Патент USA US2404132код для вставки
2 July 15, 1946- J. T. HAYWARD ~ 2,404,132 APPARATUS FOR USE IN LOGGING WELLS Filed March 15, 1941 LO 0 O O W.msk O O O’ O O O O O O O O 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 O O 0 O O O O O O O 0 0 géwéwéwggmwééé é$$$$$$$$ O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O ENMEQQ 9 l JOHN 7i HAYWARD uwmm ATTORNEYS. I‘ .16. McAsur?Nu & ltSTlNG 3mm: Wu“ July 16, 1946. _|_ 11 HAYWARD _ 2,404,132 APPARATUS FOR USE IN LOGGING WELLS Filed March 15, 1941‘ | VOLUME 1' T_ J M /34 v I I 2 She'ets-Sheet 2 UNITS /N WELL I TO PUMP . 36 |I /3: / 7'0 DRILL/N6 $TR/NG_ | \ 5%] Q‘ I Egzzzzzmz I ' [6' 55:3: 5? I L________ __._| JOHN 7‘. HAYWARD uvmvml By A TTORNEYS. $13. MEASURING it TESTING 2,404,132 Patented July 16, 1946 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,404,132 APPARATUS FOR USE IN LOGGING WELLS John T. Hayward, Tulsa, Okla. Application March 15, 1941, Serial No. 383,622 11 Claims. (Cl. 73-151) 1 2 This invention relates to the logging of wells and particularly to apparatus for the logging of rotary drilled wells during the drilling thereof. The Hayward Patent No. 2,214,674, dated Sep chart, the passage of the drilling ?uid through tember 10, 1940, discloses a method for logging wells during the drilling thereof by the employ ment of a circulating drilling ?uid, wherein in crements of the drilling ?uid passing through the the well, or through that part of the well extend ing from the drilling zone to the top of the well through the annular space between the drilling string and the wall of the well bore. In accordance with one embodiment of this invention, starting with any given depth of the drilling zone, the volume of drilling ?uid ?owing through the well is continuously measured and drilling zone and thence to the top of the well are traced in their passage through the well by 10 the passage of an increment of the drilling ?uid measuring the depth of the stratum being drilled from the drilling zone to the top of the well is at the bottom of the well in synchronism with traced on the chart by causing the pen or other the rise of the increments from that stratum to marking device to initiate a graph on the mov the top of the well, so that each increment of the ing chart at the instant the increment passes drilling ?uid reaching the top of the well may be 18 the drilling zone depth and then tracing the pas correlated with that stratum responsible for the sage through the well of a volume of drilling ?uid presence in that increment of materials charac-' equal to the volumetric capacity of the annular terizing that stratum, the increments reaching‘ space between the drilling string and the well the top of the well being tested in various ways bore for that depth, the graph being caused to for the presence in the ?uid of such characteriz 20 terminate when that volume of ?uid has passed ing materials. In such a method it is important through the well. By this method the terminal that each increment tested be accurately relat point of the graph will indicate the emergence ed to the depth of the stratum to which it refers of that increment from the top of the well. To in order to obtain a true and accurate log of the correlate any test made on that increment with several strata traversed by the wall and it is also 25 the depth of the drilling zone at the time that very important that the logging take place dur increment passed through the drilling zone, it is ing the normal course of drilling of the well in only necessary to follow back along the graph order that the driller may be continuously ap to the depth on the chart opposite the point of prised of the character of the strata being drilled initiation of the graph. A new graph is initiat to avoid the ever-present danger of missing 30 ed on the chart immediately upon emergence of strata having oil and gas producing potentiali one volume of ?uid, traced as described, and ad ditional volumes are similarly repeatedly traced ties. The present invention is directed particularly on the moving chart to produce a continuous rec to improvements in the Hayward method by pro ord of the entire well or any portion thereof. viding improved apparatus whereby the move 35 The scale upon which each graph is traced is a scale composed preferably of units of volume ment of the drilling ?uid increments may be con tinuously traced in their passage through the and the transverse width of the scale is arranged well and. automatically and continuously record to represent the volumetric capacity of the well ed on a chart which is driven in synchronism or of the annular space between the drilling with the progressive downward movement of the 40 string and the well bore, as may be desired. drill in the well, and upon which the several tests Since the width of the chart covered by suc ceeding graphs would become progressively of the emerging increments, may be continuous ly plotted so as to bring them in direct correla greater as the depth of the well increased and the volumetric capacities became proportionally tion with the depths of the strata to which they refer, to thereby eliminate much labor and to 45 greater, another embodiment of this invention provides a means whereby these graphs may be con?ned within a chart section of ?xed width, by varying the effective values of the volume units composing the scale upon which the graphs In accordance with the present invention, a chart bearing depth indicia is driven in synchro 60 are plotted, in accordance with the change in the volumetric capacities of the well or of the nism with the progressive downward movement annular spaced referred to. ‘of the drill, while a marking device such as a pen By tracing on the same chart the records of or the like is driven in accordance with the volu metric ?ow of the drilling ?uid through the well the several tests made upon the emerging incre and is caused to trace or plot, on the moving 5‘ ments of the drilling ?uid, in proper relation to provide a greatly simpli?ed and more accurate log of the well continuously during the actual drilling thereof. 