.
~
.
f
_
_:
2.. Ina gun ‘control mechanism the combination
75 of a ‘communication system fortransmitting' the
2,404,127
23
angular extent of gun movement from a remote
?re control station to the gun including electri
cally interconnected self-synchronous devices,
24
motor, relay means responsive to movement of
the receiver rotor for shifting said valve to its
various positions, and feed back means respon
one of which constitutes a transmitter at said
station, and the other a receiver, said receiver
having a, rotor angularly movable in response to
signals from the transmitter, a power operable
unit connected for gun movement having a con
sive to gun movement and effective on said mo
tor to move said device to a stop position.
, '7. In a gun control mechanism the combina
tion with a communication system having a trans
mitter and‘ a receiver, the receiver including a
trol member movable to different positions to
start and stop the gun, interponent hydraulic
rotor positionable by the transmitter, a power
unit connected to the gun for operation thereof,
a ?uid rotatable device for controlling actuation
of said unit, a pair of channels connected to said
control means for transmitting motion from the
receiver to the control member, means operable
device, a source of ?uid pressure, a control valve
upon subsequent movement of the gun to move
shiftable to a multiplicity of positions for alter
said control member to a stop position, said hy
nately subjecting said channels to pressure to
draulic control means including a fluid rotatable
determine reverse operation of said device and
motor having a pair of channels connected there
thereby of said power unit, relay means respon
to whereby pressure in either channel, while the
sive to movement of the receiver rotor for shift
other channel is connected to exhaust, will cause
ing said valve to its various positions, said relay
reverse rotation of the motor and equal pressure
means including pistons at opposite ends of the
20
on both channels will stop the motor, and means
valve, and a pressure diiferentiator operable by
operable by the receiver for determining pres
the rotor for unbalancing the ‘pressure on said
sural flow in said channels.
pistons to cause shifting of the valve.
_
3. In a gun control mechanism the combina
8. In a gun control mechanism the combina
tion of a transmitter and a receiver, a power op
tion with a communication system having a trans
erable unit connected to the gun for movement
mitter and a receiver, the receiver including a
thereof, means controlling the starting and stop
rotor positionable by the transmitter, a power
ping of said unit including a rotary hydraulic mo
unit connected to the gun for operation thereof,
tor having a pair of control channels alternately
a ?uid operable device for controlling actuation
subjectible to pressure to cause reverse opera
of said unit, a pair of channels connected to said
tion of said unit, means coupling the motor ‘for
device, a source of ?uid pressure, a control valve
control by the receiver including valve means
shiftable to different positions for alternately
movable to a plurality of positions for determin
subjecting said ,channels to pressure to determine
ing the channels to be connected to pressure, and
reverse operation of the power unit, relay means
means responsive to movement of the gun to po
responsive to movement of the receiver rotor
35
sition said valve means in a stop position.
for shifting said valve to its various positions,
4. In a gun control mechanism the combina
said relay means including pistons at opposite
tion with a communication system including a
ends of the valve, a pressure differentiator op
transmitter and receiver, of a power operable unit
erable by the rotor for unbalancing the pressure
connected to the gun for movement thereof, a
on said pistons to cause shifting of the valve,
40
rotatable hydraulic motor having a pair of con
and a pressure equilibrator operable by the valve
trol channels alternately subjectible to pressure
for re-equalizing the pressure to stop movement
for determining reverse operation of said unit,
of the valve.
'
means coupling the channels to said receiver for
9. In a gun control mechanism the ‘combina
control thereby including valve means having a
tion with a communication system consisting of
neutral position and operative positions on either .
side thereof, means operable by the receiver upon
signal reception from the transmitter to move
said valve means to one of its operative posi
tions, and feed back means operative by the gun
to move said valve means to its neutral position. ,
5. In a gun control mechanism the combina
tion with a communication system having a trans
mitter and a receiver, the receiver including a
rotor positionable by the transmitter, a power
unit connected to the gun for operation thereof, a
a ?uid operable device for controlling actuation
of said unit, a pair of channels connected to said
device, a source of fluid pressure, a control valve
shiftable to di?erent positions for alternately con
necting said channels to said source of pressure
to determine reverse operation of the power unit,
and hydraulic relay means responsive to move
ment of the receiver rotor for shifting said valve
to its various positions.
