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Патент USA US2404172

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July 16, 1946.
c. R. HANNA
‘2,404,172 .
STABILIZER APPARATUS
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Filed May 28,‘ 1945
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CLmToN R. HFINNR.
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ATTORNEY
July 16, 1946.
<;_ R HANNA
2,404,172 ~
S TAB ILI ZER APPARATUS
Filed May 28, 1945
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INVENTOR
CLINTON R. HHNNR'
BY loll/45M
ATTORNEY
Patented July 16, 1946
‘
I
'
' i
UNITED STATES; PAT ENT oi-éricr. ‘
2,404,172;
Clinton, R‘.STABILIZER
Hanna, Pittsburgh, Pa., assignor to
Westinghouse Electric Corporation',..East;Pitts
burgh; , Pa., . a. corporation of Pennsylvania
Application May 28,1945, SerialNo. 596,253
17 Claims“. (Cl; ,7:4.,—.5):
1
2'
This: application is a continuation; of my appli-
means- to applyforce to the: body member; from.
for
cation-Serial
StabilizerNo‘.
apparatus,
514L019,‘ ?led~December~1'3;
and‘ a continuation-in1943‘,
part of: subject-matter-dividedl from my» applica-
mounting‘
which the-axis
velocityopposingangular-motion
input‘; is; derived;_ about
thereof‘
about such- axis in‘ response‘ to the velocity of"
tion Serial No. 366,877; ?led; November 23‘, 1940; 5 such-‘motion;
'
for’ Stabilizing and positioning“ apparatus, and
maturing into Patent No. 25381160‘ of ‘ August 7,
Accordingly, a; further object of the invention:
is‘toprovide a-pivotally-mountedsupportingplate-_
1945.
movable‘ angularlywith a body~member asv the
The invention relates to stabilization of a body
latteiymoves about'itsmountingaxis andcarrying
about a mounting axis and it has for an object l0~ a gyro-jresponsivei-toangularvelocity of'the plate
to provide improved gyro-apparatus responsive to
about; its mounting axis to operate‘ an actuated‘
movement of the body about themounting axis'to
member; attachedx to‘ the plate to‘ control‘, power"
oppose‘ such movement in response to-thel'atter.
means‘ for’ applying force‘ to the body member
In my aforesaid patent, there is-disclosedand'
opposingmotion thereofaboutjth-e mountingjaxis
claimed a velocity-responsive or anticipatinggyro 15' ink response-to" the velocity of~'such~motion.v
which is capable of stabilizing a gunagainst disInstead-'ofe‘usingea stabilizedipendulousmember
turbanceszdue to rapid tank“ oscillations’ because
to-prov-ide the-vertical‘ reference; a smallness‘
the-electrically-controlled hydraulic system; under
may ¢be>added¢ aty one-side of~‘the velocity-respon'e
controli of‘ such\_ gyro, is capable -of-’ resisting~such>
sive1eyro=to~rep1acepartiallythe reference :duties ~
disturbances with torque! proportional to angular ‘ 20= thereof-f This mass has aside componentof‘force
deviation velocity with respectto space; that is,
suclngyrov and- the system controlledltherebwpro-
due to gravity when the gyro istiIted»andiwhibhw
biases» the electricalEcontacts- to provide very slow
vide high resistanceto gun angular-Velbcity;'however, to provide for vertical reference enabling
VeIOOityoFreturm Themassimust necessarily-be
smallk-toavoidrespondingtoomuch-to-horiZontal,
theiappal‘atusjo returntheugunito.aimed-iposi?oni 25;; acceleration; but; the smaller themassselécted;
grayityqesponsive means; such- as; a pendulous
member-stabilized by-a gyro, isrremployed?n con-
the;1eSS"-1?he Vertiealfl‘etul'ning‘abilityi
Therefore; it is-a-Y-further'object"ofc'thej-invention"
junctiomwiththeanticipatingrgyro; Ihavejfoundi
to provide for~an eifectiVevertica-Preference'ior
that, with the particular apparatus illustrated‘
the gyro without increasing errors due-‘cohort
andodescribedlin said- application’, theependulumv 3011 zont-al accelerations‘; thisC being; accomplished: by
and: its stabilizing gyro may be‘ renderedeine?ec-
hel'v-inglv a relativelydl’ieavy mass-Which is'supllol‘ted‘
tiv.e;b_y fastening; the pendulum to ~the~supporting
plateso-as to be unitarywith thelatter; whereby
independently-of the'gyro' butriscon-nected tether
latterthrough=pre-loadedisprings-so~as>to increase
the contacts are attached to the supportingvplate-v
thezverticali returning abilityrwithou? increasing‘,
tomovettherewith, with theresulmhat:theappaa 35¢ errors ‘caused’ by horizontal?‘ accelerations; In
ratus, ass/so modi?ed; is. sensitive-onlyto-angularother words; while1therlarger'ma‘SS"is fullyeffeoe
velocity of, the supporting plataa'bout its mount-tive; so farias» vertical» returning; ability is‘ con"
ingiaxis, and such an arrangement is-»usefu1_'-for1
cerned-g the springsilimit the torque'apphedtothe
controlling-purposes,- particularly to control power
gyro and; ‘therefore, limitl there?ect offaccelera
means, to oppose motion of? a: body» about’ it's- 4m-tions'vofl'suchlmassv
‘
mounting axis in response-tmthewelocitiy ofisuchmotion.