2,404,132 3 the depths at which the tested increments emerge from the well, the actual depths to which the travels downwardly through the interior of the drilling string to the drilling zone in the vicinity tests refer may be read directly from the chart of the bit 'I and thence annular space S between the wall of the well bore discharges the ?uid back lation through the well. and the logging operation thereby greatly sim pli?ed and made more accurate. A still more comprehensive log of a drilling well may be made, embodying the apparatus of this invention, by instrumentally recording on the same moving chart other measurements, such upwardly through the the drilling string and to outlet pipe 3, which into pit I2 for recircu A valved pipe I5 pro vides means for withdrawing samples of the drilling fluid emerging from the well through as drilling rate, weight on the bit, torque on the 10 outlet pipe 3. A strip chart, indicated generally by the nu drilling string, power required per foot drilled, meral I6 and of more or less conventional form, etc. Such measurements can be and ordinarily is driven in synchronism with the progressive downward movement of the drill bit ‘I in the well, appear on the chart at the depths to which they 15 being connected to the drilling string for this purpose by a drive mechanism I"I driven from properly refer, and can be correlated directly with the information obtained from the circulating ' the crown block III. The details of the mech anism I‘! for driving the chart I6 in synchro ?uid. nism with the downward movement of the drill The important feature in all of these embodi ments is the provision, in accordance with this 20 do not form a part of this invention and any suit able form of drive mechanism'may be employed invention, of apparatus for automatically and for this purpose. One such mechanism is illus continuously tracing the passage of increments trated and described in detail in applicant’s Pat of the drilling ?uid through the well being drilled on a chart moving in synchronism with the r ent No. 2,326,219, granted August 10, 1943. As progressive downward movement of the drill in 25 stated, however, any other suitable drive mech anism may be employed, it being important only the well. that the chart I6 be caused to move thereby in By the terms "progressive downward move synchronism with the progressive downward . ment of the drill” or “progressive movement of movement of the drill. The chart I 6 is driven at the drill downwardly in the well” is meant, wherever used herein, only those downward 30 any suitable rate such as, for example, one inch foreach ?fty feet of downward progress of the movements of the drill which represent progres drill. ' sive deepening of the well, since it will be recog The drilling ?uid being pumped through the nized that the drill will make many downward are made at the time the formations to which they refer are drilled, and they will, therefore, movements in the well in the normal course of -' ' well is metered in any suitable way, as by means drilling which do not constitute deepening of the 35 of a meter I8 mounted in pipe I4,‘ or if pump I3 well. The various objects and advantages of this invention will be more readily understood from the following detailed description when read in conjunction with the accompanying drawings 40 which illustrate, more or less diagrammatically, apparatus suitable for practicing the methods of this invention. It will be understood, however, is of a conventional positive displacement ‘type, it may be employed as a meter for this purpose by suitably connecting thereto a counter I9 to count the stroke cycles of the pump in a man ner well understood in this art. The counter I9 may, accordingly, be calibrated to read either units of volume or simply stroke cycles, since with this type of pump, the stroke cycles bear a de?nite relationship to the volume of ?uid ular apparatus, but that various changes may be 45 pumped, and the number of stroke cycles is equally suitable for the purpose of this invention made in details within the scope of the append for measuring the volume of ?uid circulated ed claims, without departing from the spirit of through the well, this invention. In the drawings: ' The ?uid meter, whether meter [8 or counter’ Fig. 1 illustrates, more or less diagrammatical 50 I9, is connected to any suitable mechanism, in ly, an assembly of apparatus whereby the pas dicated generally by the numeral 20, one form of sage of drilling ?uid through a drilling Well is which will be described in detail hereinafter, that this invention is not limited to any partic- " ' traced on a chart driven