Патент USA US2404168код для вставки
July 16, 1946. ' ' wjH, GEDDES ` HEAT EXCHANGE . UNI'J.1 ~Fi1eà April 7, 194:1.4 °.1. ' Y 2,404,168 ' ` - 2,404,168 Patented July 16, 1946 UNITEDl STATES HEAT PATENT ÜNIT Walter II. Guides,A Dayton,` lasls'ignor to United Aircraftl’roducts, Ine., Dayton, Ohio, a corporation of Ohio Appleman hpnl 7», 1943, señal Nó. `¿82u53 ¿i Ólai'ins. (c1. 257-2) l 2 y Y f _ will close and flow of the »liquid through the This invention `felates to heat exchange units, especially for cooling hot, viscous liquids such, for core portion of the unit will beV resumed. v When that portion lof the liquidl in theusystem which is contained in the core portion of _the unit is cold »and congealed and the remaining, hot example, as the lubricating oil of internal com bustion engines, and has for particular reference to improvements in heat’exchange units of the type comprising, generally speaking, a heat ex-- portion of the -liquid in the system is ñowing in~ bY-passing relationship to said> core portion through the passageway surrounding said >core portion, it acts to warm and `de-congeal thev liquid to be cooled iiows prior to entering` the core and through which the liquid may flow in by-passing 10 in saidl core portion, the def-congealing process ` _being progressively inwardly toward the -center relationship to the core, in the event thelatter change portion in the form of a core which is sur rounded by a passageway through which the liquid may become obstructed to flow of the liquid there through due to congelati‘on of the liquid therein or to any other cause. ofthe core portion of the unit. , y The initial part of the de-congealing process >results in opening of the outer orperipheral part Y i One well known form of heat exchange unit of 15 ofthe core portion of the unitA to ñow of the liquid therethrough, and when thisr condition is estab the type referred to and with which the vpresent lished' flow of the liquidin by"-passing~ relation invention is concerned, comprises a casing enclos ship to said core‘portion ceases and is resumed ing the heat exchange core portion ofthe unit, through the said outer or peripheral part of said anda jacket surrounding said casing. and .proú viding a passageway extending therearound. The 20 core portion. However, until all' of the congeal'ed liquid in the core portion'` of the unit _has been jacket is provided at a suitable point, at the top de-congealed and flow of the liquid through all thereof, for example, with an opening for the inlet parts of said core portion has been resumed, the to said passageway of the liquid to be cooled,` and unit does not operate at maximum 'efficiency to the casing is provided at a point diametrieally opposite or substantially diametrically opposite .25 maintain the liquid` within a> desired temp'eraß ture range and condition of viscosity best Suit said inlet opening, at the` bottom thereof, for ing it to perform its' engine lubricating or 'other> example, with an inlet opening, for flow of liquid function. 0n the contrary, as long as the liquid into the casing> from said passageway. In addi is circulating inby-passing relation -to the core tion, the casing is provided at a point diametrically portion of the unit, or throughl only the outer or opposite or substantially diametrically opposite peripheral part of the core portion of the unit, it its inlet opening, at the top'thereotfor example, remains too hot. , I , with an outlet opening for iìow of the vliquid In heat 'exchange' units of theA type under con-~ therefrom, and the jacket is provided at a suit sideration it is usual to provide open-ended-tubes able point, at the top thereof, for example, with an opening, for outlet o‘f the liquid- from said 35 extending through the'v core portions of the units for the flow therethrough of air to cool,\the- liquid passageway. Normally, however, the. jacket outlet flowing through the core portions. It is ¿also opening is closed by a valve so that the liquid is usual to provide shutters to regulate- flow vof air prevented from flowing in by-passing relationship through thetu‘bes and to- provide meansfwhereby to thevcore portion of the unit'an-d is required to ñow through said core portion. Said valveë is, 40 said shutters are actuated in response to _varia tions in the temperature of _the liquidy vflowing however, maintained normally closed by suitable through'y the core portions of the units. In other yieldable means so thatit-may open under a words, during normal operation of the» heat ex higher-’than-normal pressure in the system of` change unit,- the shutters are .opened and closed which the unit is apart. Accordingly, ifthe core 45 with rise and fall', respectively, of the tempera' portion 0f the unit should,- for- any reason,` become ture of the liquid‘aboveor below a .predetermined obstructed to flow of the liquid therethr'ou'ghl as', value so that the liquid is Ymaintained within» a for example, due to congélation of the liquid therein, the pressure in the system will rise‘untíl said yieldably rclosed