Gyrosutilizingv velocity inputs-.tcrprovidetorque
A- further object‘ of: the‘invention is:v to ‘use a
heavier :mass to obtain-return to the vertical with’
a much smaller angle of tilting of the gyro with
outputs- used for various: purposes; suchr-as: the:
out‘increasing'errorslduetohorizontalfaccelerar
operation of an indicator or a rudder, are old and=‘- 45i'ti0ns1 with the‘ result that; not‘ only: is: greater-
well known, as may be seen from: priorrartideale
ing, with turnindicators andiautomaticrsteeringr
The present invention, is; distinguishable I there-a
accuracyiobt'ained; but‘ lowrspeediaiming is~im=
provedv'andl correction=~of‘the- residual error after‘ '
recoil‘ is'mucli-more‘certain‘:
over‘, in -,that, as theobjectris stabilizationito :mainm
AI ‘further object’ of-éthe invention-isto provide
tain; aopredetermined dircctiontofra body member: 502» apparatus responsive to deviation‘ of‘ an’ object‘
aboutaimounting azdathe-torqueputput, insteadf
from a reference to apply‘ torque-'- to a‘ gym" to‘
oibeing applied to somethingindependent:ofrthe;
cont-r015amotordevice-to'effect‘return ofthe' ob‘
body or structure fromwhichw the-{velocity input.»
comes, is;- applied; tO__.Sl1.0h: bodyeor struetureithati
ject to itswposition relative to the‘ reference and‘
wherein’ the" apparatus‘lincludes‘means-for’lim
is, the; torque: output; isr=v used": to: control’. poweri 551’.- iting the-applieditorque:
'
2,404,172
3
4
These and other objects are effected by the in
vention as will be apparent from the following
The mounting member 21 for the support pro
vides for angular movement of the latter about
description and claims taken in connection with
the accompanying drawings, forming a part of
this application, in which:
and the precession axis y-y is arranged at right
angles to the mounting axis z——z and to the spin
its mounting axis 2-2. The rotor spin axis :z:—a:
extends transversely of the mounting axis z—z
Figs. 1 and 2 are elevational views of a gyro and
axis :r—:r. Further, the contacts 22 and 23 are
mounted on a bracket element 22a attached to
associated parts, Fig. 2 being at right angles to
Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is a plan view of apparatus shown in
Fig. 1;
Figs. 4 and 5 are detail Views showing pre
the support 26 to move with the latter'and the
10 contacts are arranged for actuation by movement
' in a direction parallel to the plane of angular
movement of the support about its mounting axis
ferred and alternative damping arrangements;
z-z. Therefore, in accordance with the well-es
Fig. 6 is a diagrammatic view of the stabilizing
tablished gyrodynamic relation T=IswsW (where
system as a whole;
'
.
.
Fig. '7 is a diagrammatic View showing torque 15 “T” is torque about one of a pair of axes trans
verse to the spin axis, “Is” is polar moment of
and displacement relations; and
inertia of the rotor about the spin axis, “105” is
Fig. 8 is a diagrammatic view illustrating a
spin velocity of the rotor, and “W” is angular
modi?ed way of supporting the gyro.
'
velocity about the other transverse axis of the
Referring to Fig. 6, there is shown an object
pair), it necessarily follows that angular velocity
or body 8, for example, a gun, having horizontal
“W” of the support 26 about its mounting axis is
trunnions 9 carried by bearings III provided on
accompanied by proportional torque “T” about
frame structure I3 of any suitable support such
the output or precession axis 21-11. Such torque
as a tank or land vehicle. As pointed out in my
is opposed by suitable means acting about the
patent aforesaid, deviation or vibration of the
precession axis so that movement about the lat-‘
25
gun or body member about its mounting axis from
ter in response to the torque is proportional to
aimed position is brought about by movement of
the input velocity and such proportional move
the supporting structure particularly because of
ment in a direction approximately parallel to the
friction at the trunnion bearings, and the ap
plane of angular movement of the support about
paratus therein disclosed is e?ective both in re
sponse to angular displacement or deviation about 30 its mounting axis is used. to effect actuation of
the actuated member constituted by the contacts
the mounting axis and to the velocity of such dis
to control power means for applying force to the
placement or deviation. The present invention
gun or body member to oppose motion of the
relates to a stabilizer controlled by a velocity gyro
latter about its mounting axis in response to the
as well as such a gyro combined with means re
sponsive to deviation of the gun or body member 35
from a predetermined angular position about the
mounting axis to effect return thereof to such
position, and it is characterized by the provision
of means for limiting torque applied to the gyro
to effect return to avoid undesired action because
of excessive torques.
The body or gun is connected to the frame
structure I3 by piston and cylinder elements I4
and I5 of a hydraulic system rendered effective to
facilitate aiming of the gun or body by suitable
electrical means under the control of gyro ap
velocity of such motion. '
-
To provide a vertical reference for the gyro,
a mass, carried by and pivotally connected to
the support 26 about the precession axis y—y,
for example, the mounting structure 24a for the
actuator 24 operatively connected to the gyro,
is disposed so that, upon tilting of the gyro,
gravity acts thereon to exert a side component
of force applied as torque to the gyro about the
precession axis to move the latter about such
45 axis to bias the contacts to control the hydraulic
paratus, the electrically-controlled hydraulic sys
or power means so that the latter returns the
support approximately to vertical position.