in synchronism with the downward movement of the drill, in accord which is adapted to telemetrically drive a mark- 7 ing device 2I, such as a pen or the like, conven 55 tionally used with recorders of the type illus trated generally, which traces a record of the Figs, 2 and 3 illustrate, more or less diagram passage of drilling ?uid through the well on the matically, some of the details of the apparatus moving chart I6, in a manner to be more fully shown in Fig, 1, and described hereinafter. Fig. 4 illustrates a portion of a chart produced The mechanism 20 is illustrated more speci? in accordance with one embodiment of this in 60 cally in Figs. 2 and 3. The ?uid meter I8 or Vention. counter I9, for example, drives a splined shaft 22 Referring to the drawings and Fig. 1 in partic on which is slidably keyed a disk 23,.the rim of ular, there is shown a well I, having the usual which frictionally engages the face of a larger surface casing 2 with a ?uid outlet pipe 3 connected thereto. The usual drilling derrick 4 is 65 circular plate 24 positioned at right angles to disk 23. Plate 24, is ?rmly aiiixed to an axial mounted over the well and the usual hollow shaft 25 mounted in bearings 26, plate 24 and drilling string 5 extends through a rotary table 6 shaft 25 being rotatable togetherin bearings 26 into the well and is provided with a bit ‘I at its by the frictional drive imparted thereto from lower end and a water swivel 8 at its upper end. 1 The drilling string is operatively suspended in 70 disk 23. The free end of shaft 25 is drivingly connected to the contact arm 21 of a conven the well from a traveling block 9 which is swung tional potentiometer 28 to cause the arm 21 to from the usual crown block I0 by means of cables II. Drilling ?uid is circulated from the usual rotate upon a circular resistor 29 (Fig. 3)_ which mud pit I2 by the usual mud pump I3 through a is connected in a conventional circuit with a bat pipe I4 to the swivel 8, whence the drilling ?uid 75 tery 30. The contact‘ arm 21 and‘resistor 29 are ance with one embodiment of this invention. ‘v- un-ruvvnnllvl uh I l-Vl “Eu ‘41-: in “.11 | 2,404,132 5 connected by conductors 3|—-32 to a conven tional recording potentiometer 33a which oper 6 limited section of the chart for tracing the pas sage of successive volumes of the drilling ?uid through the well, irrespective of any variations in these volumes due to changes in depth of the ates the pen 2| in the conventional manner for electrical recorders, as is well understood by those skilled in the art of these devices. The pen 2| 5 well. is thus made responsive to the movement of It will be obvious that any suitable or conven ?uid as measured by counter I0, to trace on the tional form of variable gear ratio may be sub moving chart l6 a plurality of graphs G, G1, G2, etc. (Fig. 4), each representing the passage stituted for the elementary form including disk 23 and plate 24 described above. through the well of a volume of ?uid equal to the 10 It will also be understood that where chart volumetric capacity of the well or of annular space S. The arrangement of disk 23 on plate 24 con stitutes a variable gear ratio connecting shafts space is not a factor, apparatus for mechanically changing the value of the scale units over which pen 2| moves is not necessary and the graphs G, G1, etc. may have di?erent lengths correspond 22 and 25, whereby the ratio of the speed of shaft 15 ing to the particular volumes they represent, it 22 to that of shaft 25 may be varied by varying being only necessary to provide more or less con the radial position of the point of contact of disk ventional means in the recorder mechanism for 23 with plate 24 relative to the center of the lat “homing” the pen after each volume of ?uid, ter. Thus if shaft 22 makes one revolution for corresponding to a particular depth, has flowed each unit accumulated in counter l9, and it is from the well. It will also be understood that desired to make plate 24 and shaft 25 rotate once various conventional recording mechanisms may for a selected number of units accumulated in be employed for operating the pen, either in a counter l9, this may be readily accomplished by series of strokes all beginning at one side of the selecting a suitable point of contact on plate 24 chart or passing back and forth across the chart for disk 23. For this purpose, disk 23 is mov 25 with the passage of consecutive volumes of the able longitudinally along splined shaft 22 by ?uid, all without departing from the principles means of an arm 33 which is provided with a or the spirit of this invention. pointer 34 which travels along a scale 35 cali The complete apparatus above described is em brated in units of volumetric capacity of the ployed in the following manner: well. Arm 33 travels along a bracket 36 and is 30 For the purposes of this description, counter provided with a latch 31 for looking it to the I9 will be employed, it being understood that me bracket in order to fix the position of disk 23 ter I8 or any other suitable ?uid metering device on plate 24 in accordance with the gear ratio may be readily substituted therefor, if desired, required as determined in terms of the units of without altering the principles of the new meth scale 35. The units of scale 35 are preferably, though not necessarily, the same as those accum od. We will assume, for