valve is »forced- open,` where-á upon the liquid will flow in by-'passing _relation ship to said core portion until the cong'ealed liquid therein has become de-congéaled .o'r' such desired> temperaturel range. ì , y Heretofore, however, the shutters have 'con' 50 trolled rilow of air throughthe tubes at the outer or _peripheral parts of _the core portions >of f the unitsas well as through the more` inwardly vdis posed tubes, and have prevented iiow of cooling other cause of obstruction to flow' therethrough air through the tubes at the outer or peripheral as may exist has been removédl The valve then 55 parts ofthe core portions òf the units" until- such' 2,404,168 timesas flow of the liquid through said parts of said core portions has been resumed following periods when the liquid in the core portions has becomeA congealed. During these times the liquid ordinarily is intensely hot and it is extremely ~ desirable that it should be cooled. ‘ Accordinglythe object of the present invention in the casing Ii), but in its flow to said housingV is required to pass through said heat exchange core portion. The housing I6 has an opening 20 for outlet of the liquid therefrom regardless of whether the liquid enters said housing through the openings I4, I‘I or I5, I8. As isunderstood, the present heat exchange is to provide a heat exchange unit of the type.' unit is to ,be used in a closed-circuit liquid circu lating system such, for example, as the lubricant under consideration embodying a construction whereby Vthe shutters thereof regulate flow of,V ,19. circulating system of an internal combustion cooling air through only the more inwardly dis posed tubes of the core portion of the unit and do not at any time obstruct flow of cooling air through the tubes at the outer or peripheral part > engine employing a pump, or pumps, for circu lating the vliquid under pressure in the system, and v .in this, connection it will further be understood that a deliveryvconduit from the engine is con of said core portion, and whereby lcooling air is permitted at all times to flow through the tubes nected to the inlet opening I2 and that a return said core portion following any given period when the liquid in said core portion may have become conduit to' the‘engine is connected to the outlet at the outer or peripheral part 'oflsaid corev por-ì. 1 opening 20' ofjthe'housing ' I6. Return conduit tion, thus to insure at least some cooling of the„._.,î may or may not include a storage tank, air sepa rator-or settling tank. , intensely hot liquid iiowing around said core"p`or-” ‘ tion in Icy-Passing relationship thereto during 20 The valve I9 is closed by suitable yieldable means Vwhich exerts a closing force thereon not times'just prior to’resurnption of its flow throughh which'will become more fully apparent as the materially greater than the opening force which is exerted thereon by thepressure of the liquid in the system during normal operation of the system. Thus, while said valve normally is closedl and requires the- liquid to circulate through lthe nature of the invention is better understood, the same consists in a heat exchange- unit embodying circulation of the liquid in by-passing relationship the novel features of construction, combination to the core portion of the unit whenever the pres congealed. ' Y Y ` f ' y ; ' With the foregoing and other ,objectsfin view, core portion of the' unit, it may open' and permit and arrangement of parts as will be hereinafter so sure of the liquid rises above normal. For e'x more fully described, illustrated. in the accom panying drawing and defined in the `appended claims.> ` ` 's ‘ I ‘ /`_In the- accompanying drawing,- wherein like ample, a sudden acceleration of the speed of the engine may produce a pressure of the liquid suñi ciently high to open said valve,- or in the event the liquid in the core portion of the unit should characters- of p reference denoteV corresponding 35 become con-gealed and thereby Vobstruct flow through said’core portion, the pressure fof the ` , l v I parts in the separate views: Figl 1 is an end elevation of a heat exchange liquid obviously will rise until said valve opens. "` In accordance with known- practicerthe casing I0 has extending' longitudinally therethrough Fig. 2 is*> a vside elevation, partly in` section, of 40 numerous open-ended Y-tubes 2I-r through. which unit embodying the features ofthe invention, andi" 1 air may flow to cool the liquid circulated through said casing between said'tubes. Also in accord ance withA known practice, spaced _apart parti tions 22 are provided in the casing I0 for cooper portion yof the present heat exchangeY unit, and I I designatesa jacket surrounding said casing 45 ation therewith and with each other to require the unit shown in Fig. 1. ' f ' ` ‘ Referring tothe drawing in detail, IIJ designates a casing'which contains the heat exchange’ core and,v in conjunction'therewith, providing a' pas sagewayV a extending varound the outside thereof. ï The jacket` I I'is provided at a suitable point, at the topV