If
the mass is attached to the gyro, the necessity
for avoiding excessive torques incident to hori
said patent.
In general, the variable means includes, for ex 50 zontal accelerations, limits the size which may
be used and this entails, for the same torque,
ample, a pair of electric circuits I6 and I1 and
angular displacement of the gun and the sup
a pair of magnetically-operated valves I8 and
port through angles which increase as the mass
I9 of the ‘hydraulic system, each circuit having
tem being described in greater detail in my afore
variable resistance elements including resistors
20 and 2I and groups of ?exible contacts 22 and 55
23, each group of contacts being arranged for
progressive engagement to progressively shunt
portions of resistance of the associated resistor
and for progressive disengagement to progressive
ly include portions of the resistance ‘in circuit.
The groups of contacts are disposed at either side
is reduced.
‘
To avoid excessive torques of a large mass while
preserving the advantage of position restoration
of, the latter, I provide a relatively heavy mass
35, which, as before, is carried by the support
and is pivotally connected thereto about. the
precession axis; however, instead of the connec
tion to the gyro being by direct positive attach
of the contact actuator 24 operated by the gyro,
ment, it includes pre-loaded springs which func
at 25.
Referring now to the improved gyro apparatus
illustrated in Figs. 1, 2 and 3, there is shown a
mass to the gyro incident to horizontal accelera
tion to limit the application of torque from the
tions.
'
Fig. 7 shows the angular displacement relation
support 26 connected to move angularly with the
for the development of a given restoring torque,
gun or body 8, the support being provided with a
the dash line showing the relation for the light
mounting member 2'! about whose axis z—z it is
mass attached to the gyro and the full‘ line‘
angularly movable. The support has a bracket 28
provided with upper and lower arms 29 and 30 70 indicating the relation . for the independently
mounted heavy mass connected ‘to the gyro by
for the vertically-opposed pivot pins 3I and 32
means of load springs.‘ From this view, it is
for ‘the gyro frame or casing 33 carrying a gyro
evident that, for‘ a given torque T, the angular
rotor. 34 whose axis of spin :n-zc is arranged at
displacement for the heavy mass and load spring
right angles to the precession axis y—-—y provided
arrangement is very much less than for the di
by the upper and lower pivot pins 3| and 32.
2,404,172.
rectly attached light mass. Not. only is- the an-_
gular displacement or deviation for effecting re-'
turn to the vertical greatly reduced,. but on this
tached directly to the gyro,‘ for increased ability
to return to the vertical. With the. larger‘ mass,
the same torque is developed with a very much
account, the time required for stabilizing follow
smaller angle of tilt oflthe'v gyro. For example,
ing a disturbance is greatly reduced. As. aim 5. assuming that the springs are designed .to give
ing is effected by utilizing the apparatus as a
approximately at; inch-pound torque‘, WhiCh‘ICOL-‘e: .
servohmotor, as more fully described in my
responds to‘ the torque which wouldi'havgbeen
patent aforesaid, the improved arrangement has
produced by a smaller mass when subject. to ones
the advantage of better control of aiming for
fourth gravity acceleration and whichitorqu'e‘. is
slow handwheel movements. Furthermore, the
capable of causing the system .togmove about the
correction of the residual error following recoil
trunnions' of the gun at approximately 1/2 degree
becomes more certain.
‘
per second, then, with the larger mass,- thisv torque
The mass 35 preferably comprises an. elongated
may be developed for 2 degrees tilt. of the» gyro,
and vertically-disposed. element whose upper and
whereas, with the directly attached smaller‘mass,
lower ends are attached to upper and lower arms
between. 14. and 15 degrees of tilt would be resv
31 and 38 pivoted, preferably by means of the
ball bearings 59 and 40, to‘ portions of the pivot
Damping means cooperates with the gyro-and. V
pins 30 and 3| extending above and below the
the load springs to damp or to prevent undesired;
bracket arms. Thus, the mass assembly’ consist
oscillations. In Figs. 1, 2 and 3, the damper is'of
ing of the mass and the arms attached thereto 20 the type disclosed in my patent aforesaid and in
is carried by the bracket for supporting the gyro.
the patent to Lynn, No. 2,381,161 of August. 7,:
Suitable means is used for limiting the angular
1945. In these views, the upper end of the bar
motion of the mass assembly with respect to the
44 carries an arm 58 connected by a wire 55 to
precession axis or vertical axis of the pivot pins,
the damper lever 50 hinged, preferably byxale'afi
and, by way of example, the lower arm of the
springv element 61, to the bracket 62. _ Larger and
bracket is shown as being provided with a rubber
smaller Sylphons 63 and Here attached at one‘
covered pin 4! which extends through a larger
end to the bracket. 62,:theother end of. the largert
opening 42 formed in the lower arm 40.
quired.
An abutment member ‘43. and the actuator 24
are both connected to the gyro so as to partici
pate in precessional movements of the latter.
This connection is preferably provided by a. ver
tically-disposed bar 44 attached to one side: of
the gyro and having its opposite ends connected
to the actuator and to the abutment member.
The bar extends through openings 45 and 45
formed in the arms 31 and 38 and which are
large enough to permit of angular movement of
the bar with the gyro.