purposes of illustration, that the drill is at a depth of 3000 feet, although ulated in counter l9. it will be evident that the method can be ‘em In using this portion of the apparatus, we may ployed from start to ?nish of the drilling of the assume for purposes of illustration, that the vol well or for any section thereof as may be desired. umetric capacity of annular space S is 500 units 40 Since the depth is known, as are the diameters of volume. These units may be barrels, gallons, of the well and of the outside and inside of the cubic feet, pump cycles, or any other suitable drilling string 5, the volumetric capacity of the unit. It is desired that the pen 2| make only well and of the annular space S can be readily a single trace across the chart I6 during the pas determined for any depth, either by computation sage of a volume of ?uid equal to the volumetric 45 or by experimental methods well understood in capacity of the annular space S and then return the art. From these determinations, it can read to its initial position. The pointer 34 is set at ily be computed how many units must be recorded the ?gure 500 on scale 35, it having been pre on counter l9 to represent the passage through viously determined that‘ at that setting every v the well of a volume of ?uid equal to the volu time 500 units is accumulated in counter I9; the 50 metric capacity of the well, or of annular space corresponding number of rotations of disk 23 will S. For convenience, the latter ?gure is ordi cause plate 24 to make one complete revolution narily employed, since it is usually desired to and this in turn will operate potentiometers 28 trace the movements of increments of the drill-, and 33a to drive pen 2| across a chart a distance ing ?uid from the drilling zone at the bottom of representing the volumetric capacity of annular 55 the well to the top of the well. The total well space S. Completion of a rotation of arm 21 on capacity can also be employed for this purpose resistor 29 will operate in the conventional man by applying to each reading a correction factor ner to reset pen 2| in its initial position. As the corresponding to the volumetric capacity of the volumetric capacity of space S increases with hollow drilling string for that depth. Mecha increasing depth of the well, the position of disk 60 nism 20 is then adjusted so that it will cause 23 on plate 24 is reset in accordance with the cor pen 2| to move once across the chart while that respondingly increased number of units required number of units is recorded on counter l9 which to equal this increased capacity. But shaft 25 vrepresents the passage through, the well of a will still make only one revolution despite the volume of ?uid equal to the volumetric capacity increased number of revolutions required of disk 65 of annular space S for a depth of 3000 feet. The 23. As a result, the width of the scale, that is, well is ?lled with ?uid and drilling is begun at the transverse distance over which pen 2| will the same time that circulation of the drilling ‘ be driven will remain ?xed, the effect of the ?uid is started. At the same time, pen 2| will change in the ratio between the speeds of shafts be started on the chart H5 at a point along the 22 and 25 being only to change the value of the 70 depth scale of the chart opposite the ?gure 3000 volume units composing the scale‘ on which the and will make its initial impression in (Fig. 4) graphs G, G1, etc. are plotted. As a result, the at that point. This initial impression to will rep initial and terminal points of each of the graphs resent the position of an increment of the drill will fall on two parallel lines marking the bor ing ?uid at the bottom of the well, namely, at a ders of the scale and thereby permit the use of a 75 depth of 3000 feet. Now as the drilling and cir IIVVIII 2,404,132 culation of the drilling ?uid continue, pen 2| will be actuated by counter I9 operating through the mechanism 20 to move across chart IS in accordance with the displacement of the incre ment of the drilling ?uid upwardly. from the bot to which that test refers. For example, suppose it is desired to ?nd the true depth to which a test 02 refers, which is taken on the emerging ?uid when the depth of the well is 3135 feet. This test falls on chart l6 between two of the graphs Gs and G7 and no graph appears on the chart by which the true depth can be directly located. However, the true depth can be located from the chart by drawing a horizontal line cor tom of the well through the annular space S and the changing position of the pen will con tinuously indicate the changing position of the increment relative to the bottom of the well by drawing the graph G. When counter l9 has re responding to the depth of 3135 feet opposite corded the passage of the pre-determined num ber of units, the increment will be emerging from of intersection with G7 a line is drawn vertically 02 until it strikes the graph G7. From the point until it intersects the graph G6, whence a hori the top of the well and pen 2| will make a ?nal zontal line is drawn to intersect the depth axis, impression g on the chart indicating that point, and by the “homing” action of the mechanism 15 giving the true depth of about 3122 feet as the depth of the well when the tested ?uid left the, 20, the penis then caused to swing back to the bottom. By means of the