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Патент USA US2404187

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Julyv 16, 1946.
w. H. MILLENER
_
2,404,187
TUBULAR HEAT EXCHANGE APPARÁTUS
Filed July 25, 1.944>
5 sheets-sheet i
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Inventor
/Wr//eHe/f.
‘C
ttorney
July 1_6, 1946.
-
MILLENER
W. H.
_2,404,187
T‘UYBULAR HEAT EXCHANGE APPARATUS
Filed July _25, 1944
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ttorney
July 16, 1946.
'
w.` H. MILLENER '
` 2,404,187
TUBULAR HEAT EXCHANGE _APPARATUS
File@ July 25, 1944
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5 sheets-sheet s
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' WILL [my H_{VILLENER
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à“ ATTORNEY
July ‘16, A1946.
w. H. _MILLENER
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2,404,187 l
T‘UBULAR HEAT' >EXCHANGE"APPARA'TUS'
A 'Filed Jply 25,` 1944
5 sheets-shed@
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wlTNEssEs: 3v
.
WILLIAM 6'. {VILLE/VAT.
BWM
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, "“ATTORNEY _Y
Patented July 16, 1946
2,404,187
UNITED STATES PATENT j 'OFFICElv 'y
_
2,404,187
Y
TUBULAR HEAT EXCHAN
A
'
i
'
,
APPARATUS
William Henry Millener, Guildford, England, as
signor to Woodall-Duckham (1920) Limited,
Guildford, England, a; British company
Application July 25, 194'4,`Serial/No. 546,492
In Great Britain August 27, 1943
` 12 claims.
(01.257-222)
1
2
.
,4
This invention relates to improvements in tubu
stantially Vthis by-passing of the tubes byi the
lar apparatus for effecting heat exchange between
fluids, such as heat exchangers and condensers.
It is applied to apparatus of the floating-head
externally-flowing fluid will consequently. be ad-'
type; and in which each of the fluids makes "at
least two parallel passes through the apparatus,
the paths of the fluids inside and outside the tubes
features referred to in the three immediately pre,- Y
being essentially parallel.
vantagcous and lead to an improved efliciency. _
The present invention has each of the desirable
ceding paragraphs.
Firstly, -free access,»unre-
stricted by the presence of pass plates or baiiles,
can be obtained to the outsides of thev tubes for
,
cleaning when withdrawn from the -shellgsince
the pass plates and’baffles can be- completely dis
mantled from the tubeA assembly. Secondly, the
In heat exchange apparatus of the floating
head type, the tubes conveying one of the fluids
are built up into an integral assembly with the
supply and exit manifolds at one and. the same
end, and with a transfer header- or headers con
necting the various banks of tubes at the other
outer edges of thefpass plates can be extended
into direct contact with the interior ofthe shell,
which substantially prevents short-circuitingof
the externally-flowing fluid between Adifferent
passes. Thirdly, the space between ythe outer,
end, so that the complete tube assembly can be`
inserted into an enclosing shell through which the
most tubes and the shell can be adequately baflled
second ñuid flows. In systems in which the fluid
to reduce the bypassing of the tubes by the fluid
-flowing outside the tubes makes two or more
flowing in this space.'
.
v
~
passes over the tubes, pass plates are inserted
between the banks of tubes Íto guide >the fluid in 20 Various forms of the invention will now be
described by Way of example with reference to
the appropriate paths. In a two-or four-pass
the accompanying drawings, in which:
¿
system, the inlet and exit ports for the fluid flow
Figure 1 is a vertical section through a four
ing over the tubes can both be situated at the
same end of the enclosing shell as the connections
Figure
condenser;
2 is a cross-section on y the lined-«"2
Y >~ ¿
of
25 pass
to the tubes.
Figure 1;
l
A» l.
lIt is often desirable that the exterior ofl the
Figure 3‘ is an enlarged view of a detail of the
tubes should be cleaned and in such cases a con
device of Figure 1;
~
»
¿
~
struction in which good access can be obtained to
Figure 4 is an enlarged sectional detailshow
all parts of the tube assembly after Withdrawal
from the shell will have important advantages 30 ing spring-loaded pass plates applied to a `four,
pass arrangement;
`
over any arrangement in which the pass plates
Figure 5 is a View perpendicular to that of
or baffles and their supports make the 'complete
Figure 4;
. '
f
‘Y
cleaning of the tube surfaces diñicult or impos
Figure> 6 is a cross-sectional vieW of a modifica,
sible.
