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Патент USA US2404144

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July 16, 1946.
vFiled Oct. 29, 1943
FIG- 5‘
H’Ajl'pld, SMITH
Patented July 16, 1946,
r 2,404,144
Harold Coleman Riggs, Langhorne Manor, and
William Wharton Smith, Philadelphia, Pa., as
signors to The Electric Storage Battery Com
pany, a corporation of New Jersey
Application October 29, 1943, Serial No. 508,238
5 Claims. (01. 1365-90)
This‘ invention relates to deferred action type
batteries in which the electrolyte is maintained
out of contact with the plates of the battery until
the battery is called upon to supply power and
has for its primary object the provision of means
deferred action type of battery shown in Fig
for releasing the electrolyte into the plate com
form of the circuit arrangement for the detonat
ure 1;
' Figure 4 is a bottom view of the electrolyte'come
partment shown in Figure 3; and
Figure 5_ is a diagramamtic View of a preferred
ing squibs in the multiple unitbattery, the indi
partment quickly and effectively.
vidualv cells being represented by dotted lines. > ,
It is a further object of this invention to pro
vide releasing means which are simple in con~
Referring to the drawing-and particularly Fig
struction, may be operated with the minimum ex 10 ures‘l and 2, I0 represents the outer container of
a deferred action type of storage battery cell, the;
penditure of power, and which will ‘cause the
lower portion of which contains a battery assem-..
electrolyte to be released rapidly so that the
bly consisting of the usual positive and negative
plate groups represented generally by the refer
battery will produce current substantially instan
taneously after it is called upon for service.
It is a further object of this invention to pro
ence numeral II. Extendingupwardly from the
vide new and improved releasing means which
can be electrically operated and which are suit
able for application either in individual cells or
in a plurality of cells ofv a multiple cell battery.
In ‘the usual deferred action type of battery
there is provided an electrolyte compartment and
a" battery plate compartment. In accordance
with this invention, the electrolyte compartment
is positioned above the plate compartment, and
is separated therefrom by a frangible diaphragm.
Positioned adjacent the diaphragm is one or‘ more
detonating squibs, the explosive force of which
is' directed against the diaphragm. 'These squibs
when detonated cause the diaphragm to be bro
ken away, permitting the electrolyte in the elec
trolyte compartment to run down into the plate
compartment and the battery thereby to be placed
in service. The detonating squibs are of the type
that are ?red electrically and means are provid
ed- for supplying the small amount of current nec
essary‘to ?re thesesquibs. '
Further objects andadvantagesof this inven
tion; will appear more fully as the following de
positive andnegative groups are straps l2 which
are secured to terminal means l3, projecting out-l
Wardly throughthe side of thecontainer. It is,
to be understood that the plate groups in the '
lower portion of the container l0 may be of either
the primary or secondary type. Withla primary
type of battery, it is essential to maintain the
electrolyte out of contact with the plates to pre
vent discharge of the battery or the destruction
of the positive and negative plates. In a sec
ondary battery it is frequently desirable to main
tain the electrolyte out of contact with the~ plates
in order to completely eliminate the gradual self
discharge of the battery due to the phenomena
known as local action. Thus the acid releasing
mechanism which forms the subject of the inven
tion is applicable to either type of battery with-.
out limitation.
Positioned within the container [0 above the
plate group H is an electrolyte compartment,
which consists of a jar 14 having sidewalls l5,
a top wall l6, and a bottom'wall l1. The-bottom
wall is provided with a trough portion l8 which
lies betweenand extends below the terminal posts
novelty‘which characterize this invention will be 40 l3 and isvformed by offsetting theside walls [I5 as:
tailed description proceeds and the features of
set ‘forth in the claims appended to and forming
a 'part of this specification.
‘For a more complete understanding of this in
vention, reference should be. had'to the accom
panying drawing in which:
, .
Figure 1 is a vertical elevation of a deferred
action type of battery with portions. brokenaway
to show one form of the improved electrolytere
leasing means of this invention; _
Figure 2 is a side elevational' elevation of the
electrolyte-compartment shown in Figure 1 show
ing further details of the acid releasing means?
Figure 3 is a vertical elevation, partly in sec
at 19 and 20. Provided on opposite exterior
edges of the trough portion l8 are depending feet
members T2| which engage the straps l2 and
thereby support the‘jar in the‘ container Hlabove
‘ v,the plate. group II. This electrolyte-compartment
orv jar l4 may be made of any suitable, readily
moldable, frangible material, such as hard rub-f
ber, glass or synthetic resin. Obviously the nia
terial must beof such a character that it Will
withstand attack by the type of electrolyte em-,
'ployed. In most types of cells this implies that
the materialemployed must be acid-resistant.