‘
'
’
Sylphon'being free; and the other .end of ' the
smaller Sylphon 64 being attached. to the lever
60. . The bracket has a passage 65'connecting. the‘
interiors of the Syl'phons and flow therethrouglr
is restricted in any suitable manner as by aineedle.»
valve 65. Assuming that the Sylphons and the
connecting passage are ?lled withi'suitahle'liquid,
it will be apparent that the Sylphons are eifec‘tive:v
to provide damping for minimizing oscillations of
the gyro and of the springs. Further, the liquid
damper functions as a ?lter e?ective about. the
precession axis to prevent the gyro from. being;
A- bracket member 41, forming a. component 40 whipped. into some higher frequency, thereby
part of the mass assembly, has inner and outer
rendering it ineffective to deal with motionwhich
upwardly-extending lugs 43 and 49 for support
it is the object of the stabilizer to minimize.
ing and. guiding the aligned pins 50 whose inner
As pointed out above, input velocity of the sup;
ends cooperate with the abutment 43 extending
port
25 about its mounting axis c—c‘ isaccom
into the space between the inner lugs 48.
4.5 panied by proportional torquev about. the output:
Collars 5| are attached by means of set screws
or precession axis y--y. To provide for move
or keys 52 to the pins 50 in the spaces between
ment about the precession or output axis pro‘
the lugs 48 and 49. Loaded. springs 53 have
portional to the input velocity, it is necessary:
their inner ends bearing against the collars and
to oppose the torque by means so that the move:
their outer ends abutting the sleeves 54 having
-ment is a measure of the torque or is" propor-'
threaded connections 55 with respect to the outer
tional to the latter. It will be apparent that,
lugs 49. Collars 56 are attached, for example,
aside from springiness of the contacts, the leaf‘
by means of cross keys 51, to the outer ends of
spring element GI and the bellows or Sylphons,
the pins and limit motion of the latter inwardly
63 and 64 constitute centering spring means ef;
under in?uence of the springs;
'
55 fective about the precession axis to oppose the
Adjustment of the sleeves 54 with respect to the
torque, the scale effect thereby introduced by such‘
lugs 49 provides for positioning of the inner ends»
spring means‘ assuring of movement about the
or the rods in desired relation with respect to the
precession aXis which is proportional to the torque,‘
abutment, these rods being normally positioned
and therefore proportional to the inputvelocity;
so that they just engage the abutment with the 60
Instead of relying entirely‘ upon the Sylphdnsl
cellars 55 engaging the sleeves 54; and a desired
for damping, as in Figs. 2 and 3, additional dampinitial spring compression or load, with the inner
ing may be effected by friction between the abut
ends of the pins engaging opposite faces of the
ment 43 and the pins 50, provided that the'engag
abutment and with the outer collars of the pins
ing surfaces are suitably formed to develop fric
positioned to limit inward movement of the latter, 65 tion effective for this purpose. ‘Fig. 4 shows-a
may be had by providing outer collars 56 suitably
structure capable of developing. such friction.
dimensioned for a required relative adjustment or
The abutment 43a has oppositely-inclined sur-‘
spacing of the sleeves 55 and the inner collars 5|.
faces 68 engaging the inner ends of the rods ‘5Q
The load springs 53 are e?fective fully to apply
so as to urge thelatter laterally to develop fric-I
the side component of force of the mass due to 70 tion at one side of the guide openings formed in
gravity and to limit torques applied to the gyro
the inner lugs 48. As shown in Fig. 4, thewedge-v
and. due to horizontal accelerations of. the mass.
arrangement provides, because of the larger
permissible mass which may be used as compared
to ,the arrangement. Where, a smaller mass. is. at>-.
‘
shaped end of the abutment engages the rod'srat'
the left side of the axis to. cause such rods to"
press laterally at the right side of the‘ axis against
75 the-bearings. 59, and'the friction so‘ develbpedisa
' " '
2,404,172
7
e?ective to damp oscillations between the weight
8
ances are'reduced and return to the verticalis
more quickly effected. ‘Therefore, it becomes-pus;
>
sible to reduce recoil errors more quickly and to
-The ‘damping effect may be increased by in
provide for better control of aiming with slow
creasing the angle included between the inclined
handwheel movements.
v.
i
'
surfaces ‘68 for the reason that the larger the
While there is shown and described reference
angle the greater the component of the Pressure
means responsive to the gravity force ?eld, it ‘will
normal‘ to the axis of the rods. In Fig. 5, there is
be apparent that, so'far as limiting torque applied
shown an abutment having inclined surfaces 58a
to the gyro is concerned, the invention includes
which include a larger angle than the surfaces 68
of Fig. 4 and provide, because of the larger in 10 reference means responsive to any suitable force
?eld. Further, while pre-loaded springs are
cluded angle, for increased damping friction be
shown for limiting torque applied to the gyro,
tween the rods and the guide bearings at one side
other means may be used for this purpose.
7
of the latter.