'
-,
tion disclosing a two-pass condenser vhaving ja
'I’he closer the outer edges of the pass plates
single pass plate;
‘
l
n 1
can -be extended to the interior of the shell, the
Figure 7 is an enlarged view of a detail of Fig
less will be the amount of short circuiting of
the externally-flowing fluid between the various
passes, with a consequent improvement in effi
ciency. In the >known constructions, there has
ure
= 40
of necessity been av certain gap between the 'edges
of the pass plates and the shell, to permit the
>
\
‘
,Y
condenser embodying a spring-loaded pass plate;
and
j
Figure 9 is an enlarged viewof a detail of Fig
tube assembly being inserted in and withdrawn ,
from the shell. Any arrangement which brings
the edges of the pass plates into direct contact
6;`
Figure 8 is a cross-sectional view of a two-pass
ure
45
with the interior of the shell is therefore much
to be preferred.
The usual arrangement of the tube assembly in s
a floating-head heat exchanger or condenser also
implies that a rather large gap is left between
the outermost tubes and the interior surface of
the shell, and the fluid passing through this gap
is consequently not in contact with the tubes,
leading to a reduction in the eñìciency of heat
transfer. Any arrangement which reduces sub- -'
v.
8.
,
.
Referring to Figures 1, 2 and 3;, the condenser
comprises an outer enclosing shell III witl’l-l an
inlet I I and an outlet I2 for the fluid which flows
externally over the tubes through which thesecr
ond fluid flows. The tube assembly comprises
inlet and outlet manifolds I3 and I4 respectively,
transfer headers I5, and banks of tubes :I6 con
necting the manifolds `and the headers. , The
manifolds, tubes and headers -are arranged to
provide the desired number of passes for the
_internally-flowing fluid. :The manifolds,k tubes
and headers form a unitary 'assembly whichcan
2,404,187
4
3
be inserted into and withdrawn Yfrom the shell
I Il, in which the tube assembly is mounted by
the flanges 9.
In order to provide the requisiteV number of '
. passes for the externally-flowing fluid through
; the shell between the inlet and outlet, pass plates
are arranged between the banks of tubes. In the
construction shown, the externally-ñowing fluid
Further, in order to minimize by-passing of
the tubes by fluid flowing through the space lbe
tween the outermost tubes and the inner surface
of the shell (which space is caused by the size
of the rim of the tube plate and the transfer
headers I5); baille rings are provided at intervals
across this space. These baille rings are formed
of quadrantal sections 25 attached by pin and
makes four passes, and two pass plates are there
slot connections between the outer portion of
‘ fore provided, arranged perpendicularly to each 10' each subsidiary baille 24 and a suitable projec
.
other across the interior of the'shell, thus divid- _
tion 26 on the back of the adjacent part of the
pass plate, as shown in Figure'2. The pin and
I ing the space into four quadrantal sections. Each
: pass plate comprises two iparts I1 and I'Ia, and
slot connections permit the baille ring sections
. I 8 and I 8a respectively.
25 to move out towards the inner surface of- the
The inner portions of
the two parts of each pass plate overlap as shown 15 shell when the pass plates are extended into po
1 in Figures 2 and 3, thus bearing on each other
Íat right angles round the central longitudinal
axis of the condenser. Holes 2| are provided in
sition, and Vice versa.
It is seen that by removing the bolts I9 and 2li
and the quadrantal baffle rings 25, the pass plates
the pass plates as shown in Figure 1 to transferv ` can be dismantled completely from thel tube as
20 sembly when the latter is removed from the en
f Qthe iluid4 to successive passes.
closing shell, leaving the entire tube surface>
1f . From Figure 2, it is seenY that _if the two inner
`portions of the plate I‘I and Ila are moved to
freely accessible for cleaning. '
Figures 4 and 5 show amodiiication of the ap
wards each other, the eiîect will be to move the
‘outeredges of the two plates I8 and I8a out
paratus of Figures 1, 2 and 3, in which the bolts I9
. `wards towards the inner surface of the shell I9, 25 and 2!) are dispensed with, and the pass, plates
l and 'similarly movement of the inner portions of
are extended into contact withl the shell by means
`theplates I 8 and Ißa together moves the youter
edges of the parts I'I and I‘Iainto contact with
the shell.` By moving the edges of the pass plates
of springs.
