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Патент USA US2404168

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July 16, 1946.
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wjH, GEDDES
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HEAT
EXCHANGE
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UNI'J.1
~Fi1eà April 7, 194:1.4
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2,404,168
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2,404,168
Patented July 16, 1946
UNITEDl STATES
HEAT
PATENT
ÜNIT
Walter II. Guides,A Dayton,`
lasls'ignor to
United Aircraftl’roducts, Ine., Dayton, Ohio, a
corporation of Ohio
Appleman hpnl 7», 1943, señal Nó. `¿82u53
¿i Ólai'ins. (c1. 257-2)
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will close and flow of the »liquid through the
This invention `felates to heat exchange units,
especially for cooling hot, viscous liquids such, for
core portion of the unit will beV resumed.
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When that portion lof the liquidl in theusystem
which is contained in the core portion of _the unit
is cold »and congealed and the remaining, hot
example, as the lubricating oil of internal com
bustion engines, and has for particular reference
to improvements in heat’exchange units of the
type comprising, generally speaking, a heat ex--
portion of the -liquid in the system is ñowing in~
bY-passing relationship to said> core portion
through the passageway surrounding said >core
portion, it acts to warm and `de-congeal thev liquid
to be cooled iiows prior to entering` the core and
through which the liquid may flow in by-passing 10 in saidl core portion, the def-congealing process
` _being progressively inwardly toward the -center
relationship to the core, in the event thelatter
change portion in the form of a core which is sur
rounded by a passageway through which the liquid
may become obstructed to flow of the liquid there
through due to congelati‘on of the liquid therein
or to any other cause.
ofthe core portion of the unit.
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The initial part of the de-congealing process
>results in opening of the outer orperipheral part
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One well known form of heat exchange unit of 15 ofthe core portion of the unitA to ñow of the liquid
therethrough, and when thisr condition is estab
the type referred to and with which the vpresent
lished' flow of the liquidin by"-passing~ relation
invention is concerned, comprises a casing enclos
ship to said core‘portion ceases and is resumed
ing the heat exchange core portion ofthe unit,
through the said outer or peripheral part of said
anda jacket surrounding said casing. and .proú
viding a passageway extending therearound. The 20 core portion. However, until all' of the congeal'ed
liquid in the core portion'` of the unit _has been
jacket is provided at a suitable point, at the top
de-congealed and flow of the liquid through all
thereof, for example, with an opening for the inlet
parts of said core portion has been resumed, the
to said passageway of the liquid to be cooled,` and
unit does not operate at maximum 'efficiency to
the casing is provided at a point diametrieally
opposite or substantially diametrically opposite .25 maintain the liquid` within a> desired temp'eraß
ture range and condition of viscosity best Suit
said inlet opening, at the` bottom thereof, for
ing it to perform its' engine lubricating or 'other>
example, with an inlet opening, for flow of liquid
function. 0n the contrary, as long as the liquid
into the casing> from said passageway. In addi
is circulating inby-passing relation -to the core
tion, the casing is provided at a point diametrically
portion of the unit, or throughl only the outer or
opposite or substantially diametrically opposite
peripheral part of the core portion of the unit, it
its inlet opening, at the top'thereotfor example,
remains too hot.
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with an outlet opening for iìow of the vliquid
In heat 'exchange' units of theA type under con-~
therefrom, and the jacket is provided at a suit
sideration it is usual to provide open-ended-tubes
able point, at the top thereof, for example, with
an opening, for outlet o‘f the liquid- from said 35 extending through the'v core portions of the units
for the flow therethrough of air to cool,\the- liquid
passageway. Normally, however, the. jacket outlet
flowing through the core portions. It is ¿also
opening is closed by a valve so that the liquid is
usual to provide shutters to regulate- flow vof air
prevented from flowing in by-passing relationship
through thetu‘bes and to- provide meansfwhereby
to thevcore portion of the unit'an-d is required to
ñow through said core portion. Said valveë is, 40 said shutters are actuated in response to _varia
tions in the temperature of _the liquidy vflowing
however, maintained normally closed by suitable
through'y the core portions of the units. In other
yieldable means so thatit-may open under a
words, during normal operation of the» heat ex
higher-’than-normal pressure in the system of`
change unit,- the shutters are .opened and closed
which the unit is apart. Accordingly, ifthe core
45 with rise and fall', respectively, of the tempera'
portion 0f the unit should,- for- any reason,` become
ture of the liquid‘aboveor below a .predetermined
obstructed to flow of the liquid therethr'ou'ghl as',
value so that the liquid is Ymaintained within» a
for example, due to congélation of the liquid
therein, the pressure in the system will rise‘untíl
said yieldably rclosed valve is »forced- open,` where-á
upon the liquid will flow in by-'passing _relation
ship to said core portion until the cong'ealed
liquid therein has become de-congéaled .o'r' such
desired> temperaturel range.