and adjacent to one end-thereof, for ex ample, with anopening I2'for inlet of the liquid ‘I to be cooled'to the. passageway a, while the casing . IQ, at a diametrically opposite point, at the bot torn thereof, for example, -is provided with an opening' I3 for inlet of the liquid to vsaid _casing the liquid to flow in atortuous path through said casing so as to be subjected most thoroughly to the coolingeñect of the air flowing through the tubes 2|. J ` ' ' " - Further in, accordance with known practice, generally speaking, an open-ended casing23 is mounted upon one end of the casing II) and pro jects therebeyond and has pivotally mounted therein a plurality of shutters 24 to be opened from the passageway a.' In addition,fthe casing 55 and closed to regulate iiow of cooling air through I0 is' provided at apoint diametrically opposite the ' orfsubstantially diametrically opposite the open ing I3,-at the top thereof, for example, with an opening I'4 for outlet of the cooled, liquid from said casing, ‘and the jacket I I is provided-at a suitable point, at the top thereof, for example, with an opening I5 for outlet of the liquid from the pas sageway a'. ' Y ' ¿ f' 1 tubes 2I.k . ' ' ~ „ ' Additionally in accordance with known prac l Mounted upon the'ja'cket II in covering'rela tionship to the outlet openings I4 and vI5 is a >housing IISA in the bottom wall of vwhich'are open ings I1 and ls which are alined with the openings \ I4 and I5, respectively, whereby the liquid may íiow intov said housing either from the casing I0 vor from the passageway a.' The opening I8 nor mally is'closed, however, by a valve I9 so thatthe liquid cannot ñow'froin the opening I2`_ through tice, a Athermal power element 25 is mounted in an opening in the housing I6 and has its inner end portion'exposed within said housing at a 1o cation whereit will be affected by the tempera ture of the liquid when the liquid is circulating through the core portion of the unit and is en „ tering said housing via theropenings I4, I'I. ._Inthe housing I6,_between the openings Il and I8, is-a partitionl 26> having therein an opening Y2'I controlled byy a check valve 28 to permit the liq uid> to flowfrom the opening I'I to the housing outlet opening 20, but- to prevent Ythe liquid,Y when itis flowing through the openings I5, I5 andthe -housing IB to said housing outlet 'open-_ the passageway a and the'openings I 5 and I8 into ing 20, from affecting the-thermal element '25,l The thermal element 25 may be'of any suitable heat exchange core >portion of the unit contained response 'to' 4changes inthe temperature ofv the the housing f_lt "in ley-passing relationship Ato vthe çonstmctîon'such that @Pali-thereof mQVeâ' if?. 5 2,404,138 liquid ilowing over the inner end portion oi said element, and the said movable part of `said'ele event of congelation of the liquid in the .heat exchange core portion of the unit during a period of idleness of the engine, with consequent ob struction to flow of the liquid through said core the shutters 24 whereby the latter are opened in harmony with rise in the temperature of the Ul portion, and upon subsequent starting of the en gine, the pressure of thel liquid in the system liquid to permit more cooling air to iiow through ment is connected in any suitable manner with the tubes 2| and are closed in harmony with low will rise andthe valve I9 will open. Thereupon, the liquid will follow a path of flow,l as indicated ering of the temperature of the liquid to reduce by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, from the inlet open the amount of_ cooling air which may flow, through said tubes. 10 ing I2 through the passageway a in by-passing relationship to the heat exchange core portion In the drawing the aforesaid movable part of the thermal element 25 is indicated by way of exi ample as comprising a reciprocable stem 29 projecting from the outer end of said element, and of the unit contained in the casing I0, through the openings I5 and I8 into the housing I6, through said housing in Iby-passing relationship the connection between vsaid- movable part and 15 to the .thermal element 25 due to the provision oi the check valve 28, and from said housing through the shutters 24 is indicated by way of example as the outlet opening 20. comprising lever arms 30 and 3| connected to Assuming that the liquid in the heat exchange the stem 29 and to the shaft lof one of the 'shut core portion of the unit has become congealed ters, respectively, and connected together by a rod 32,> the shutters being connected together by 20 during a periodjof idleness of the engine, that the engine hasbeen started, and that hot lliquid is links 33 so that they are opened and‘closed in flowing through the passageway a in by-passing unison. relationship to said heat exchange core portion, As aforesaid, the prior practice has been to em it is apparent that the heat of the byepassing ploy shutters which regulate flow of air through all parts of the core portions of units of the type 25 liquid will act upon the congealed liquid