The springs 21 areA flat L-shaped
members, having one arm attached to the sub
sidiary baille 24 while the other arm bears freely
» into contact with the interior of the shell Yafter 30 on >the inner portion of the adjacent partof a
,the tube assembly and pass plates have been in
serted into the shell, short-circuiting of the ex
pass plate. As seen from Figure 5, the springs
21 tend to move the inner portions of each part
Íternally-flowing fluid'between the various passes
through thegap between the edges of the pass
`plates and the shell is substantially prevented,
ï and the leiliciency of heat exchange is improved.
The parts of the pass plates are held together
of a pass plate together, and so the effect is the
same as rthat of the boltsk I9 and 29. The parts
of the pass plates are placed in position in the
tube assembly and the quadrantalY baiile rings
>25 are attached before the assembly is inserted
I ` and moved when required by ‘means of two sets
into the shell.V The edges of the pass plates near
ï of Ybolts as 'shown in detail inFigure 3. The bolts
the head are then pressed in towards the axis
40
I9 act on the Vplates I'I and the bolts 20 on the
sufficiently far to enable the head to be inserted
§plates I8. Each bolt passes through an aperture
into the opening of the shell, and .the remainder
in one ofthe parts _of the pass plate, and screws
of the tube assembly can then be pushed into
into a nut portion I9a or 20a respectively weld
the. shell, the compression of the springs 2'! act
ed to the otherY part of the pass plate.
The pass plates are placed in positionY between
the tube-s when the tube assembly is withdrawn
ing to keep the outer edges of the pass plates
pressed intocontact with the inside of the> shell.
In the same way as in Figures 1, 2 and 3, the
from the shell and lthe bolts I9 and 20 are
pass plates and baiiles can be dismantled> com
, screwed in loosely, so that the Vparts of the plates
pletely from the tube assembly.
may be moved inwards a suilicient distance to
f Figures >6, 7, 8 and 9 show the present inven
50
`enable the whole assembly to be inserted in the
tion applied to a condenser in which the exter
shell. When in position in the shell, the bolts are
nally-flowing fluid makesl two passes over the
then tightened by means of a long-handled box
spanner 22 inserted through closable apertures
Figures 6 and 7 show an arrangement in which
23 in the shell I0, as shown in Figure 1. The po
the two parts of the pass plate are connected
sitions 'of the Various apertures 23 are arranged
together and moved relatively to each other by
tp correspond to the positions of the bolts. The
screwedV bolts., The pass plate is formed of two
l outer edges of the Apass plates are thereby moved
parts, one of which -28 extends diametrically
outwards into contact with the interior of the
acrossfnearly the whole of the internal width
3 shell, forming an effective seal between the vari
of the shellV I0, while the remaining part 29 is
l ous passes, While short-circuiting of fluid through 60
much narrower and serves to close rthe remain
; the region where the pass plates meet on the axis
ing gap. The part v29 is of L-section as shown
, is substantially prevented by their contact here,
clearly in Figure 7, and the part 28 has its edge
\ 'as shown in Figure 3. Conversely, when it is de
28a turned up at right angles. Screwed studs
sired to remove the tube assembly from the shell,
the bolts I 9 and 2U are first loosened with the 65 30 are mounted inthe part 29 as shown, and pass ~
freely through apertures in the edgeZSa. Ro-.
spanner through the apertures 23, so that the
tation of a nut on stud 30 causes the vertical
pass plates are withdrawn from Vcontact with the
portion of part 29 to move towards part 28a, and
shell, whereupon the whole assembly can be di
so presses the edge 29a into contact with the
r rectly extracted from the shell.
»
In order to minimize by-passing of the tube 70 inner surface of shell I0, and the remote edge`
of the pass plate into contact with the oppo
` by 4iiuid flowing through the spaces between the
site side of the shell.