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y Heretofore, however, the shutters have 'con'
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trolled rilow of air throughthe tubes at the outer
or _peripheral parts of _the core portions >of f the
unitsas well as through the more` inwardly vdis
posed tubes, and have prevented iiow of cooling
other cause of obstruction to flow' therethrough
air through the tubes at the outer or peripheral
as may exist has been removédl The valve then 55 parts ofthe core portions òf the units" until- such'
2,404,168
timesas flow of the liquid through said parts of
said core portions has been resumed following
periods when the liquid in the core portions has
becomeA congealed. During these times the liquid
ordinarily is intensely hot and it is extremely
~ desirable that it should be cooled. ‘
Accordinglythe object of the present invention
in the casing Ii), but in its flow to said housingV
is required to pass through said heat exchange
core portion. The housing I6 has an opening
20 for outlet of the liquid therefrom regardless
of whether the liquid enters said housing
through the openings I4, I‘I or I5, I8.
As isunderstood, the present heat exchange
is to provide a heat exchange unit of the type.'
unit is to ,be used in a closed-circuit liquid circu
lating system such, for example, as the lubricant
under consideration embodying a construction
whereby Vthe shutters thereof regulate flow of,V ,19. circulating system of an internal combustion
cooling air through only the more inwardly dis
posed tubes of the core portion of the unit and
do not at any time obstruct flow of cooling air
through the tubes at the outer or peripheral part
> engine employing a pump, or pumps, for circu
lating the vliquid under pressure in the system, and
v .in this, connection it will further be understood
that a deliveryvconduit from the engine is con
of said core portion, and whereby lcooling air is
permitted at all times to flow through the tubes
nected to the inlet opening I2 and that a return
said core portion following any given period when
the liquid in said core portion may have become
conduit to' the‘engine is connected to the outlet
at the outer or peripheral part 'oflsaid corev por-ì. 1 opening 20' ofjthe'housing ' I6. Return conduit
tion, thus to insure at least some cooling of the„._.,î may or may not include a storage tank, air sepa
rator-or settling tank.
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intensely hot liquid iiowing around said core"p`or-” ‘
tion in Icy-Passing relationship thereto during 20 The valve I9 is closed by suitable yieldable
means Vwhich exerts a closing force thereon not
times'just prior to’resurnption of its flow throughh
which'will become more fully apparent as the
materially greater than the opening force which
is exerted thereon by thepressure of the liquid
in the system during normal operation of the
system. Thus, while said valve normally is closedl
and requires the- liquid to circulate through lthe
nature of the invention is better understood, the
same consists in a heat exchange- unit embodying
circulation of the liquid in by-passing relationship
the novel features of construction, combination
to the core portion of the unit whenever the pres
congealed.
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With the foregoing and other ,objectsfin view,
core portion of the' unit, it may open' and permit
and arrangement of parts as will be hereinafter so sure of the liquid rises above normal. For e'x
more fully described, illustrated. in the accom
panying drawing and defined in the `appended
claims.>
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/`_In the- accompanying drawing,- wherein like
ample, a sudden acceleration of the speed of the
engine may produce a pressure of the liquid suñi
ciently high to open said valve,- or in the event
the liquid in the core portion of the unit should
characters- of p reference denoteV corresponding 35 become con-gealed and thereby Vobstruct flow
through said’core portion, the pressure fof the
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parts in the separate views:
Figl 1 is an end elevation of a heat exchange
liquid obviously will rise until said valve opens.
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In accordance with known- practicerthe casing
I0 has extending' longitudinally therethrough
Fig. 2 is*> a vside elevation, partly in` section, of
40 numerous open-ended Y-tubes 2I-r through. which
unit embodying the features ofthe invention,
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air may flow to cool the liquid circulated through
said casing between said'tubes. Also in accord
ance withA known practice, spaced _apart parti
tions 22 are provided in the casing I0 for cooper
portion yof the present heat exchangeY unit, and
I I designatesa jacket surrounding said casing 45 ation therewith and with each other to require
the unit shown in Fig. 1.
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‘ Referring tothe drawing in detail, IIJ designates
a casing'which contains the heat exchange’ core
and,v in conjunction'therewith, providing a' pas
sagewayV a extending varound the outside thereof.