Therefore, while the invention has been shown
Because of the increased ability, accuracy and
in several forms, it will be obvious to those skilled’
sensitivity of the present invention in effecting
in the art that it is not so limited, but is suscepti-V
return to the vertical, low speed aiming of the gun
ble of various other changes and modi?cations
by the handwheel is improved. Also, correction
without departing from the spirit thereof.
of residual error after recoil is rendered more cer
What is claimed is:
,
tain. It is impossible to maintain continuous per
1. In apparatus for stabilizing a" pivotally?
fect matching of the recoil pressure owing to var 20
and the springs.
iations in battery voltage, temperature condi
mounted object angularly about its mountingaxis
Where the support 26 is connected so as to be
located below the gun trunnions by an arrange
means and including an actuated member and
ment such as diagrammatically indicated in Fig.
8, the mass 35 responds advantageously to angu
lar accelerations of the gun, that is, as the gyro
the direction and magnitude of force applied by
and wherein power means is arranged to apply
tions, etc., and so it is highly desirable that the
forces
to the object about the mounting- axis to
stabilizer be able to cope with remanent errors in
oppose angular motion thereof about such axis,
the ‘return following recoil.
a gyro including a support, a frame or‘casing
In Figs. 1 and 2, the axis about which the sup 25
pivotally carried by the support about a preces
port 26 is tilted due to angular movement of the
sion axis, and a rotor joumaled in the frame or
gun is shown in line with the center of gravity of
casing; means for mounting the support for an:- ‘
the mass so that high acceleration of the gyro
gular movement with the object as the‘ latter
unit by the handwheel will not cause spurious
moves about its mounting axis with the preces
movements of the mass. Such movements, how 30 sion axis normal both to the axis of ' angular
ever, could be made to assist in the aiming proc
movement of the support and to the rotor spin
ess if the center of rotation is properly chosen
axis and with the latter axis extending trans
with respect to the center of gravity of the mass.
versely of the axis of angular movement of the
To this end, in Fig. 8, there is shown an arrange
support so that angular velocity of the latter
ment wherein the mounting member 21 has its 35 about its axis of angular movement is accompa- axis arranged above the center of gravity of the
nied by proportional torque‘ of the gyro ‘about
mass as well as of the gyro.
the precession axis; a control device for the power
unit is spaced below the trunnions, the mass re
sponds to linear ‘accelerations produced by gun
angular accelerations.
From the foregoing, it will be apparent that,
by having the contacts attached to and movable
with the support plate 26 for the gyro, there is
an actuating member movable from mid-posi
tion relative to the actuated member to control
the power means to the object; ‘an element uni
tary with the support and upon which said actu-.
ated member is mounted; and means for connect- '
ing the gyro frame or casing to the actuating
member with the latter eccentric to the precession
axis so that torque about the latter‘ is effective.
for operation of the actuated member to control
provided apparatus for giving a controlling effect
the power means to apply force opposing motion which is responsive to angular velocity of the sup 50: of the object about its mounting axis in response
port about the mounting axis. Further, by the
to the velocity of such motion.
.
use of the improved reference means, it becomes
2. In apparatus for stabilizing a pivotally?
possible to provide a stabilizer system having a
mounted object angularly about its mounting axis
single gyro and which is capable of approaching
1 and wherein power means is arranged to apply
the accuracy of the two-gyro system speci?cally 55 forces to the object about the mounting axis'to
disclosed in my patent aforesaid and which is less
oppose angular motion thereof about such axis,
susceptible to the e?ects of horizontal accelera
a gyro including a support, a frame or casing
tions. Furthermore, the effect of a heavy mass or
integral pendulum is accomplished without the
undesired e?ects thereof on account of lateral ac
celerations, this being made possible by mounting
the heavy mass independently of the gyro and
connecting it to the latter through loaded springs
which function to limit the torque applied to the
gyro by the mass incident to horizontal accelera
tions. While making the mass heavier it is de
sirable from the standpoint of greater accuracy
of return, it should not be so large as to have a
detrimental effect on the rate of response of the
gyro about its precession axis because of too much
added inertia. Because the heavy mass gives the
desired restoring torque with a very much reduced
angle of displacement as compared to the ar
rangement where the mass is integral with the
gyro, displacements or deviations due to disturb
pivotally carried by the support about a preces- .
sion axis, and a rotor journaled in- the frame
60 or casing; means for mounting the support for.
angular movement with the object as the latter
moves about its mounting axis with the preces~ .
sion axis normal both to the axis of angular
65 movement of the support and to the rotor spin
axis and with the latter axis extending trans
versely of the axis of angular movement of the
support so that angular velocity of the latter
about its axis of angular movement is accompa
nied by proportional torque of the gyro about the
precession axis; means acting on the gyro about
the precession axis to oppose motion thereof
about the latter so that the extent of movement
about the precession axis in response to said
torque is proportional to the angularvelocity' ‘of -
2,4041%
‘the support about ‘its-axis of'angular‘movement;
'a control device ‘including an actuated ‘member
and an actuating member movable vfrom mid
position relative thereto to operate the ‘power
‘means to apply to the object force "whose direc
tion and magnitude depends ‘upon ‘the direction
and extent of movement of theactuating member
from mid-position relative ‘to the actuated ‘mem
her; an element unitary with the support ‘and
,
,
10
an element ‘unitary w“1th “the support and upon '
which the actuated member is mounted for opera
tion by movement in a direction substantially
parallel to the plane of movement ‘of the ‘support
about it's mounting axis; means for connecting
said actuating member'to'the gyro frame or casing
so'thatjit vinec'ce'ntric relation tothe vprecession
to’ provide, when the gyro frame or casing
moves about the ‘precession ‘axis, ‘for movement
upon which the actuated member is mounted; 10 thereof relative to the actuated 'memb'er andl'in
and an arm attached to the gyro vframe "or-casing
a direction approximately parallel to ‘the plane
and connected to the actuating member‘with the
of vangular ‘mcveme'ntof the support about ‘its
latter eccentric to ‘the precession axis so that ‘such
*axis‘of‘angul‘ar 'movementifor; control of'thejpower .
