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Патент USA US2404189

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Filed sept.- 24, 1942
3 sheets-sheet l;
July 16, 1946. -
Filed Sept. v24, 1942
, Q
, ~
3 Sheets-Shee’t 3
ßoöerä P50/0C, '
Patented July 16, >1946v
. 2,404,189
Robert Place, Waltham, Mass., Y assignor to
Graphic Microfilm Service, Inc., Waltham,
Mass., a corporation of Massachusetts
Application september 24, 1942, seriaiNo. 459,565
6 Claims.
This invention relates to‘improvements in mi
crofilm projectors or reading machines. -While
the improvements of the present invention are
applicable to any type of projector they are par
ticularly adapted for use in connection with and
Will be herein described as embodied in adirect
projection machine.
An object of the invention is to provide an
(o1. ssi-24)
are keyed vto the free ends of shaft I0 and dis
posed to mesh alternately with bevel gearsIB
which drive film-reel supporting spindles22.
It will be >apparent that as Worm gear 6 re-`
volves the pin I2 will be urged to one extremity`
or the other of the diagonal slot I4, thus to force
shaft I2 to. slide 'its full length of movement in
one direction to mesh one set of bevel gears I6
electrically driven machine extremely simple in
and I8 and disengage- the other set and reversel
construction and characterized by the utmost 10 drive of worm gear 6 from the motor 2 will urge4
ease in manipulation.
' ' i'
the pin vI2 to the opposite extremity of the di
Another object is to provide a projection device
agonal slot I4 thus sliding shaft I0 so that the'
wherein tearing or other damage to the film is
other set of bevel .gears I6 and I8 will operatively
minimized and in this regard the invention spe
mesh and the first set will be disengaged. A brak-l
cifically contemplates the provision of means to 15 ing assembly indicated at 20 is provided to retard
delay closing of the ñlm gate until rotation of
the action of shaft I0 forcing it to slide back and
the armature ceases following deenergization of
the film drive motor.
Spindles 22 are preferably indirectly connect-`
It is a further object of .the invention to pro
ed< to bevel gears> I8 by the medium of ratchets
vide a projection device capable of imparting 20 24 attachedvdirectly to gears I8 by a sleeve 2,5.
various magniñcations to the projected image
Cooperating With ratchets 24 are 'spring held
çand which may be readily operated to scan or
pawls 28 supported by flanges >26 which are ñxed
enlarge any desired part of the projected image.
to spindles _22 in such a manner that overrun
Other objects and advantages will be apparent
ning of the spindles 22 is permitted to facilitate
from the following description taken in conjunc 25 loading of theV projector while one pair of gears`
tion with the accompanying drawings wherein a
I6 and I8 is engaged.
preferred embodiment of the invention has been
The film carried by the film reel 'supported
selected for exemplification. I.
„ In the drawings:
the spindles 22 passes under rollers 30 and be
tween a pair of glass pressure plates, the upper
Fig. 1 is a side elevational view of a reading 30 one being designated at 32 and secured in posi
machine cabinet according to the present inven
tion on a plate hereinafter referred to and des
ignated by the numeral 44. A suitable boss 34
Fig. 2 is a front elevational view of the device
carried by said plate is of the proper height to
of Fig. 1;
fixedly position the lower surface of the plate 32
Fig. 3 is a plan view of the projector apparatus; 35 in the focal plane of the objective lensof the
Fig., 4 is a side elevational view of Fig. 3;
projector. 'I‘he plate 32 is secured on the base
Fig. 5 is a plan View of the sliding lens struc~
34 byv means of screws 36. The lower glass 40 is
ture; and
supported directly below the plate 32 in a mov
Figs. 6 and '7 are front and rear views respec
able frame 35 fulcrumed at 38 and actuated by
tively of a circuit breaker associated with the 40 a solenoid` 42. The solenoid 42 is connected
electric motor.