ï The jacket` I I'is provided at a suitable point, at
the topV and adjacent to one end-thereof, for ex
ample, with anopening I2'for inlet of the liquid
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to be cooled'to the. passageway a, while the casing .
IQ, at a diametrically opposite point, at the bot
torn thereof, for example, -is provided with an
opening' I3 for inlet of the liquid to vsaid _casing
the liquid to flow in atortuous path through said
casing so as to be subjected most thoroughly to
the coolingeñect of the air flowing through the
tubes
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Further in, accordance with known practice,
generally speaking, an open-ended casing23 is
mounted upon one end of the casing II) and pro
jects therebeyond and has pivotally mounted
therein a plurality of shutters 24 to be opened
from the passageway a.' In addition,fthe casing 55 and closed to regulate iiow of cooling air through
I0 is' provided at apoint diametrically opposite
the
' orfsubstantially diametrically opposite the open
ing I3,-at the top thereof, for example, with an
opening I'4 for outlet of the cooled, liquid from said
casing, ‘and the jacket I I is provided-at a suitable
point, at the top thereof, for example, with an
opening I5 for outlet of the liquid from the pas
sageway a'.
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tubes
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Additionally in accordance with known prac
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Mounted upon the'ja'cket II in covering'rela
tionship to the outlet openings I4 and vI5 is a
>housing IISA in the bottom wall of vwhich'are open
ings I1 and ls which are alined with the openings
\ I4 and I5, respectively, whereby the liquid may
íiow intov said housing either from the casing I0
vor from the passageway a.' The opening I8 nor
mally is'closed, however, by a valve I9 so thatthe
liquid cannot ñow'froin the opening I2`_ through
tice, a Athermal power element 25 is mounted in
an opening in the housing I6 and has its inner
end portion'exposed within said housing at a 1o
cation whereit will be affected by the tempera
ture of the liquid when the liquid is circulating
through the core portion of the unit and is en
„ tering said housing via theropenings I4, I'I.
._Inthe housing I6,_between the openings Il and
I8, is-a partitionl 26> having therein an opening Y2'I
controlled byy a check valve 28 to permit the liq
uid> to flowfrom the opening I'I to the housing
outlet opening 20, but- to prevent Ythe liquid,Y
when itis flowing through the openings I5, I5
andthe -housing IB to said housing outlet 'open-_
the passageway a and the'openings I 5 and I8 into
ing 20, from affecting the-thermal element '25,l
The thermal element 25 may be'of any suitable
heat exchange core >portion of the unit contained
response 'to' 4changes inthe temperature ofv the
the housing f_lt "in ley-passing relationship Ato vthe
çonstmctîon'such that @Pali-thereof mQVeâ' if?.
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2,404,138
liquid ilowing over the inner end portion oi said
element, and the said movable part of `said'ele
event of congelation of the liquid in the .heat
exchange core portion of the unit during a period
of idleness of the engine, with consequent ob
struction to flow of the liquid through said core
the shutters 24 whereby the latter are opened
in harmony with rise in the temperature of the Ul portion, and upon subsequent starting of the en
gine, the pressure of thel liquid in the system
liquid to permit more cooling air to iiow through
ment is connected in any suitable manner with
the tubes 2| and are closed in harmony with low
will rise andthe valve I9 will open.
Thereupon,
the liquid will follow a path of flow,l as indicated
ering of the temperature of the liquid to reduce
by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, from the inlet open
the amount of_ cooling air which may flow,
through said tubes.
10 ing I2 through the passageway a in by-passing
relationship to the heat exchange core portion
In the drawing the aforesaid movable part of
the thermal element 25 is indicated by way of exi
ample as comprising a reciprocable stem 29 projecting from the outer end of said element, and
of the unit contained in the casing I0, through
the openings I5 and I8 into the housing I6,
through said housing in Iby-passing relationship
the connection between vsaid- movable part and 15 to the .thermal element 25 due to the provision oi
the check valve 28, and from said housing through
the shutters 24 is indicated by way of example as
the outlet opening 20.
comprising lever arms 30 and 3| connected to
Assuming that the liquid in the heat exchange
the stem 29 and to the shaft lof one of the 'shut
core portion of the unit has become congealed
ters, respectively, and connected together by a
rod 32,> the shutters being connected together by 20 during a periodjof idleness of the engine, that the
engine hasbeen started, and that hot lliquid is
links 33 so that they are opened and‘closed in
flowing through the passageway a in by-passing
unison.