actuating member moves with the gyro frame ‘or
means to "apply ‘force'opp'osing motion of the ob
casing about the precession 'axis to operate ‘the
ject about its mounting ‘axis "in response t'o‘the
actuated member for control of the power means
velocity of such motion; and means ‘for applying
to apply force opposing'motion of'the object about
torque to the gyro about its precession ‘axis upon
its mounting axis in response to the velocity of
deviation of th'e'ebj'ect ‘from its predetermined
such motion.
direction about the mounting'axis to ‘effect rela~
3. Apparatus as claimed in claim 2 with ya 20 tive‘ ‘movement of the actuating and actuated
damper acting on the gyro frame or casing about
members for control of the power means to move
the precession axis and including an ori?ce
through which liquid is constrained to ?ow inci
dent to movement of the gyro casing and ‘rotor
the object for restoration o'fthe object to ‘itsjpre
determined direction; .said 'last-‘namedmeans in
cluding means for limitingjthe torque appli'edto
about the precession axis.
25 thegyro about the precession axis. _
. .
4. In stabilizing apparatus for maintaining an
6.
In
apparatusior
st'abiliz'ingan
object
‘angu
object in a predetermined direction angularly
larly about a, horizontal mounting axis with re
about a ?rst axis and wherein power means is
spect'to the vertical and wherein power means
operative to exert effort on the object about said
is arranged to apply ‘forces to the object about.
axis, a gyro mounted on the object with its pre 30 its mounting axis, a support having a horizontal
cession axis at right angles ‘both to said ‘?rst axis
mounting axis, movable angularly abouts'u'ch ‘axis
and to the spin axis and with the latter-axis
with the object as the latter moves about its
extending transversely of the ?rst axis so that
mounting axis, and having a normal ‘position
angular velocity of the object about the ?rst axis
about'its mounting axis with'resp'ect to the verti
is accompanied by proportional torque of the gyro 35 cal‘;
a gyro having its spin axis extending trans;
about the precession axis, means for controlling
versely with respect to the mounting
of the
the power means in response to ‘said torque ‘to
support; means for mounting the gyro on the ‘sup
oppose motion of the object about said ?rst ‘axis
port ‘with .its precession axis normal both to the
in response to the velocity of such motion, and
spin axis and to the mounting axis of the support
means for producing torque applied to the gyro
so that angular velocity of the ‘support about its
about the precession axis upon deviation ‘of ‘the
mounting
axis is accompanied by proportional
object from its predetermined direction angu
torque of the gyro about the precession ‘axis;
larly about said ?rst axis to operate the power
means for opposing motion of the gyro about the
means to move the object about the latter axis
precession
axis sor-that movement thereof about
to e?ect return thereof to its predetermined di 45 such axis due to said torque ‘is in response to angu
rection, said last-named means including means
lar velocity vof the support about its mounting
for limiting the torque applied to the gyro about
axis; a control device for the power means and
the precession axis.
including an actuated member and an actuating
5. In stabilizing apparatus for maintaining a
pivotally-mounted object in a predetermined di 50 member movable from mid-position relative to
the actuated member to control ‘the direction and
rection angularly about its mounting axis and
magnitude of force applied by the power means
wherein power means is arranged to apply forces ' to the object; an element unitary'with the support
to the object about the mounting axis, a gyro
and ‘upon which the actuated member is mounted
including a support, a frame or casing pivot'ally
for operation by movement in a direction substan
carried by the support about a precession axis, and 55 tially parallel to the plane of movement of the
a rotor journaled in the frame or casing; means
support about its mounting axis; means for con
for mounting the support for angular movement
necting said actuating member to the gyro 'so
with the object as the latter moves about its
that it .is in eccentric relation to the precession
mounting axis with the precession axis normal
axis to provide, when the gyro moves about the
both to the axis of angular movement of the, sup 60 precession axis, for movement thereof relative to
port and to the rotor spin axis and with the latter
the actuated member and in a direction approxi
axis extending transversely of the axis of angular
mately parallelsto the plane of angular movement
movement of the support so that angular velocity
of the‘ support ‘about its mounting axis for control
of the latter about its axis of angular movement is
of vthe powerameans to apply force opposing mo
accomplished by proportional torque of the gyro 65 tion'ofthe object about its mounting axis in re
about the precession axis; means for opposing
sponse to'rthe velocity of such motion; ‘a mass
motion of the gyro about the precession axis so
carried bypthe support and pivotally connected
that movement thereof about such axis due to
thereto about theprec'ession, axis with its center
said torque is in response to angular velocity of
of gravity eccentric tosuch axis; and means for
the support about its mounting axis; a control 70 connecting
the mass and the'gyro so that, upon
device for the power means and including an
tilting
of
the
latter, gravity acting on the mass: is
actuated member'and an actuating member mov
e?‘ective' to exert a 'side component of force ap
able from mid-position relative to the actuated
plied as torque to the gyro about the precession
member to control the direction and magnitude
axis to effect relative movement ofthe actuating
of force applied by the power means to the object; 75. and actuated members for control of the power
2,404,172
11
support to its normal position with respect to the
vertical; said last-named means including load
springs for limiting the force applied as torque -
to the gyro about the precession axis incident to
horizontal accelerations and decelerations in a
direction parallel to the plane of angular move
ment of the support about its mounting axis.