chart, produced by the opposite side of the chart and initiate a new apparatus of this invention, the emerging ?uid graph G1 tracing the movement of a succeeding can be tested at any time and the test referred volume of ?uid through the well. However, dur ing the time required for the increment to move 20 directly to the true depth which it represents. It will be obvious that, as the volumetric capac from the bottom to the top of the well, the drill ity of the well and of space S increases with in bit ‘I will have progressed some distance below creasing depth, graphs G, ‘G1, etc., will normally the original 3000 foot depth by a variable dis lengthen correspondingly. However, by the pro tance depending upon the relative hardness of the formations, the rate of drilling, etc. Chart 25 vision of a scale changing device such as mech anism 20, the graphs will all be con?ned within a IE will have moved longitudinally a correspond strip on the chart of ?xed width, irrespective of ing distance, as a result of which the right hand the changes in volume and without affecting the end of the graph G will appear on the chart op accuracy of the record. By logging wells in the manner described, vari say 3020 feet. A test taken of the increment of 30 ous logging tests may be plotted on the same chart the ?uid emerging from the well and recorded and all the various characteristics of the forma on the chart at that time will, therefore, appear posite some depth ?gure greater than 3000 feet, ~ tions penetrated by the drill, as determined for at the greater depth. However since the graph logging purposes, will appear directly on the chart G now connects the initial and ?nal points a: and y, it is only necessary to follow the graph 35 in properly correlated relationship. For example, referring to Fig. 4, the drilling rate is continuously back from y to a: to determine the true depth to traced in a graph D along side the depth index. which the test taken at y actually refers. Since this graph is ordinarily obtained from the Fig. 4 illustrates a, portion of a chart, made in mechanical reactions of the drill as it progresses accordance with this invention, bearing a plu rality of successive graphs G, G1, G2, G3, etc., 40 through the earth strata, its values will appear directly opposite the true depths to which these representing the passage of a plurality of suc these values refer. Traces O and H, which repre cessive increments of the drilling ?uid from the sent the values of oil and gas, respectively, in the bottom to the top of the well. The initial points of each of these graphs appear opposite a depth emerging drilling ?uid, will appear, as shown, op posite the depths at which the tested increments ?gure which represents the depth of the well at of the drilling ?uid emerge, but as previously de the time each of the increments started from scribed, by means of the graphs G, G1 G2, etc. the bottom of the well, while the opposite ends These values can be directly correlated with the of each graph appear at some greater depth. Of true depths and with the corresponding values of course, since the graphs represent consecutive . volumes of ?uid, the end of one graph will co 50 the drilling rates, at each of these depths, and incide with the beginning of the next succeeding the drilling rates, therefore, become of special value as an additional check of the oil and gas graph relative to a depth position recorded on strata, since these are normally softer than other the depth scale. That depth will be the depth adjacent strata and are generally clearly evi at which the preceding increment emerges from denced in the drilling rate graph. The traces of the well as a new increment represented by the the “Drilling Rate” and of “Oil” and “Gas” may second graph begins its passage up the well from be placed on the record in any suitable manner. that depth. Records of the tests made for oil It is ordinarily not necessary to continuously and gas on the emerging increments of the drill change the scale representing the volumetric ca ing ?uid comprise the traces O and H, respec tively, drawn on the chart in parallel columns 60 pacity as the depth changes, although this may be done if desired. Usually, the scale is changed adjacent the terminal ends of the graphs G, G1, at some suitable interval of increasing depth, etc., since these tests are necessarily made on the‘ emerging increments. Thus, in order to ?nd such as at every 20 feet or every 50 feet, or at any the true depth of an all show which appeared, other suitable interval, depending upon the depth for example, at O1 opposite a depth of 3072 feet, of the well. For example, if a well is drilling at 3000 feet, an increase in depth of as much as 30 which is the depth at which graph G3 terminates, feet will produce a change in volumetric capacity it is only necessary to follow this graph back to the point of its initiation to ?nd that the incre of the well of only one percent, and since the ?uid ment tested for oil at 01 left the bottom of the circulates at high rates, often as much as several well at 3045 feet. 704 hundred barrels per foot drilled, the resulting With an apparatus of logging in accordance error in correlating the tests of the outgoing ?uid with this invention, it is not necessary that the with the true depth will ordinarily be only a small test of the emerging drilling ?uid