relationship to said heat exchange core portion,
As aforesaid, the prior practice has been to em
it is apparent that the heat of the byepassing
ploy shutters which regulate flow of air through
all parts of the core portions of units of the type 25 liquid will act upon the congealed liquid in the
outer or peripheral part of the core portion of
illustrated and described, with the disadvantage
the unit to de-congeal the same, >whereupon iiow
mentioned. As distinguished from this prior
will be resumed through said core portion and
practice and according to the present invention,
the de-congealing process' will progress inwardly
-the shutters 24 control flow of rcooling air only
until all of the liquid in said core portion >has been
through such of the tubes 2| as are disposed in
de-congealed. Heretofore, however, until> the
wardly o'f the outer or peripheral part of the core
by-passing vliquid has acted to de-congeal sufri
portion of the unit and Vprovision is" made for
cient of the congealed -li‘quidin the outer or p`e-flow of cooling air at all times through the tubes
ripheral part of the core portion of the unit to
2| at the outer orperipheral part of the core por
tion of the unit.
In this connection and ac
cording toA the speciiic construction illustrated in
the drawing, the shutter casing 23 includes a
larger diameter inner end ’portionv 23ab ofapprox
35 rei-establish flow through said core portion, and Y
even thereafter until suiiicient time had elapsed.
for the' shutters to open, the circulating portion
of the liquid remained excessively hot because it
was not subjected to any cooling action during
imately the same diameter as the casing I0 to fit
over or into the end of the latter casing, and 40 its flow through theV heat exchange unit. As dis
tinguished from this, the‘present invention pro‘
an outer end portion 23b of materially lesser di
vides for flow of cooling air through the outer
ameter which contains the shutters 24 and
or peripheral part of the core portion of the
through al1 portions of which flow of air is con
unit
at all times. Therefore, eve-n when the hot
trolled by said shutters. The two portions 23a,
23D of said ‘shutter casing are joined together by 45 liquid is flowing in by-passing relationship to
the core portion of the >unit ,through the passage
a wall 34 and in this wall is an annular row of
way
a, it is subjected to a certain amount of ef
openings 35 which are alined, or approximately`
fective cooling which is increased as ?lowis re
alined, longitudinally of the unit, with the tubes
sumed through the outer orY peripheral part of
2| at the outer or peripheral part of the core
said core portion prior to opening of the shut
60
portion of the unit. Thus, some cooling air may
ters. It is therefore apparent that the present
ilow through the tubes 2| at the outer or -periph
invention provides for cooling of the intensely
eral part of the core portion of the unit regard
hot liquid during the critical .time beginning with
less of whether' the liquid is flowing through or
initiation of flow of the hot liquid- in by-passing
in by-passing relationship to said core portion
and regardless of whether the shutters 24 are 55 relationship to the core portion of the unit and
lasting until flow throughl the core portion has
open or closed.
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been resumed and the shutters 24 have opened.
Normally the valve I9 is closed and the hot
Thereafter, of course, the cooling is regulated by l
liquid flows, as indicated by the dash and dot
shutters 24 as heretofore.
line in Fig. 2, from the inlet opening I2 into the
It further will be noted that by cooling the hot
passageway a, through said passageway to the 60
liquid
in the peripheral portion of the core sec
opening I3, into the casing Ill, tortuously
tion, actuation of the thermostat 25 to open the
through said casing wherein it is cooled by air
shutters 24 is delayed. In this manner, the less
flowing through the tubes 2|, from said casing
readily decongealed central portion of the core
through the openings I4 and I1 into the housing
I6 and over the inner end of the thermal ele 65 section is protected from additional cooling until
the decongealing process is complete or substan
ment whereby its heat causes said thermal ele
tially so.
ment to actuate the shutters 24 to permit the
Without further description it is thought that
proper amount of cooling air to ñow through the
the
features and the advantages of the inven- '
tubes 2| to effect proper cooling of the liquid dur
ing its flow through the casing I0, and from said 70 tion will be clearly. understood and appreciated.
It is desired to point out, however, that while
housing I6 through the outlet opening 20.
only a single speciiic structural embodiment of
In the event of a sudden acceleration of the
the invention has been illustrated and described,
speed of the engine such as might produce a
the same is readily capable of embodiment in var
surge of the liquid causing the heat exchange core
portion of the unit to become choked, or in the 75 ious speciñcally different «structures within its ,
annales.