in the outer or peripheral part of the core portion of illustrated and described, with the disadvantage the unit to de-congeal the same, >whereupon iiow mentioned. As distinguished from this prior will be resumed through said core portion and practice and according to the present invention, the de-congealing process' will progress inwardly -the shutters 24 control flow of rcooling air only until all of the liquid in said core portion >has been through such of the tubes 2| as are disposed in de-congealed. Heretofore, however, until> the wardly o'f the outer or peripheral part of the core by-passing vliquid has acted to de-congeal sufri portion of the unit and Vprovision is" made for cient of the congealed -li‘quidin the outer or p`e-flow of cooling air at all times through the tubes ripheral part of the core portion of the unit to 2| at the outer orperipheral part of the core por tion of the unit. In this connection and ac cording toA the speciiic construction illustrated in the drawing, the shutter casing 23 includes a larger diameter inner end ’portionv 23ab ofapprox 35 rei-establish flow through said core portion, and Y even thereafter until suiiicient time had elapsed. for the' shutters to open, the circulating portion of the liquid remained excessively hot because it was not subjected to any cooling action during imately the same diameter as the casing I0 to fit over or into the end of the latter casing, and 40 its flow through theV heat exchange unit. As dis tinguished from this, the‘present invention pro‘ an outer end portion 23b of materially lesser di vides for flow of cooling air through the outer ameter which contains the shutters 24 and or peripheral part of the core portion of the through al1 portions of which flow of air is con unit at all times. Therefore, eve-n when the hot trolled by said shutters. The two portions 23a, 23D of said ‘shutter casing are joined together by 45 liquid is flowing in by-passing relationship to the core portion of the >unit ,through the passage a wall 34 and in this wall is an annular row of way a, it is subjected to a certain amount of ef openings 35 which are alined, or approximately` fective cooling which is increased as ?lowis re alined, longitudinally of the unit, with the tubes sumed through the outer orY peripheral part of 2| at the outer or peripheral part of the core said core portion prior to opening of the shut 60 portion of the unit. Thus, some cooling air may ters. It is therefore apparent that the present ilow through the tubes 2| at the outer or -periph invention provides for cooling of the intensely eral part of the core portion of the unit regard hot liquid during the critical .time beginning with less of whether' the liquid is flowing through or initiation of flow of the hot liquid- in by-passing in by-passing relationship to said core portion and regardless of whether the shutters 24 are 55 relationship to the core portion of the unit and lasting until flow throughl the core portion has open or closed. A ‘ been resumed and the shutters 24 have opened. Normally the valve I9 is closed and the hot Thereafter, of course, the cooling is regulated by l liquid flows, as indicated by the dash and dot shutters 24 as heretofore. line in Fig. 2, from the inlet opening I2 into the It further will be noted that by cooling the hot passageway a, through said passageway to the 60 liquid in the peripheral portion of the core sec opening I3, into the casing Ill, tortuously tion, actuation of the thermostat 25 to open the through said casing wherein it is cooled by air shutters 24 is delayed. In this manner, the less flowing through the tubes 2|, from said casing readily decongealed central portion of the core through the openings I4 and I1 into the housing I6 and over the inner end of the thermal ele 65 section is protected from additional cooling until the decongealing process is complete or substan ment whereby its heat causes said thermal ele tially so. ment to actuate the shutters 24 to permit the Without further description it is thought that proper amount of cooling air to ñow through the the features and the advantages of the inven- ' tubes 2| to effect proper cooling of the liquid dur ing its flow through the casing I0, and from said 70 tion will be clearly. understood and appreciated. It is desired to point out, however, that while housing I6 through the outlet opening 20. only a single speciiic structural embodiment of In the event of a sudden acceleration of the the invention has been illustrated and described, speed of the engine such as might produce a the same is readily capable of embodiment in var surge of the liquid causing the heat exchange core portion of the unit to become choked, or in the 75 ious speciñcally different «structures within its , annales. V7 . claims., f v ‘ w n 8 n spirit ¿and scope as Vdefined in the appended 5 e end portion of reduced cross sectional area, a Wall connecting said inner and outer end portions of ï I_ claim: 1. A 'heat exchange lunit for use in a closed,-y saidshutter casing andhaving openings