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Патент USA US2404209

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July 16, 1946-
J. w. BAYLES
2,404,209
ELECTRIC GENERATOR
Filed Jan. '18, 1945
2 SheetsrSheet 1
Juiy 16,1946.
J. w. BAYLES
2,404,209
ELECTRIC GENERATOR
Filed Jan. 18, 1943
2' Sheets-Sheet 2
)£ lgventor
Attorney
Patented July 16, 1946
‘2,404,209
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
2,404,209
ELECTRIC GENERATOR
John Wallis Bayles, Roker, Sunderland, England,
assignor to A. Reyrolle & Company Limited,
Hebburn-on-Tyne, England,
a company of
Great Britain
Application January 18, 1943, Serial No. 472,757
In Great Britain March 13, 1942
4 Claims.
1
This invention relates to electric generators for
(Cl. 171-223)
2
and series windings B2, CZ, DE and E2 respectively
purposes, such as welding, requiring a falling
are provided on the main and auxiliary poles.
characteristic. For single-operator arc welding
The series windings are connected in series be
purposes, it is generally desirable that the voltage
tween the positive brush F2 and the positive ter
between the electrode and the work should fall
minal of the generator, the shunt windings B1 and
from the striking value, which may be 50-70 volts.
D1 are connected in series with a portion of a
to zero on short circuit, and should rise to perhaps
regulating resistance G between the terminals of
20~40 volts when the arc is drawn, the exact
the generator, and the shunt windings C1 and E1
values depending mainly on the type of electrode
are connected in series with a further section of
used. It is desirable that the fall of voltage with
the regulating resistance G between the negative
increase of current should be produced by the 10 terminal and the third brush F3 of the generator.
design of the generator rather than by the intro~
The connections of the auxiliary pole shunt wind
duction ofv series resistance, in order to minimise
ing E1 are such that on open circuit the magneto
power consumption.
'
motive force of E1 opposes the ?ux of pole E. the
Such a characteristic can. be obtained with a
direction of which is determined by the shunt
15
generator of the type having pairs of adjacent
coils on the other poles.
poles of like polarity on open circuit, each pair
The effect is thus to reduce the short circuit
comprising a main pole in which the ?ux tends
current, since less armature reaction effect is re
to be increased by armature reaction but is re
quired to give the necessary net excitation. The
stricted by saturation, and an auxiliary pole in
excitation direction of the several windings is in
which the ?ux tends to be reduced and reversed 20 dicated in Figure 1 by arrows.
by armature reaction.
Figures 3 and 4 indicate modi?ed arrange
An object of the present invention is to pro
ments in which a reverse shunt winding is ar
vide a convenient form of generator having a
ranged on both auxiliary poles in addition to a
comparatively low short circuit current rating and 25 forward shunt winding. This has the advantage
sensitive control so that a wide range of welding
of producing a, more symmetrical design of gen
characteristics is produced simply and with rela
erator, which simpli?es manufacture.
tively small range of open circuit voltage.
Thus as shown in Figure 3 reverse shunt wind
According to the present invention the windings
ings D3 and E3 provided on the auxiliary poles,
include series windings on the auxiliary poles, 30 are connected in series with a regulating re
shunt windings on the main poles and shunt
sistance H, between the negative terminal of the
windings on the auxiliary poles whereof a, shunt
generator and the third brush F3, The main pole
winding on an auxiliary pole is so connected that
forward shunt windings B1 and C1 are connected
its magneto-motive force opposes the ?ux estab
in series with the auxiliary pole shunt windings
lished in the pole (by the other shunt windings) 35 D4 and E4 across the terminals of the generator.
on open circuit. Preferably such reverse shunt
Figure 4 shows an arrangement in which the
winding is connected between brushes between
reverse-shunt windings D3 and E3 are connected
which the voltage varies comparatively little.
in parallel with each other, the two windings be
Various arrangements according to the inven
ing connected across the negative terminal F'.
tion will now be described by way of example 40 and the third brush F3 through a potentiometer
with reference to the accompanying drawings, in
type regulating resistance J in such a way that
which
the current ?owing through the windings may
Figure 1 is a. diagram of one form of welding
be varied from maximum to zero as required to
generator,
Figure 2 is a circuit diagram of the arrange
give various welding characteristics.