Referring more particularly to the drawlngs
lwherein like numerals refer to like parts, the
reading machine of Figs. 1 and 2 is composed of
projector apparatus indicated in its entirety at 45
A, and a shadow box B suitably supported by legs
or the like C.
through reversible motor 2 to a common control `
as will vhereinafter appear and the arrangement
is such that the glass plates 32 and 40 are sepa
rated at all times while the film is moved between
Since the armature of» electric motor 2 will
continue to rotate a short while after _deenergi
The projector apparatus A is driven by a re
zation of .the motor, it has been found advisable Y
versible electric motor 2 driving a worm 4 mesh
to appropriately delay deenergization of the film
ing with a worm gear drive 6 which in turn drives 50 gate actuating solenoid 42 until such rotation
a cross drive shaft I0 suitably supported for re
lceases and the ñlm comes substantially to rest
ciprocal movement. The drive to shaft YI0 is
through a sleeve 8 directly attached to worm
gear 6 and diagonally slotted as at I 4 to receive
to prevent tearing or scratching ofthe ñlmas
would result from abruptly clamping a moving
film in the gate. A suitable mechanism for this
apin I2 carried by the shaft I0. lBevel gears. I6 55 *purposen is a centrifugal circuit breaker as .bestel
thereof projected to the center of the viewing
screen through the medium of panel 48 carrying
the rollers 46 engaging spaced portions of the
plate periphery. Panel >t8 carries rollers 90 and
is in turn supported by engagement of the rollers
‘1 shown in Figs. 6 and'l. Herein a disc H4 of
’ non-conducting material is keyed to rotate withv
the motor shaft and carries on its front or outer
face concentric conductor rings I l0 and I l2 which
conduct current through brushes H8 to the ñlm . Cl
90 in slots provided in a frame 85.
gate actuating ’solenoid 42. Pivotally mounted
on pin |28 extendingY from ring H2 .to the rear
or innerface of disc «lil 14 isa dog I~îIf~8 held :against
edges of `frame _86 are slidably supported by roll
ers ~8i! carried v‘by iixed'fpanel 5.0 which'forms the
top o'f the shadow box. lThe arrangement is
pin abutment '|28 by aweak spring 122. The
relative. strength of spring |22 and weight of lll such that panel 48 is movable with frame 85
in one direction and movable relative to frame
88 ’in ia ‘transverse direction of the same plane
dog H8 is such that any rotation of the'moto'r
shaft and disc H4 causes the dog to swing >‘out
wardly into engagement with contact |24 to com
plete the circuit to solenoid ‘112 äwhere‘by 'the
thus to shift disc 44 and the image producing
means supported ‘thereon into any desired planar _
solenoid is energized and the v‘film gate ¿pressure if'
'Asa ‘control means for the above, a block
, plates remain open so long as the motor sha-Tt
`2-'12 carriedr by ; panel 48 extends through
rotates irrespective of the moment :o'f deenîergi
a slot Vin ñxed plate 58 to‘provide a socket for
rod '19:4 which is universally swiveled through a
swivel assembly indicated at 96 bracketed as at
98 to the inner «wal-110i ‘the shadow 4box B. "-I‘lhe
rod 94 extendsvdownwardly terminating near the
reading screen ¿|08 ‘toïbe ‘readily accessible to the
reader yor user "of ¿the device .for skimming »any
portion of the image frame =to the center of the
zation of the motor.
The film supporting and advancing mechanism
and glass plate construction above described and
as shown in Fig. `f3 are «mounted on disc .44 which
revolves '360° >von ïthe support »of vrollers '46 prefe
erably V:four ¿in Anumber and "which may ‘berrotated
by «akno'b tor Lthe like v545. Rollersllîû are -ñxedly
mounted on 1a panel ¿48' `which is vamounted as
hereinafterdescri-bed on the main support frame
skimmed so as ’to ibring any 'portion o‘f theñlm
'The means by which `*variable magriiñcation
is preferably Iaccomplished is íbest; shown l'in Fig.
5` wherein lenses =52 V'and i54 bidh-*ferent focal
lengths \- are v`‘carried by sliding lens lmounts ’51S
_ supported iin »blockrïl58~
tionedon the `(floor «of the -`shadow box .in front
of the lscreen ïl'û'û, the control switch fof lcour‘s‘e
the filmmayfbe rotated'in ainy'pos'itionfor'may be
y Y frame -to the center-«of the reading screen.