therein circuit viscous liquid :circulating system tocool tubes in the peripheral portion of said ñrst men tioned casing, shutters in the said outer end por~ tion of said shutter casing for regulating flow of for flow of cooling air at all?times through the the liquidduring its circulation through the sys, tem, said unit `comprising va casing having an cooling air through >the tubes in the central por tion> of saidV first mentioned casing, and means operable in response to Variations'in the tempera inlet and anoutletfor the-liquid, means at theÁ peripheral portion and also at the center portion~ of said casing for flow of air therethrough in] cooling relationship to .the liquid flowing there through, means to cause the liquid normally to flow through said casing and to flow in by ture ofthe liquid _when it is flowing through said casing to effect air-,ñoW-regulating actuation of said shutters. _ y Y passing relationship thereto kover the outside 3. A-n oil temperature regulator for use in en thereof when the >liquid therein is »_congealed, a 15 gine lubrication systems, comprising a core sec shutter :casing mounted uponsaid iirst ~men-` Í tion made up of a plurality of open ended tubes assembled for the passage of air therethrough as _tioned casing at one end thereof and extending» a coolant and for the passage of oil therearound ybeyond said end thereof, jsaid shutter casing in cluding an inner end portion of substantially the to be cooled, said oil congealing _around 'said tubes same cross sectional size and shape as said firstI . when excessvely cooled, >a casing surrounding said " tube assembly and for-med with openings deñning mentioned casing andan outer end'portion ¿of the inlet'and the outlet for the oil flowing to and from the core section, means for by-passing‘ oil around said casingwhen said core section is con reduced -cross sectional area, a Wall connecting said inner and outer end portions of'said shutter casing and having openings therein for iiowA of cooling air at all times through the ai;` flow` means at the peripheral portion of said first rnen-`v tioned casing, shutters in the said outer end por tion of .saidl shutter'V casingfor regulating iìow` of cooling airthrough thev central> portion of said first mentioned casing,-l and ¿means operable in gealed, said by-passing oil flowing >in intimate contact with said casing andtransmitting heat therethrough todecongeal relatively quickly the peripheral portion of said core section and gradually the central portion thereof, -sl'iutterme'ans at 30 . » Yresponse >to variations Vin the temperature of the l one end of~ the regulatorfor controlling the >flow of airthrough said core section, a thermostat re- l l liquidY when itis flowing through said-„casing to effect air-flow-regulating actuation of said shut sponsivevto the temperature of thel oil leaving said core section-for initiating operation of said shutters, said thermostat acting in responseto a 2,15> heat -exchange’unit f’orvuseV in a closed- :> rising temperature to Vcause'V movement of said circuit viscous liquidY circulating system torcool shutters toward open position, andmeans allow ing a continuous flow Vof air through the Vperi the` liquid during its circulation through the sys-ï pheral portion of said core sectionirrespective of tem, said unit comprising a> casing havingan` the _position _of said thermostat, whereby to cool inletand an K, outlet for vthe liquid, open-ended> tubes extending longitudinally through the peri the quickly decongealed oil insaid peripheral por tion and prevent opening of said shutters before pheral portion and alsothrough the center D01', substantial decongelation of the central portion Y tion of .said casing for ñow of air therethrough in cooling relationship lto the liquidV fiowing of said Vsection is obtained. ' Y i 4. An oil temperature regulator according to therethrough, means_deñning a passageway ex tending around said casing exteriorly thereof 45 claim 3, characterized in that said shutter. means ters,r 1 l ` ’ ' ' through which the _liquid flows to the inlet of said casing, means to cause _the liquid vnormally to How through said passageway and said casing and " and said means for allowing a continuous flow _of ‘ to flow in by-passing relationship to said casing through said passageway when the liquid in said casing is congealed, aeshutter casin-gmounted an opposite projecting endv mounting shutters, said. projecting end being-fof reduced- diameter whereby said shutters cover only the central- por upon said ñrst mentioned .casing at vone end tion of the core section, and the’intermediate area thereof and extending beyond lsaid end thereof," of said extension being .formed with openings aligned Withthe peripheral portion of said core >Yair are comprised in a casing extension having Yone end fitted to an end of said casing and having said shutter casing including an inner endrpor. tion oi substantially the same cross sectional size and shape as first mentioned casing and an outer ,5.5 section. ’ . ` l Y ` WALTER H. GEDDES.