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spirit ¿and scope as Vdefined in the appended
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end portion of reduced cross sectional area, a Wall
connecting said inner and outer end portions of
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I_ claim:
1. A 'heat exchange lunit for use in a closed,-y
saidshutter casing andhaving openings therein
circuit viscous liquid :circulating system tocool
tubes in the peripheral portion of said ñrst men
tioned casing, shutters in the said outer end por~
tion of said shutter casing for regulating flow of
for flow of cooling air at all?times through the
the liquidduring its circulation through the sys,
tem, said unit `comprising va casing having an
cooling air through >the tubes in the central por
tion> of saidV first mentioned casing, and means
operable in response to Variations'in the tempera
inlet and anoutletfor the-liquid, means at theÁ
peripheral portion and also at the center portion~
of said casing for flow of air therethrough in]
cooling relationship to .the liquid flowing there
through, means to cause the liquid normally to
flow through said casing and to flow in by
ture ofthe liquid _when it is flowing through said
casing to effect air-,ñoW-regulating actuation of
said shutters.
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passing relationship thereto kover the outside
3. A-n oil temperature regulator for use in en
thereof when the >liquid therein is »_congealed, a 15 gine lubrication systems, comprising a core sec
shutter :casing mounted uponsaid iirst ~men-` Í tion made up of a plurality of open ended tubes
assembled for the passage of air therethrough as
_tioned casing at one end thereof and extending»
a coolant and for the passage of oil therearound
ybeyond said end thereof, jsaid shutter casing in
cluding an inner end portion of substantially the
to be cooled, said oil congealing _around 'said tubes
same cross sectional size and shape as said firstI
. when excessvely cooled, >a casing surrounding said
" tube assembly and for-med with openings deñning
mentioned casing andan outer end'portion ¿of
the inlet'and the outlet for the oil flowing to and
from the core section, means for by-passing‘ oil
around said casingwhen said core section is con
reduced -cross sectional area, a Wall connecting
said inner and outer end portions of'said shutter
casing and having openings therein for iiowA of
cooling air at all times through the ai;` flow`
means at the peripheral portion of said first rnen-`v
tioned casing, shutters in the said outer end por
tion of .saidl shutter'V casingfor regulating iìow`
of cooling airthrough thev central> portion of said
first mentioned casing,-l and ¿means operable in
gealed, said by-passing oil flowing >in intimate
contact with said casing andtransmitting heat
therethrough todecongeal relatively quickly the
peripheral portion of said core section and gradually the central portion thereof, -sl'iutterme'ans at 30 .
» Yresponse >to variations Vin the temperature of the l
one end of~ the regulatorfor controlling the >flow
of airthrough said core section, a thermostat re- l l
liquidY when itis flowing through said-„casing to
effect air-flow-regulating actuation of said shut
sponsivevto the temperature of thel oil leaving
said core section-for initiating operation of said
shutters, said thermostat acting in responseto a
2,15> heat -exchange’unit f’orvuseV in a closed- :> rising temperature to Vcause'V movement of said
circuit viscous liquidY circulating system torcool
shutters toward open position, andmeans allow
ing a continuous flow Vof air through the Vperi
the` liquid during its circulation through the sys-ï
pheral portion of said core sectionirrespective of
tem, said unit comprising a> casing havingan`
the _position _of said thermostat, whereby to cool
inletand an K, outlet for vthe liquid, open-ended>
tubes extending longitudinally through the peri
the quickly decongealed oil insaid peripheral por
tion and prevent opening of said shutters before
pheral portion and alsothrough the center D01',
substantial decongelation of the central portion
Y tion of .said casing for ñow of air therethrough
in cooling relationship lto the liquidV fiowing
of said Vsection is obtained.
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4. An oil temperature regulator according to
therethrough, means_deñning a passageway ex
tending around said casing exteriorly thereof 45 claim 3, characterized in that said shutter. means
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through which the _liquid flows to the inlet of said
casing, means to cause _the liquid vnormally to
How through said passageway and said casing and
" and said means for allowing a continuous flow _of
‘ to flow in by-passing relationship to said casing
through said passageway when the liquid in said
casing is congealed, aeshutter casin-gmounted
an opposite projecting endv mounting shutters,
said. projecting end being-fof reduced- diameter
whereby said shutters cover only the central- por
upon said ñrst mentioned .casing at vone end
tion of the core section, and the’intermediate area
thereof and extending beyond lsaid end thereof,"
of said extension being .formed with openings
aligned Withthe peripheral portion of said core
>Yair are comprised in a casing extension having
Yone end fitted to an end of said casing and having
said shutter casing including an inner endrpor.
tion oi substantially the same cross sectional size
and shape as first mentioned casing and an outer
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section.
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WALTER H. GEDDES.
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