fall exactly fraction of one percent, which is a very high opposite the terminus of one of the graphs G, degree of accuracy. G1, etc., in order to determine the actual depth 75 From the foregoing it will be evident that this 2,404,132 invention provides apparatus by which a complete and accurate log may be made continuously dur 10 limiting means operatively associated with said marking means and responsive to the passage of ing the rotary drilling of a well. a pre-determined volw?’e of said ?uid through What I claim and desire to secure by Letters said measuring means to correspondingly limit Patent is: 5 the total distance moved by said marking means 1. An apparatus for logging the strata of a well relative to said recording means, said drive con while being drilled by the employment of a hol nection including means for varying the drive low rotary drill string and a ?uid circulated down ratio between said measuring means and said said string and up outside thereof to the surface, marking means in proportion to changes in said comprising, the combination with means cooper pre-determined volumes. ating with the drill string for measuring the depth 19 6. In combination with rotary well drilling of a stratum being drilled, of means cooperating apparatus including a hollow rotary drill string with the depth measuring means for measuring and means for circulating drilling ?uid through the rise of’a selected increment of the ?uid from the well, depth recording means driven by said said stratum. 15 drill string to move in synchronism with the 2. An apparatus for logging the strata of a well progressive downward movement of said drill while being drilled by the employment of a hollow string, means for measuring the vol of drill rotary drill string and a ?uid circulated down said ing ?uid ?owing through said well, marking string and up outside thereof to the surface, com means operatively associated with said recording prising, the combination with chart means driven 20 means and responsive to the ?ow of ?uid through by said drill string to move in synchronism with said measuring means to successively plot on said the progressive downward movement thereof recording means relative to the changing depth through said strata, of means for measuring the of the well the records of the passage of suc volume of said ?uid ?owing through the well, and cessive pre-determined volumes of said ?uid marking means cooperating with said measuring through said well. 25 means for tracing on the moving chart the rec 7. In combination with rotary well drilling ords of the rise’ of selected increments of said apparatus including a hollow rotary drill string ?uidfrom each of said strata to the surface. and means for circulating drilling ?uid through 3. In combination with rotary well drilling ap the well, depth recording means driven by said paratus including a hollow rotary drill string and drill string to move in synchronism with the means for circulating drilling ?uid through the 30 progressive downward movement of said drill well, depth recording means driven \by said drill string, means for measuring the volume of drill string to move in synchronism with the progres ing ?uid ?owing through said well, marking sive downward movement of said drill string, means having a variable ratio drive connection means for measuring the vol me of/drilling ?uid with said measuring means and responsive to ?owing through the well, mar ing means oper the ?ow of ?uid through said measuring means atively associated with said recording means and to successively plot on said recording means responsive to the ?ow of the drilling ?uid through relative to the changing depth of the well the said measuring means to plot on said recording. records of the passage of successive pre-deter means the record of the passage of said ?uid mined volumes of said ?uid through the well, through the well relative to the changing depth and limiting means operatively associated with thereof, said marking means and responsive to the pas 4. In combination with rotary well drilling ap sage of each of said pre-determined vol es of paratus including a hollow rotary drill string and said ?uid through said measuring cans, to means for circulating drilling ?uid through the 45 limit in proportion to each of said pre-deter well, depth recording means driven by said drill mined volumes the distance moved by said string to move in synchronism with the progres marking means relative to said recording means, sive downward movement of said drill string, said limiting means including means for vary means for measuring the vol of drilling ?uid ing the drive ratio of said drive connection be ?owing through the well, marki g means oper 50 tween said measuring means and said marking atively associated with said recording means and means in proportion to changes in said pre-de responsive to the ?ow of the drilling ?uid through termined volumes, to thereby uniformly limit said measuring means to plot on said recording said distance moved by said marking means for means the record of the passage of said ?uid all of said volumes. through the well relative to the changing depth 55 8. In combination with a, well being drilled thereof, and limiting means operatively associ by the employment of a hollow rotary drill string ated with said marking means and responsive to and a ?uid circulated down