6. In a gun control mechanism the combina
tion with a communication system having a trans
mitter and a receiver, the receiver including a
a transmitter and receiver, of a power operable
device connected with the gun for actuation
thereof, a power operable control device for
starting and stopping said power unit including
a pair of channels alternately subjectible to
pressure for reverse operation of the power means,
a control valve including a shiftable plunger for
determining the coupling of pressure to said
channels, means coupled to the receiver for
shifting said plunger, said plunger having piston
portions on opposite ends thereof whereby, when
the total pressure on said pistons is unequal, the
valve plunger will move, and when the total pres
sure is equal the plunger will stop, a’pressure
differentiator movable by the receiver‘ for un
balancing said pressure, and an automatic pres
sure equilibrator for equalizing pressure on said
pistons to limit the length of plunger movement.
10. In a gun control mechanism the combina
tion of a power unit coupled to the gun for ef
fecting angular movement thereof, a control
member for said unit for determining movement
thereof, ?uid operable means for shifting said
rotor positionable by the transmitter, a power
member, a communication system including a re
unit connected to the gun for operation thereof,
ceiver unit comprising an integrally movable ro
a device for controlling actuation‘of said unit 70 tor and pressure differentiator, means coupling
including a ?uid rotatable motor, a pair of chan
said di?erentiator to the fluid operable means
nels connected to said motor, a source of fluid
whereby signals received by said unit will be
pressure, a control valve shiftable to different
translated into movement of said control mem
positions alternately subjectinglsaid channels to
her, and a pointer associated with said rotor for
75
pressure to determine reverse rotation of the
2,404,127
25
26
indicatingthe extent of angular movement ‘ef
15. In a gun control mechanism the combina
tion with a communicating system having, a
fected.
11. A gun control mechanism comprising a
power unit for translating the gun, a communi
cation system terminating in a rotor,‘ a pilot con
trol circuit for determining the rate and direc
tion of operation of said power unit including a
transmitter and a receiver, saidvreceiver having
a pair of dials associated therewitluone of which
is movable relative to the other upon signal re
ception from the transmitter to indicate the ex
tent of gun movement desired, a motive power
unit for training the gun, automatic means cou
shif-table control valve plunger, means coupled
to the rotor for determining the position of said
pled to the receiver for controlling operation of
Plunger including a pressure di?erentiator, pis 10 said power unit, manually operable means for
tons for shifting said valve means, channels ex
controlling operation of said power unit, a third
tending from said pistons and terminating in
means including a manually operable device for
a pair of opposed ports, a disc coupled to the
training said gun independent of the power unit,
rotor and interposed between said ports, dia
metrically opposed pro?led portions on the pe
riphery of said disc for simultaneously increas
a feed back system operable by the gun for re
15 positioning the dials to indicate that the; de
sired extent of gun movement has been completed
and selector clutch- means for coupling any one
of said three named means for control of the gun.
16. In a gun control mechanism having a
ing the resistance of one of said ports and de
creasing the resistance of the other whereby
small angular movements of the rotor and disc
will be magni?ed into large movements of said 20 power operable unit for effecting translation of
-
valve plunger.
12. In a gun control mechanism the combina
tion of a power unit coupled to a gun for oscil
lation thereof, a communication‘ system termi
nating in a receiver having a rotor movable in .25
response to signals from a transmitter, inter
ponent power means coupling the rotor for con
trol of the rate and direction of said power unit
including a valve plunger having a centra1 in
operative position, and operative positions on
opposite sides thereof, a pair of pistons for shift
the gun, and a signaling system for transmitting
gun ranges from a remote control point including
a transmitter and a receiver, the combination of
fluid operable means for controlling the rate and
direction of said power unit by the receiver in
cluding a pair of pressural control channels,
valve mechanism operable when a major differ
ence exists between the position of the transmit
ter and the receiver to effect a sudden pressure
differential in said channels and thereby a rapid
adjustment of the gun, and additional valve
mechanism automatically operable when a minor
di?ference exists between the transmitter; and
receiver variably to control the pressure in said
ing said plunger, ?uid channels extending from
said pistons and terminating in opposed ports,
a disc rotatably mounted between said ports, said
disc having a ?rst position in which the resist 35 channels in accordance with the relative-dis
ance to ?ow from said ports is equal, portions on
placement in position between the transmitter
the periphery of said disc adaptable upon move
and receiver.