Provided in the top wall of the acid compart
ment is an opening'throughwhich extends a
tion, showing a modifiedform of electrolyte com
partment and acid‘ releasing'means for' use in the 55 tubular member 22, the lower end of which ter
minates adjacent the bottom wall I‘! of the elec-‘
‘ , trolyte compartment.
break the :bottom of the4electrolyte jar. Thus a
As shown, the lower end
factor of safety is provided in the event one of
of the tube 22 is closed. Positioned within this
tubular member adjacent the lower end thereof
is an explosive squib or cap 23.
the squibs should turn out to be a. dud. As was
said with reference to the jar illustrated in Fig
ure 2, the jar shown in Figure 3 may be molded
from either hard rubber, glass vor a synthetic
Projecting from the capv or squib, upwardly?
through thertube 22, are electrical conductors 24
In Figure 5 there is indicated the squib circuit .
for a multiple unit battery having the new and
and 25 which are adapted to be connected to a, _ . . .
suitable source of supply for ?ring the'squibs.‘ Therupper portion of the tube 22 is hermetically? 10
sealed to the cover 16 of the electrolyte'jar. The ' ,
tubular member 22 is made of some suitable‘, ,
acid-resisting material and its principal‘: func-.
improved acid-releasing construction of this in
vention incorporated therein.
The battery con
sists of a plurality of cells, A, B and C, each hav
ing the construction shown in Figure 1. V This
tion is to protect the squib 23 from. attack by,
is shown schematically by the dotted lines. Pro
‘the acid maintained in the acid compartmenti 15 vided in each cell is a detonating squib and all
In order that the tube 22 may not prevent 'or
of the individual squibs 23A, 23B, 23C in the
inhibit functioning of the squibfor the purpose . entire assembly are connected in parallel to a
intended, it is made of a- relatively thin'guage, .
?ring circuit 36-31 which is energized from a
acid-resisting material and, in the preferred
suitable source of power 38 for ?ring the entire
form of this inventionyit is made from thin: 20 group of, squibs. This source of power may con
sheets of polystyrene.
sist ofa group of ,drylcells having a capacity
It will be observed that the squib 23 is posi
su?icient to cause the ?ringof all of the'squi'bs.
tioned so 'as to lie adjacent the, bottom wall I‘!
of the jar. If desired, this portion of the ‘jar
Connected in the ?ring circuit is a manually or
which constitutes a frangiblediaphragm may be‘ 25'
When it is desired to place the‘ entire battery
in‘ service, the switch 39 is' closedand all of the
squibs are ?red simultaneously, thereby causing
somewhat .thinnernthan the remaining, walls.v
However, this is not necessary if . the explosive
forceof the squib is selected'with reference to
the thickness of the jar to be broken. In prac- .
tice it has been, found that with'a wall of viny
-lite 1A" thick, 9, squib whoseexplosive charge is
automatically operable switch 39.
' a 7
the simultaneous releasing ofythe electrolytein
_ each of the individual cells.‘ The multiple unit
30 battery thus produces . substantially instanta
neously its maximum power output, assuming
that it is connected to a closed circuit containing
ing cap’willpsatisfactorily shatter the bottom‘ translating devices requiring power.
wall. The amount of charge will of, course vary
From the foregoing description it will be ob;
with, the material used, itswall thicknessand ‘35' served that there is provided relatively simple
the area to be shattered. For example, with %2'" 1 means for e?ectively and substantially instantal
rubber a, squib having a, charge of approximately
neously causing the electrolyte in the electrolyte
15% of a #6 blasting cap isrsu?icient.