'7. The combination as claimed in claim 6 with
means providing for adjustment of loading of the
load springs.
having its spin axis extending transversely with
respect to the axis of the support; means for
mounting the gyro with its precession axis nor
mal both to the spin axis and‘ to the axis of the
19 support so that Velocity of the support about its
axis is accompanied by proportional torque of
'
the gyro about the precession axis; -means for
opposing motion of the gyro about the precession
8. The combination as claimed in claim 6‘with
damping means cooperating with the load springs
and with the gyro and effective about the axis
of precession of the latter.
9. In apparatus for stabilizing an object an
gularly about a horizontal mounting axis with
respect to the vertical and wherein power means
is arranged to apply forces to the object about its
mounting axis, a support having a horizontal
mounting axis, movable angularly about such axis
12
mounting axis, a support pivoted about a. hori
zontal axis, movable angularly about such axis
with the object as the latter moves about the
mounting axis,>and having a normal position
about its axis with respect to the vertical; a gyro
means to move the object for restoration of the
axis so that movement about such axis is in re
1.5.
sponse to angular velocity of the support about
its axis; a control device for the power means
and including an actuated member and an ac
tuating member movable from mid-position rel
ative to the actuated member to control the di
and magnitude of force applied by the
29 rection
power means to the object; an element ‘unitary
with the object as the latter moves aboutxits
with the support and upon which the actuated
mounting axis, and having a normal position
about its mounting axis with respect to the ver
in a direction substantially parallel to the plane
member is mounted for operation by movement
of movement of the support about its mounting
axis; a mass assembly carried by the’ support and
mounted for pivotal=movement about the pre
cession axis; an abutment member; means for
connecting the abutment and the actuating
tical; a gyro having its spin axis extending
transversely with respect to the mounting axis
of the support; means for mounting the gyro on
the support with its precession axis normal both
to the spin axis and to the axis of the ‘support
so that angular velocity of the support about its 39. members to the gyro so as to move with the
latter about the procession axis and in direc
mounting axis is accompanied by proportional
tions approximately parallel to the plane of an
torque of the gyro about the precession axis;
gular movement of the support about its mount
means for opposing motion of the gyro about
ing axis; aligned pins carried by the mass as
the precession axis so that movement about such
axis due to said torque is in response to angular 35, sembly and having their inner ends arranged
for abutment relation with respect to opposite
velocity of the support about its mounting axis;
faces of the abutment member; and springs ar
a control device for the power means and includ
ranged to exert forces on the‘ rods tending to
ing an actuated member and an actuating mem
move the latter inwardly toward the abutment
ber movable from mid-position relative to the
actuated member to control the direction and
magnitude of force applied by the power means
faces.
11. The combination as. claimed in claim 10
with stop means for limiting inward movement
to the object; an element unitary with the sup
port and upon which the actuated member is
mounted for operation by movement in a direc
of the pins under influence of the springs.
12. The combination as claimed in claim 10
with means providing for adjustment of the
springs to vary the forces thereof exerted on the
tion substantially parallel to the plane of move
ment of the support about its mounting axis; an
arm connected to the gyro for movement with
the latter as it moves about the precession axis;
means for connecting one end of the arm to the
actuating member With the latter in eccentric
relation to the precession axis so that it is moved
in a direction approximately parallel to the plane
of angular movement of the support about its
mounting axis and relative to the actuated
member for operation of the latter to control the
power means to apply force to the object oppos
ing motion thereof about its mounting axis in
response to the velocity of such motion; a mass
mounted for movement about the precession axis
and operatively connected to the arm so that,
upon tilting of the gyro, gravity acting on the
mass is e?ective to exert a side component of
force applied as torque to the gyro about the
precession axis to move the gyro and the am
about the latter axis to effect relatiye movement
of the actuating and the actuated members for
control of the power means to move the object
for restoration of the support to its normal po
sition with respect to the vertical; and means for
pins.
.50.
60
-
13. The combination as claimed in claim 10
with stop means for limiting inward movement of
the ‘pins under in?uence of the springs and with
means providing for adjustment of the springs to
vary the forces exerted thereby on the pins.
14. In apparatus for stabilizing an object angu
larly about a horizontal mounting axis with re
spect to the vertical and wherein power means is
arranged to apply forces to the object about its
mounting axis, a support pivoted about a horizon
tal axis, movable angularly about such axis with
the object as the latter moves about the mount
ing axis, and having a normal position about‘ its
axis with respect to the vertical; a gyro having
its spin axis extending transversely with respect
to the axis of the support; means for mounting
the gyro with its .precession axis normal both
to the spin axis and to the axis of the support
so that velocity of the support about its axis is
accompanied by proportional torque of the gyro
about the precession axis; means for opposing
motion of the gyro about the precession axis so
limiting the torque applied to the gyro about the 70 that movement about such axis is in response to
angular velocity of the support about its axis;
precession axis.