said string and up the passage of a pre-determined volume of said outside thereof to the surface, apparatus for ?uid through said measuring means to corre plotting the passage of increments of said ?uid spondingly limit the total distance moved by said 60 through said well relative to the changing depth marking means relative to said recording means. of the well, comprising, a chart driven by said 5. In ‘combination with rotary well drilling drill string to move in one direction in synchro apparatus including a hollow rotary drill string nism with the progressive downward move— and means for circulating drilling ?uid through ment of said drill string, said chart bearing a the well, depth recording means driven by said 65 scale of depth measurement extending in said drill string to move in synchronism with the direction, means for circulating said ?uid progressive downward movement of said drill through the ell, measuring means for measur string, means for measuring the volume of drill ing the volux?l of ?uid passing through the ing ?uid ?owing through the well, marking well, marking eans responsive to the ?ow of means having a variable ratio drive connection 70 the ?uid through said measuring means to move with said measuring means and respo sive to across said chart generally transversely rela the ?ow of the drilling ?uid through sai \meas tive to the direction of movement of said chart uring means to plot on said recording means the from a point along said depth scale correspond record of the passage of said ?uid through the ing to the bottom of the well, drive means oper well relative to the changing depth thereof, and 75 atively connecting said measuring means to said 2,404,182 11 12 marking means and including means for termi nating the transverse movement of said marking means upon passage through the well of a prede termined volume of the ?uid required to displace an increment thereof from the bottom of the well and up outside thereof to the surface, apparatus for plotting the passage of increments of said ?uid through the well relative to the changing depth of the well, comprising, a chart driven by - to the surface, and for then initiating a new transverse movement for the next succeeding increment. 9. In combination with a well being drilled by the employment of a hollow rotary drill string and a ?uid circulated down said string and up outside thereof to the surface, apparatus for plotting the passage of increments of said ?uid through the well relative to the changing depth of the well, comprising, a chart‘ driven by 15 - said drill string to move in one direction in syn chronism with the progressive downward move ment of said drill string, said chart bearing a scale of depth measurement extending in said direction, means for circulating said ?uid through the well, measuring means for measur ing the volume of ?uid passing through said well, marking means responsive to the ?ow of said ?uid through said measuring means to draw a series of lines across said chart in a direction generally transverse relative to the direction of . ~ said drill string to move in one direction in movement of said chart and initiated‘from a synchronism with the progressive downward movement of said drill string, said chart bearing plurality of points along said depth scale, each a scale of depth measurement extending in said direction, means for circulating said ?uid through the well, measuring means for measur ing the volume of ?uid passing through said Well, marking means responsive to the ?ow of said ?uid through said measuring means to draw a series of lines across said chart in a direction generally transverse relative to the direction of movement of said chart and initiated from a plurality of points along said depth scale, each of said lines tracing the passage of a'pre-de termined volume of said ?uid required to ‘dis place an increment of the ?uid to the surface from the depth represented by the point of initiation of that particular line, drive means connecting said measuring means to said mark ing means and operative to cause the latter to of said lines tracing the passage of a pre-de-v vtermined volume" of said ?uid required to dis place an increment of the ?uid to the surface from the depth represented by the point of initiation of that particular line, drive means connecting said measuring means to said mark ing means and operative to cause the latter to initiate each of said ‘lines at a point along said depth scale corresponding to the end of the next succeeding line, said drive means including a variable gear ratio means for varying the drive ratio between said measuring means and said marking means in proportion to the change in volume of said well due to the change in depth thereof. 11. Apparatus for measuring and recording vnlume's' of well-drilling ?uid circulating down a" drill string and upwardly outside thereof, com; initiate each of said lines at a point along said prising, a ?uid flow meter, a recorder having co depth scale corresponding‘to the end of the next operating elements one of which is synchronized succeeding line. with the drill string, and a variable gear ratio for driving the other element of said recorder from 10. In combination with a well being drilled by the employment of 3 a hollow rotary drill 40. the ?ow meter. string and a ?uid circulated down said string JOHN T. HAYWARD.