compartment of a deferred action type of battery’
7 Inoperation of theimproved acidreleasingi
to be released into the plate compartment when
arrangement, the jar I4‘ is ?lled with electrolyte 40 the battery is to be put into service. Moreover,
to theidesire-d level either through the opening a it will be observed that there is provided an im
provided for the tube 22 or through an'alterna
proved arrangement by vwhich the releasing of
tive opening ‘(not shown) which is subsequently
electrolyte, can be e?ected with a minimum of,
approximately 25% of the charge of a #?'blast- ‘
sealed and the electrical leads 24 and 25 of the '
squib 23 are connected to a suitable source ,of
j power;‘
When it is desired to place the battery
. ‘V in; service, the circuit to the source of power is
expenditure of power in-either a single cell unit
or a multiple cell unit and a system which, whenv
applied to a multiple cell unit,‘ permits the simul
taneous releasing of all units. _Moreover, it Willi
be observed that there is provided an electrolyte
‘ to the construction of trough l8' and the fact
releasing system in which thepower for actually;v
. that an incompressible layer of liquid of sub 50 producing the releasing is stored in an explosive
‘ stantial depth lies above the squib, its explosive
squib, thereby reducing to a minimum the Weight
force will be concentrated downwardly causing
and complications of such acid-releasing mecha- '
closed, thus causing ?ring'of the squibs.
Due 1
1 the retaining tube 22 to be shattered and also »
‘ the trough portion of the electrolyte jar be
tween the ledges vl9 and 20.‘ The electrolyte in be 'While there has'been described modi?cations?
of this invention, it is not intendedto be limited ,
the jar ‘will thereby be released into the plate,
thereto as other modi?cations will no doubt oc
; compartment of thebattery'.
cur to those skilled in‘ the art; For example, the
1 'In Figures 3' and 4. there is shown .a modi?ed
general design features of the battery container;
‘ form of ‘electrolyte jar’ 26 suitable for use with
, detonating squibs. ‘In this form of, the inven 60 could be modi?ed to eliminate the overall con-.7. _
tainen , It is‘ therefore intended in the appended
1 tion, the‘ bottom wall 21 of the jar is provided
claims to cover all modi?cations which come~
swithijexterior recesses 28 and, 29' which are ,
‘ adapted to receive a pair of detonating squibs 3l1 '
= and 3|. Thesquibs‘ 30 and 3| are held in’the
’ j respective recesses by means of a suitable ce
. 1 ment :(not shown)‘ and extending from each
‘ squib are leads 3,2 and‘33.
In order to accom
.modate these leads, the wall of the recesses 28
‘ and 29 is slotted as shown at 34 and 35.
within the true spirit and scope of ‘this invention.
We claim:
1. In a deferred action type of battery, a plate
compartment, an electrolyte compartment_,fa par
tition for separating said electrolyte compartr,
ment from said'plate compartment until said bat
tery is to be placed in service and explosive squib ,
located adjacent said partition for ruptur
With this arrangement the explosive force of 70 ,means
ing a portion of said partition when it is desired
the squibs is concentrated against the bottom of a to place said battery‘ in service.
‘the jar and causes it to be ruptured inwardly.
‘As will be more fully pointed out hereinafter,
a plate compartment and an acid compartment-e.
the squibs are electrically connected in parallel
separated by a frangible diaphragm; means com-v '
‘and each squib is selected so that it alone will 75 prising'detonating
squibsfor rupturing said fran
gible diaphragm to permit electrolyte stored in
said electrolyte compartment to be discharged
into said plate compartment, and means for sup
porting said detonating squibs adjacent said
frangible diaphragm to concentrate the explosive
and side Walls, said top wall being provided with
an opening therethrough, a tubular member pro
jecting through said opening and terminating ad
jacent said bottom wall, a detonating squib posi
tioned in said tubular member adjacent the lower
3. In a deferred action type of battery, a plu
end thereof, and electrical conductors extending
upwardly from said squib and outwardly through
rality of individual cells containing battery ele
said top wall adapted to be connected to a source
force of said squibs.
I ments in the lower portion thereof and electri
of power for ?ring said squib.
5. In a deferred action type of battery having a
cally connected in series, an electrolyte compart 10
plate compartment and an electrolyte compart
ment in the top portion of each of said cells above
ment located above and normally separated from
said battery elements andprovided with a fran
said plate compartment, means for connecting
gible bottom wall for maintaining the electrolyte
said compartments when said battery is to be put
above and out of contact with the battery ele
in service comprising an electrolyte ‘jar positioned
ments until said battery is put into service and
within said electrolyte compartment and having
detonating squib means located adjacent said
a bottom wall, a pair of recesses in the. bottom
bottom wall in each cell for simultaneously rup
wall of said jar and opening exteriorly to said jar,
turing said frangible walls when said battery is to
detonating squibs positioned within said recesses,
be placed into service.
4. In a deferred action type of battery, a plate 20 and means for connecting said squibs to an elec
trical circuit.
compartment containing battery elements, an
electrolyte container supported above said plate
compartment and having a top Wall, bottom wall
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