Main control switch 184 is ‘conveniently -p'o's'i
5i)- of Lthe shadow box -lì’» 'so that l>the 'image fon
connecting with the conductors «passi-ng Vt‘lhroiugh
the flexible cable 84 and furnishing current to
the lelectric motor ’2 ¿and '-sol'e'ndid‘flm whereby ïto
substantially simultaneously J'a'c'tuate"the sam-'e ¿so
that the glass plates 132 .and 1'40 will be ¿opened
Small Ígear racksßôß »lare 35 when 'the '-ñlm is advanced.
I attached A:to th'es‘lidable 4lens ìrnountsïBB -andien-`
. Y gage a pinion 82 ñxed to Worm gear 64.y Gear
64 Äis driven by an 1engaging worm '65 car-»Died 'lby
a vsliidab‘le yand vrotatable control` shaft 188 which
extends »through v:the «cabinet housing '-B and has
a ~knob >‘or handle 18 èkeyed to «the projecting
’ end ith-eredi".Y '-Block '158 is slidably-»supported
channel 212 -carriedby the ñxed plate 558 and
ï . abu‘t-rln'ents> 14 are provided to limi-“t the As‘Iidïing
movement fof Vthe 'block A'in the iclianfn'els.
i ~
In the _projection assembly shown in Figs. l Zand
2 it ’will be apparent tlfiat the screen p F110 @is mount
ed at a tilted angle parallel to íthe 'iixed lplaftea‘îß
upon Iwhich the vprotectionapparait-us vis mounted
for-direct projection but îit will beßunderstood any
other suitable ~direct or indirect lÉiür‘ejection 1air
rangement mayibe y.employed if desired. .Itis ap- u,
parent a-l‘sotha-tl the forward part of the floor ìof
the shadowbox B,
'is «indi‘catedfat Il Ußfmay v
" conveniently 'be «employed `-"as >a writing sh‘e’lf..
It will .be apparent that by-pulI-inlgor ipushing
control »knob 18 1and axially moving „shaft ‘68,
` the »block v58 will ¿be »shifted »to locate either 'flens
521er -523 `in the -opticaïlf-pathïto give ama'glni
ñca'tion lin »accordance with the ïfo'cal lengïth ¿of
the ¿lens selected îand that by turning the iikn'ob
't8 toV Arotate #shaft 68 land ïthe gear train fco‘n
necti-ng with llens V«mounts 56, fthe »selected lens
may positioned lfor l»afcritic'al ffocus.
As -bes't illustrated -in Fig. 4, the lamp house
’ 16 4and `condenser system 18 ‘are supported lby
i. iin fa reading
and machine
in combination,
means, ' "protection
mechanism, separable plates forming .azñlmcgata
an »electric inotoriorldriving said-¿nlm ‘advancing
means, solenoid :means including »a ¿magnetically
actuated member operatively connected to at least
one »of 'sa-id plates. fan »electric ‘circuit ¿between ¿said
motor and a source of current, and a second cir-1
cuit between said solenoid fand «saii‘dlsourc‘a l'saîid
last circuit *including Jcirciiïit ‘closing means `driven
by said motor, Lsaid A"circuit closing ¿means being
arm ,19 attached 'ïto stationary plate 58. AS ya
normally open when said motor is at rest and'
further ìfeature rof the invention iand 'which 'pro
adapted to -close instantly when »movediin either `
vides for varying -the focal cone «of the fcon'dense'r
direction, thereby holding Ãsaid gate lopen fIiu-rïin'g
system, `the bottom condenser `1~8 is movable #and
the time said ñlm is in motion, and closing itïon'lly
may` lbe Íraised `or lowered v»by tur-ning 'knob ‘#80
whilethe nlm is vat rest. Y
wliich-actuates arms »8| and `812. This conSt-ruc- `
tionis sometimes desirable A'where -the lenses 52
'2. In -a reading
V’and advancing
machine `inmeans,v
and 54 are varied, as l‘for example, la -two inch
lens and a one inch lens, and by adjusting the 65 mechanism, La ñ-l-m `gate "formed îofY separable
position of the condensersystem'Tß the ‘maximum
` lig-htingfelñc'iencyican be provided for the _dif-‘
ferent lenses.~
A wire bound ïflexible cable ï84 Ais «preferably
provided Lfor l'furnishing the conductor support -for
plates, centrii-ugally -conïtrol‘led ‘contact means', «an -
electric motor directly connected to said-'contact
means 'andl connected "tor said ñlm advancing
, means 4through reversible reduction gearingelec
“tro-magnetic means ‘includ-ing a movable Pmem'fb‘cr»
the power v-li-nes to ythe »motor 2 Yand solenoid f4>2
operatively lccm'_-ne'-cted v`to lat Yleast-one 'of -saifd
which, as explained above, are carried Aby 'plate
plates, an electric lcircuit ïbetweensaïid 'motor yand ‘
a source -oi` current, and va second.Y circuit con
, _nected Vto said source, said Lelectro--maigneti-c
The ‘supporting plate '4‘4 maybe shifted -in order '
that> the image-‘may be Askimmed 'or' any 'part ' "means, >and said centrifuga/ily controlled contact»
means, said contact means being normally open
when said advancing means is at rest and adapted
to close instantly when said advancing means is
moved by said motor in either direction, thereby
energizing said magnetic means and holding said
gate open when said iilm is in motion and closing
it only while said advancing means is at rest.