_
ment thereof away from its ?rst position to in
17. In a gun control mechanism having a
crease the resistance of one port and decrease
power operable unit for effecting translation of
the resistance of the other, said rotor tending
the gun, and a signaling system for transmitting '
gun ranges from a remote control point including
a transmitter and a receiver, the combination of
to cause movement of the disc away from its ?rst
position to cause actuation of the power unit,
and means operable by the gun continuously
acting to return the disc to. its first position
?uid operable means for controlling the rate and
direction of said power unit by the receiver in
and thereby automatically stop the movement
cluding a pair of pressural control channels,
valve mechanism operable when a major differ
ence exists between the position of the transmit
of the gun.
13. In a gun training and control mechanism
the combination of a large power unit coupled to
ter and the receiver to effect a sudden pressure
the gun for actuation thereof, a communication
differential in said channels and thereby a rapid
system whereby the range of the gun may be 50 adjustment of the gun, additional valve mech
transmitted over long distances, said system ter
anism automatically operable when a minor dif
minating in a highly sensitive rotor capable of
ference exists between the transmitter and re.
developing a very small power output and a
ceiver variably to control the pressure in said
hydraulic ampli?cation system including a valve
channels in accordance with the relative dis
member integrally connected to the rotor for 55 placement in position between the transmitter
coupling the rotor to said power unit whereby
and receiver, a hydraulic couple between said
the small input from said rotor may be ampli?ed
valve mechanisms, said ?rst valve mechanism
to a large output in said power unit.
including a plunger, and meanson said plunger
14. In a gun control mechanism the combina
reacting on said hydraulic couple to render said
tion of a communication system including a 60 second valve mechanism inoperative during as
transmitter and a receiver, a power operable unit
sumption of control by the ?rst plunger.
for angularly positioning the gun, a pair of rela
18. In a gun control mechanism having-a power
tively separable dials associated with the receiver,
operable unit connected to the gun for actuation
one of which is movable relative to the other in
thereof and a communication system including
response to signals by the transmitter for indi 65 transmitter and receiver rotors, means for- cou
cating the extent of gun movement to be effected,
pling the receiver rotor to said .power operable
means coupling the receiver to the power unit
unit for controlling the rate and direction of
for automatic operation thereof, manually oper
movement thereof including a ?uid pilot control
able means directly connectible with the gun for
circuit, a pair of control discs operable by the re
alternatively translating the same, feed back 70 ceiver, valve means associated with the ?rst disc
means operable by the gun for repositioning said
for e?ecting large movements of the gun, a second
dials to indicate that the desired movement has
valve means associated with the second disc for
been effected, and selector clutches for coupling
effecting minute movements of the gun, and
either the power unit or said manual means. for
means for rendering the ?rst disc inoperative
control of the gun.
during assumption of control by the second disc.
75
2,404,127
27
28
19. In a gun control mechanism the combina
tion with a power operable unit connected with a
gun for e?ecting adjustment thereof, and a com
munication system including a transmitter rotor
and a receiver rotor, the latter being movable in
» 23. In a gun'control mechanism the‘combinal
tion of a power unit coupled to a gun for oscilla
accordance with the movement of the ?rst, of
means coupling the receiver to said power opera
ble unit for determining the rate and direction of
movement thereof including a ?uid operable
member, dual control valves coupled in parallel
to said member, a source of ?uid pressure, hy
draulic ampli?cation means between the receiver
and each control valve, one of said receivers being
unresponsive to small movements of the receiver
tion thereof, a communication system terminat
ing in a receiver having a rotor movable in re‘
sponse to signals from a transmitter, interponent
power means coupling the rotor for control of
the rate and direction of said power unit including
a valve plunger having a central inoperative posi
tion, and operative positions on opposite sides
10 thereof, a pair of pistons for shifting said plunger,
?uid channels extending from said pistons ‘and
terminating in a pair of ports, a disc rotatably
mounted for movement past said ports, said disc
havinga first position in which the resistance to
rotor whereby the other means will assume control 15 ?ow lrom said ports is equal, pro?led surfaces on
said disc adaptable upon movement thereof away
of said unit, and means responsive to a large vari
from its ?rst position to increase the resistance of
ation in the position of said transmitter and re
ceiver rotors to cause said ?rst named valve means
one port and decrease the resistance of the other,
to assume control and render the second valve
said rotor tending to cause movement of the disc
means inoperative.