10. In apparatus for stabilizing an object an
gularly about a horizontal mounting axis with re
spect to the vertical and wherein power means
a control device for the power means and in
cluding an actuated member and an actuating
member movable from mid-position relative to
is arranged to apply force to the object about its 75 the actuated member to control the direction and
2,404, 172
13
magnitude of force applied by the power means
to the object; an element unitary with the sup
port and upon which the actuated member is
mounted for operation by movement in a direction
substantially parallel to the plane of movement
of the support about its mounting axis; a mass
assembly carried by the support and mounted for
14
abutment member and with the stop means in
position to limit inward movement of the pins;
and damper means cooperating with the spring
means and with the gyro and effective about the
axis of precession of the latter.
16. In apparatus for stabilizing an object angu
larly about a horizontal mounting axis with re
pivotal movement about the precession axis; an
spect to the vertical and wherein power means is
abutment member; means for connecting the
arranged to apply forces to the object about its
abutment member and the actuating member to 10 mounting axis, a support pivoted about a hori
the gyro so as to move with the latter about the
zontal axis, movable angularly about such axis
precession axis and in directions approximately
with the object as the latter moves about the
parallel to the plane of angular movement of the
mounting axis, and having a normal position
support about its mounting axis; aligned pins
carried by the mass assembly and having their
inner ends arranged for abutment relation with
respect to opposite faces of the abutment mem
about its axis with respect to the vertical; _ a gyro
having its spin axis extending transversely with
respect to the axis of the support; means for
mounting the gyro with its precession axis normal
both to the spin axis and to the axis of the sup‘
port so that velocity of the support about its axis
ber; springs arranged to exert forces on the pins
tending to move the latter inwardly toward the
abutment faces; and damper means cooperating 20 is accompanied by proportional torque\ of the
with the springs and the gyro and effective about
gyro about the precession axis; vmeans for oppos
the axis of precession of the latter.
ing motion of the gyro about the precession axis
15. In apparatus for stabilizing an object angu
so that movement about such axis is in response
larly about a horizontal mounting axis with re
to angular velocity of the support about its axis;
spect to the vertical and wherein power means
is arranged to apply forces to the object about
its mounting axis, a support pivoted about a hori
zontal axis, movable angularly about such axis
a control device for the power means and in
cluding an actuated member and an actuating
member movable from mid-position relative to -
the actuated member to control the direction and
with the object as the latter moves about the
magnitude of force applied by the power ‘means
mounting axis, and having a normal position
30 to the object; an element unitary with the support
about its axis with respect to the vertical; a gyro
and upon which the actuated member is mounted
having its spin axis extending transversely with
for operation by movement in a direction sub
respect to the axis of the support; means for
stantially parallel to the plane of movement of
mounting the gyro with its precession axis normal
the support about its mounting axis; a mass as- '
both to the spin axis and to the axis of the sup 35 sembly carried by the support and mounted for
port so that velocity of the support about its axis
pivotal movement about the precession axis; an
is accompanied by proportional torque of the gyro
abutment member; means for connecting the ,
about the precession axis; means for opposing
abutment and the actuating members to the gyro
motion of the gyro about the precession axis so
so as to move with the latter about the precession
that movement about such axis is in response to 40 axis and in directions approximately’ parallel to
angular velocity of the support about its axis; a
the plane of angular movement of the support
control device for the power means and including
about its mounting axis; aligned pins having
an actuated member and an actuating member
their inner ends arranged for abutment relation
movable from mid-position relative to the actu
with respect to opposite faces of the abutment
ated member to control the direction and magni 45 member; guide means for the pins comprising
tude of force applied by the power means to the
inner lugs carried by the mass assembly and hav
object; an element unitary with the support and
ing guide bores for the pins, outer lugs carried by
upon which the actuated member is mounted for
the mass assembly, and sleeves having threaded
operation by movement in a direction substan
connections with the outer lugs and provided with
tially parallel to the plane of movement of the 50 guide bores for the pins; a pair of inner collars
support about its mounting axis; a mass assem
carried by the pins and disposed in the spaces -
bly carried by the support and mounted for piv
between the inner and outer lugs; compression
springs having their inner ends abutting the in
abutment member; means for connecting the
ner collars and the sleeves; outer collars carried
abutment member and the actuating member to 55 by the pins outwardly of the outer ends of the
the gyro so as to move with the latter about the
sleeves and adapted to abut the latter to limit
precession axis and in directions approximately
inward movement of the pins; and damper means
parallel to the plane of angular movement of the
cooperating with the springs and with the gyro
support about its mounting axis; aligned pins car
and effective about the axis of precession of the
ried by the mass assembly and having their inner 60 latter.
,
ends arranged for abutment relation with respect
1'7. The combination as claimed in. claim 16
to opposite faces of the abutment member; springs
wherein the abutment member has oppositely
for urging the pins inwardly toward the abutment
inclined surfaces engaging the inner ends of the
member; stop means for limiting inward move
pins to cause the latter to exert lateral pressure
ment of the pins; means providing for a desired 65 on the guide bores of the inner lugs to develop
initial compression of the springs with the inner
damping friction.
otal movement about the precession axis; an
ends of the ,pins engaging opposite faces of the
CLINTON R; HANNA.
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