3. In a reading machine in combination, film>
supporting and advancing means, projection
ing, said second circuit being adapted to continue
to receive energy after said motor is deenergizedv
and until said rotor comes to rest, thereby eñect
ing the closure of said film gate only while said`
motor is at rest.
5. In a reading machine in combination, a cab
inet, film handling and projection mechanism
positioned at the top of the cabinet, a viewing
screen positioned in the lower portion of> said
mechanism, a ñlm gate formed of a pair of plates 10 cabinet, and having its mid portion cut by the
optical axis of said projection mechanism, a rec
in contact with each other, one of said plates
frame at right angles to and cutting said>
being movable, an electric motor connected to re
optical axis and adapted to be positively stopped
versible reduction gearing for driving said ad
at two positions spaced apart from each other,
vancing means in either direction, centrifugally '
a pair of lenses mounted in said frame in spaced
controlled contact means carried directly on the
relation to each other one of them being in align
rotor of said motor, electro-magnetic means in
ment with the optical axis when said frame is in
cluding a movable member operatively connected
one position and the other being adapted to be
to said movable plate, an electric circuit between
into alignment with the optical axis when
said motor and a source of current, and a second
circuit connected to said source, said electro 20 said frame is in the other position, and a shaft
operable from the exterior of the cabinet and con
magnetic means and to said cent?ifugally con
nected to said frame, said shaft being movable
trolled contact means, said last circuit being nor
axially to position said lenses as aforesaid and
mally open when said motor is at rest, and adapt
rotatable to focally adjust a selected lens with
ed to close instantly when said motor is energized,
thereby energizing said magnetic means and hold 25 respect to said projection mechanism.
6. In a reading machine in combination, iilm
ing said. gate open, and adapted to continue to
energize said magnetic means after said motor _supporting and advancing means, projection
mechanism, a film gate formed of a rigidly sup
is deprived of current and decelerates substan
ported plate and a pivoted plate cooperating
tially to a stop.
4. In a reading machine in combination, fllm 30 therewith, an electric motor connected to said
film advancing means through reduction gearing
supporting and advancing means, projection
and adapted to drive said advancing means in
mechanism, a iilm gate formed of a stationary
either direction, centrifugally controlled contact
plate, and a pivoted movable plate in contact
means including a rotary member Íon the arma-T
therewith, an electric motor for driving said ad
vancing means in either direction through re 35 ture of said motor, collector rings on said arma
ture, and stationary brushes on the; frame of said
versible reduction gearing, normally open eenmotor, a solenoid having a movable member op
trifugally controlled contact means carried on the
eratively connected to said pivoted plate for mov
rotor of said motor and adapted to close substan
ing it out of contact with said stationary plate
tially instantly when said rotor starts moving, a
solenoid having a movable member operatively 40 While said solenoid is energized, the ratio of said
reduction gear furnishing the time delay between
connected to said pivoted plate, an electric circuit
the opening of said gate and the movement of
' between said motor and source of current, a sec
said film, a circuit between said"` motor. and a
ond circuit connected to said source and includ
-source of current, and a second circuit connecting
ing said solenoid and said centrifugally controlled
contact means, said second circuit being adapted 45 said source to said centrifugally controlled con
tact means and said solenoid.
to close and thereby open said film gate as cur
rent is supplied to said motor and it starts rotat
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