20 away from its ?rst position to cause actuation of
20. In a gun control mechanism the combina
the power unit, and means operable by the gun
tion of a power unit coupled to the gun for effect—
continuously acting to return the disc to its ?rst
position and thereby automatically stop the
ing translation thereof, and a communication
system including transmitter and receiver rotors
movement of the gun.
angularly positionable to indicate the angular 25
24. In a gun control mechanism, the combina
position of the gun, ?uid operable control. means
tion with a synchronously inter-connected trans
for determining the rate and direction of move
mitter and receiver, of a variable ‘speed power
ment of said power unit, a high speed feed back
unit for effecting movement of the gun, a rotary
mechanism coupled to the gun whereby one rota
hydraulic motor connected to the unit and ad
tion of one receiver rotor will effect only a frac 30 justable to determine the direction and rate of
tion of a revolution of the gun mechanism, and a
operation of said unit, interponent hydraulic
low speed feed back mechanism coupled to the gun
whereby one rotation of the other receiver rotor
will effect one rotation of the gun mechanism for
approximate positioning of the gun.
35
means for translating movement of the receiver
into fluid actuation of the motor, and means re
sponsive to movement of the gun and effective
on said interponent hydraulic means to stop said
21. In a gun control mechanism the combina~
tion of a communication system including a trans
mitter and a receiver, a power unit for translat
ing the gun, ?uid operable control means between
power unit.
25. In a gun control mechanism, the combina
tion of a transmitter and a receiver, a variable
speed power operable unit connected for mov
the receiver and said unit for automatically posi
tioning the gun in response to signal reception by
the receiver, relatively separable pointers asso
ciated with the receiver for indicating the amount
ing the gun, said unit having an oscillatable rate
control member movable in opposite directions
from a stop position to accelerate said unit, a
rotatable ?uid operable motor for power mov
of movement imparted to the gun, manually oper
ing said rate control having a pair of control
able control means for effecting operation of said Mt channels selectively subjectable to pressure to
power unit, feed back means operable by the gun
cause reverse operation of the motor, valve means
to re-align said pointers to indicate that the de
coupling the channels for control by the receiver
sired movement of the gun has been completed re
whereby movement of the receiver will shift said
gardless of whether the movement has been ef
valve means to cause acceleration of the power
fected automatically or manually, said feed back £30 unit, and means responsive to movement of the
mechanism also acting to automatically stop the
gun for repositioning the valve means to reverse
gun movement upon re-alignment of said pointers
when automatically controlled, an additional feed
back mechanism for terminating movement of
the gun when the same is manually controlled,
the pressure connections to said channels and
thereby stop the power unit.
and a manually operable control valve for ren
dering the ?rst system ine?ective during opera
26. In a gun control mechanism the combina
tion with a synchronously interconnected trans
mitter and receiver, of a power operable unit con
nected to the gun, said unit having an oscillat
able rate and direction control member, a rotat
tion of said manual control means,
22. A gun control mechanism comprising a
able ?uid operable motor for oscillating said mem
power unit for translating the gun, a communica 60 ber, a pair of control channels selectively 'sub
tion system terminating in a rotor, a pilot con
J'ectable to pressure for delivering ?uid to said
trol circuit for determining the rate and direction
motor, means coupling the channels to the reof operation of said power unit including a shift
ceiver for control thereby including valve means
able control valve plunger, means coupled to the
having a neutral position, and operative positions
rotor for determining the position of said plunger
on either side thereof, means responsive to move
including a pressure di?erentiator, pistons for
shifting said valve means, channels extending
from said pistons and terminating in a pair of
opposed ports, a disc coupled to the rotor and in
ment of the receiver for shifting said valve means
to one of its operative positions, and feed back
means operative by the gun to move said valve
means to its neutral position.
,
terposed between said ports, pro?led portions on 70
27. In a gun control mechanism the combina
said disc for simultaneously increasing the resist~
tion with a synchronously interconnected trans
ance of one of said ports and decreasing the re
sistance of the other whereby small angular
movements of the rotor and disc will be magni?ed
into large movements of said valve plunger.
75
mitter and receiver, said receiver including a
sensitive rotor positionable by the transmitter,
of a variable speed power unit connected for op
eration of the gun, said unit having an ‘oscih
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