The shunt
45 windings B1 and. D4 are connected in series across
ment of Figure 1, and
the terminals of the generator, and the shunt
Figure 3 and Figure 4 are circuit diagrams of
windings C1 and E4 are similarly connected.
modi?ed arrangements.
Although the voltages induced in the armature
The invention is shown as applied to a welding
by the main and auxiliary poles should be ap
generator A having two main poles B and C and 50 proximately balanced at short circuit, there is
two auxiliary poles D and E, and an armature
F provided with a negative main brush F1 and a
no reason why this should be so at open circuit.
Therefore, for purposes of economy, the auxiliary
poles are preferably arranged so that they also
In the arrangement indicated in Figures 1 and
are saturated at. open circuit even though they
2 shunt windings B1, C1, D1 and E1 respectively, 56 are of larger cross-section than the main poles.
positive main brush F2 and a third brush F3. '
2,404,209
3
across which there is little voltage variation’
whereby the magnetomotive force of the reverse
shunt winding on the auxiliary pole opposes the
?ux established in the pole on open circuit.
3. An electric generator for use in arc welding,
developing a relatively high striking voltage, a
be understood that a reverse shunt coil, as the
term is used in the present speci?cation and
claims, is one which, if disconnected, leaving
minimum voltage on short circuit, and a voltage
of intermediate value under the normal load im
all other coils and their currents unaltered, would
cause the ?ux in the pole carrying the coil to
posed by a drawn arc, said generator having pairs
of adjacent poles of like polarity on open circuit,
each pair comprising a, main pole in which‘ the
tend to be increased, and in the original direction.
What I claim as my invention and desire to
secure by Letters Patent is:
4
pole being connected in series between brushes
The main poles have already been de?ned as
those in which the flux tends to be increased by
armature reaction, and the auxiliary poles as
those in which the flux is decreased. Also, it will
-
?ux tends to be increased by armature reaction
1. An electric generator for use in arc welding,
but is restricted by saturation, and an auxiliary
developing a relatively high striking voltage, a
minimum voltage on short circuit, and a voltage 15 pole in which the flux tends to be reduced and
reversed by armature reaction, series windings
of intermediate value under the normal load irn-j
on the auxiliary poles, shunt windings on the
posed by a drawn are, said generator having pairs
main poles, and shunt windings on the auxiliary
of adjacent poles of like polarity on open. circuit_..
poles including at least two reverse shunt wind
each pair comprising a main pole in which the
ings so connected that their magnetomotive force
flux tends to be increased by armature reaction
' opposes ‘the flux established in the respective poles
but is restricted by saturation, and an auxiliary
' on open circuit.
pole in which the flux tends to be reduced and
a. An electric generator for use in arc welding,
reversed by armature reaction, series windings
developing a relatively high striking voltage, a
on the auxiliary poles, shunt windings on the
main poles, and shunt windings on the auxiliary 5 minimum voltage on short circuit, and a voltage
of intermediate value under the normal load im
poles including a reverse shunt winding so con
posed by a drawn arc, said generator having
nected that its magnetornotive force opposes the
pairs of adjacent poles of like polarity on open
flux established in the pole on open circuit.
circuit, each pair comprising a main pole in which
2. An electric generator for use in arc welding,
the flux tends to be increased by armature re
developing a relatively high striking voltage, a
ction but is restricted by saturation, and an
minimum voltage On short circuit, and a voltage " ’
auxiliary pole in which the ?ux tends to be re
of intermediate value under the normal load im
duced and reversed by armature reaction, series
posed by a drawn arc, said generator having pairs
and shunt windings on the auxiliary poles, shunt
'of adjacent poles of like polarity on open circuit,
windings on the main poles, and series windings
‘each pair comprising a main pole in which the
.
,
.30
flux tends to be increased by armature reaction '
35
on the main poles Wound so as to reinforce ‘the
shunt windings thereon, the shunt windings on
‘but is restricted by saturation, and an auxiliary
the auxiliary poles including a reverse shunt
pole in which the flux tends to be reduced and re
winding so connected that its magnetomotive
versed by armature reaction, series windings on
the auxiliary poles, shunt windings on the main 4,0 force opposes the ?ux established in the pole on
open circuit.
poles, and shunt windings 0n the auxiliary poles
including a reverse shunt winding, said reverse
shunt winding and a shunt winding on a main
JOHN WALLIS BAYLES.
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