‘
`
banks of tubes and the surfaces of the pass plates,
Barile rings 3l which baii‘le the space between
(subsidiary ‘baii‘les 24 are provided at intervals
the outermost tubes and the .shell as in the pre
across the'spacesj The baffles 24 are attached
ïperpendicularly to the surfaces of the pass plates. 75 ceding -constructions are now practically' semi
tubes.
.
,
y
,
~
,
'2,404,187
5
circular. The ends of the lower. sections of the
baffles 3| are attached to ñat longitudinal mem
bers 32 extending over the length ofthe tubes
(see Figure 7). The ends of the upper sections
remote from the part 29 of the pass plate are
attached to a similar longitudinal member 32a,
while the other ends are attached to the part 29.
Bolts 33 pass freely through _apertures in the
memberv 32 adjacent to the part 29 and screw into
a nut portion 33a welded to the part 29. A
The assembly and operation are very similar
to those of Figures 1, 2 and 3. Th'e two parts
of the pass plate together with the baille rings 3|
are first mounted on the tube assembly with the
, nut on stud 30 and the bolt 33 loose, and the
assembly is inserted in the shell. Access to the
nuts and bolts is then obtainable through the
closable apertures 2_3 in the shell (Figure 6).
Tightening the nut onstud 30 extends the two
edges of the pass plate into contact with' the
interior surface of the shell, while tightening the
bolt 33 brings the edge of the part 29 into con
,
.
6
What I claim is :
1. Tubular apparatus of the floating-head rtype
» for effecting heat exchange between fluids where
in the fluid flowing outside the tubes makes four
parallel passes through the apparatus, including
in combination a cylindrical enclosing shell of
uniform diameter permanently closed at one end,
a tube assembly incorporating four tube banks
Vbetween inlet and outlet manifolds and a iioating
head, which tube assembly is insertable in and
removable from the enclosing shell through- the
, end opposite to the closed end, two pass plates ar
ranged perpendicularly to one another across
the interior of the shell, each of said pass plates
being formed of two relatively movable and sepa
rable parts inserted between the tube banks with
their inner portions overlapping, the inner edges
of the parts of one pass plate bearing perpendicu
larly on the inner portions of the parts of thev
20 other pass plate. whereby movement of the two
parts oflone pass plate towards each other presses
the outer edges of the twoparts of the other
pass plate into Contact with the interior of the
tact with the part 28 and so prevents iluid short
enclosing shell, and means to press the inner por
circuiting between the passes at this point. The
bolt 33 also holdsgthe annular bailles 3| in posi 25 tions of the pass plates'towards each other and
the outer edges into contact with the interior of
tion. Before withdrawal of the assembly from
th'e enclosing shell when the tube assembly and
the shell, the nuts and bolts are slackened through
the pass plates are inserted in the shell.
the apertures 23 and the whole assembly can
2. Heat exchange apparatus as claimed in claim
then be freely withdrawn. By removing the nuts
12, in which the two parts of a pass plate are .
and bolts, the pass plate and the baille rings can
held together and moved relatively to each other
be completely dismantled from the tube yassem
by means of bolts accessible through closable
bly, leaving the latter fully accessible for clean
lng.
apertures in the enclosing shell.
'
‘3. Heat exchange apparatus as claimed in claim
1, in which the two parts of each pass plate are
parable to that of Figures 6 and '7, in which the
held together and moved relatively to each other
‘nuts and bolts are replaced by springs. The passA
by means of bolts accessible through closable
plate is again formed of two parts 34 and 35,
apertures in the enclosing shell.
of which the part 34 extends across nearly the
4. Heat exchange apparatus as claimed in claim
whole diameter of the shell I0 while the part 35
closes th'e space between the part 34 and the 40 1, in which the two parts of each Apass plate are
held together and are moved relatively to each
shell. yPart 35 is slidably mounted on the edge
other by means of bolts accessible through clos
of part 34 by means' of fthe bolts 36 which pass
able apertures in the enclosing shell, which bolts
through slots in the part 35 as shown in Figure
are operated by means of a long-handled spanner
9. Between parts 34 and 35 are springs 31 which
inserted through the said apertures.
bear against the up-turned edge 35a, and act to
5. Heat exchange apparatus as claimed in claim
move th'e two sections of the pass plate apart,
thus pressing the edge 35a into contact with the _ 12, including> a spring operative to press the outer
edge of each part of a pass plate into contact
shell at one side, and the remote edge of part
with the enclosing shell.
,
34 into contact` with the shell on the opposite
6. Heat exchange apparatus as claimed in claim
side.
Figures 8 and 9 show an arrangement, com
Semi-circular baille rings 3| are provided as in
the preceding case. The ends of th'e lower sec
1, including springs carried by the two parts of
one pass plate and operative to press the inner
portions of the two parts of the other pass plate
tions of the bañ‘les are attached at one end to a
longitudinal member 38 which itself is attached
towards each other.
to the part 34 of the pass plate; the other ends »
’7. Heat exchange apparatus as claimed in claim
12, including a longitudinal member joining the
of these bailles are attached to a longitudinal
member 39 on which the part 35 slides freely.
ends of each arcuate baille remote `from the ends
connected to a part of a pass plate, said longi
The ends of the upper sections of the baffles 3|
are attached to a similar longitudinal member
tudinal member bearing on the other part of the
40 resting freely on the part 34, while the ends 60 said pass plate.
adjacent the part 35 are attached thereto as
V8. Heat exchange apparatus as claimed in claim
1, including quadrantal baffles bailling the space
shown in Figure 9.
between the outermost tubes of the tube assembly s
Insertion of the tube assembly and bailles in the
shell is effected in a manner similar to that used
andthe interior of the enclosing shell arranged at
for the arrangement of Figures 4 and 5. The two 65 intervals along the length of the tubes, and a non
parts of the pass plate near the head of the tube
rigid connection between the end of each quad
assembly are first compressed until the head can
rantal baille and the adjacent part of a pass plate.A
9. Heat exchange apparatus as claimed in claim
be inserted in the shell opening, and the assem
bly is then pushed into position, the springs 3l
12, including subsidiary bailles .projecting from the
operating to hold the edges of the pass plate
parts of a pass plate arranged at intervals along
against the inner surface of the shell. When
the length of the tubes and bailling the space be
withdrawn from the shell, the baille rings and
tween the tube banks.
pass plate can be dismantled completely from the
10. Heat exchange apparatus as claimed in
tube assembly to render th‘e tubes freely accessible
claim .1, including subsidiary bailles projecting
for cleaning.
75 from the parts of the pass plates arranged at
2,404, 187
8
intervals along the length of the tubes and bailling
the space between the tube banks.
' '
~
11. Heat Vexchange apparatus as claimed in.
claim yl, including `subsidiary baffles projecting
fro-m the parts of the pass plates arranged at
intervals along the length of the tubes and baiilîng
the space between the tube banks, quadrantal
bañies baii‘ling the space between the outermost
tubes of the tube assembly and the enclosing shell,
a non-rigid attachment between the outer end of
a subsidiary bafïle and one >end of each quadrantal
baille, and a non-»rigid attachment between the
iioating head, which tube assembly is insertable
in and removable from the enclosingI shell through
the end opposite to the closed end;` a pass plate
formed of two relatively movable and separable
parts inserted between the tube banks, each of
said pass plate parts being entirely unattached to
the tube assembly; arcuate baiiles baiiling the
space between the outermost tubes of the tube
assembly and the interior of the enclosing shell,
arranged at intervals along the length of the
tubes; a connection between one end of each of
said arcuate bafñes and a part of a pass plate;
means to support the other 'end of each arcuate
baíile adjacent to the edge of a pass plate and
cent part of a pass plate.
„
12. Tubular apparatus of the ñoating-head» 15 to the> interior of the enclosing shell; and means
to e?fectthe movement .of the two parts of the
type for effecting heat exchange between ñuids,
pass plate into contact with the interior of the
Vwherein each of the fluids makes >at least two
other end of each quadrantal balile and the adja
enclosing shell when the tube assembly, the pass
parallel passes through the apparatus, including
plate parts, and the arcuate baffles are inserted
in combination a cylindrical enclosing shell of
uniform diameter permanently closed at one end; .20 into the shell, while maintaining a seal between
the two parts of the pass plate.
a tube assembly incorporating at least two tube
WILLIAM HENRY MILLENER.4
banks between inlet and outlet manifolds and a
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