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Патент USA US2404226

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July 15‘, 1946-
.
A. M. GUREWITSCH '
’
2,404,226
HIGH FREQUENCY . DISCHARGE DEVICE
Filed Sept. '7, 1942
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
__ §\
7
Inventor :
_
Anatole M. Gur'ewitsch,
torney. 4
July '15, 1946- '
A. M. GUREWITSCH
'
HIGH FREQUEXCY DISCHARGE DEVICE
Filed Sept. '7, 1942
'
2,4043%
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
Hg. .7.
48
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70
Inventor;
_
Anatole M. Gurewl’osch,
y Hm'btorney
‘
Patented July 16, 1946
2,404,226
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE’
2,404,226
HIGH-FREQUENCY DISCHARGE DEVICE
Anatole‘M. Gurewitsch, Schenectady, N. Y., as
signor to General Electric Company, a corpora
tion of New York
Application September '7, 1942, Serial No..457,53~9
19 Claims.
(Cl. 250-2755 ‘
1
2
My invention relates to electronic discharge
by metal, thereby shielding the spaceéresonant
devices and more particularly to high frequency
electric discharge devices of the space-resonant
cavities and preventing the radiation of electro
magnetic energy through the dielectric material
cavity type.
constituting theinsulating cylinders.
'
'
In the construction of electronic discharge de-'
vices for use in the high frequency ?eld, it is,
of course, desirable to have a particular elec
trode con?guration which permits ready and
suitable accessibility to the electrodes of the de
vice, and which is arranged to utilize these fea~
tures without sacri?cing ef?ciency of operation.
In accordance with the teachings of my inven
tion described hereinafter, I provide new and
improved arrangements in the construction of
.
In accordance with another embodiment .of
my invention, I provide in conjunction with the
features above described, means readily adjust
able for controlling or establishing the natural
resonance frequency of the respective cavities
of the device.
One form of ' the meanswhich
accomplishes the tuning may comprise ametallic
_ collapsible type chamber vwhich is sealed .to one
of the cavities, and which is adjustable or v‘cle
formable in con?guration to control the natural
high frequency electronic discharge devices which 15 resonance frequency of either the anode-grid
afford the advantages of the electrode construc
cavity or the grid-cathodecavity by communicat_
tion and con?guration, and in addition offer
greater ef?ciencies than afforded by the prior art,
arrangements.
It is an object of my invention to provide
new and improved electronic discharge devices. '
It is another object of my invention to pro
vide new and improved high frequency electronic
discharge devices of the space~resonant cavity
type.
It is a further object of my invention to pro
vide a new and improved electronic discharge
ing therewith through openings in one of the
members, or through dielectric materials placed
within the openings. The tuning means may, of
course, be of rigid construction provided with
adjustable metallic means to control the effective
physical characteristics of the tuning chamber.
. :For a better understanding of my invention,
reference may be had to the following descrip
25 tion taken in connection with the accompanying
_ drawings, and its scope will be pointed out in
the appended claims. Fig. 1 of the accompany
ing drawings diagrammatically illustrates an em
discharge device are spaced in substantial par
bodiment of my invention as applied to a high
allel relationship by means of insulating spacers, 30 frequency ampli?er, and Fig. 2 is a cross sectional
walls or cylinders, and wherein the resonant
view of the arrangement shown in Fig. 1. Fig.
cavities are substantially enclosed by metal,
3 diagrammatically illustrates an embodiment of
thereby shielding the resonant cavities.
,
my invention as applied to a high frequency
It is a still further object of my invention to
oscillator; Fig. 4 diagrammatically illustratesan
provide new. and improved electronic discharge “ alternative arrangement for coupling the tuning
devices which employ space-resonant cavities in
chamber and one of the principal resonant cav
conjunction with an electrode assembly which
ities of the device; and Fig. 5 is a further modi
permits the operation of the devices Within the
?cation which may be used as an ampli?er.
device construction wherein the electrodes of the
ultra-short wave length field such as several
Fig. 6 is a further modi?cation relating to an
centimeters.
40 oscillator, and Fig. 7 represents a still further
arrangement which may be applied to a fre
Brie?y stated, in the illustrated embodiments
of my invention I provide new and improved
electric or electronic discharge devices of the
quency changer or mixer for energizing an inter
mediate-frequency stage of 'a high frequency
space-resonant cavity type wherein the electrodes
system. Figs. 8 and 9 diagrammatically illus
of the discharge device are supported by a plu 45 trate other modi?cations of my invention where
rality of substantially parallel conducting mem
in the metallic walls which establish the'space
bers or disks which are maintained in the de
resonant cavities may be. supported by or at
sired space relationship vby interposed insulating
tached to the intermediate member. Fig. 9‘a1s0
spacers, walls or cylinders sealed end-to-end
shows an arrangement wherein the metallic walls 7
with respect to the members. Shielding means 50 which shield the resonant cavities are provided
such as walls or partitions, which may be in
with tuned sections to minimize the amount of
energy which is radiated from the respective
tegral with the outer members-_ or the inter
mediate member, and enclosed by the insulating
Referring now to Fig. 1 of the accompanying
cylinders establish with the members space
resonant cavities which are substantially enclosed 65 drawings, I provide a high frequency electronic
cavities.
'
.
2,404,226 7
3i
,
discharge device of the space-resonant cavity
by gaps I6’ and I1’ may be considered as shunt
type. Although the construction and arrange
ment of Fig. 1 may be employed for other pur
poses, in order to facilitate description of the
or by-pass c'apacitances.
invention the device will be explained with par
ticular reference to operation as an ampli?er.
In carrying out my invention, I may employ elec
trode construction and terminal arrangements
similar to those disclosed and claimed in a co
'
V
In orderv to tune the device, that is in order to
control the natural resonance frequency of one
of the resonant cavities such as that associated
with the anode 6 and the grid I5, I provide a tun
ing chamber I8 which may be de?ned by a metal
lic bellows-type member is. This member may
be hermetically sealed'to member -I and may be
pending patent application Serial No. 436,633 of 10 readily attached thereto by a welding or soldering
James E. Beggs, ?led March 28, 1942, and which 7' operation. If desired, plate I may be provided
with a cylindrical ?ange 2i?v to which the member
isassignedto the assignee of the present ap-'
plication.
‘
,
!9
is fastened.
' .
r
The tuning operation may be effected by con
metallic walls or members I, 2 and 3 which are 15 trolling the dimensions of member I9. As a way
I provide a plurality of substantially parallel
maintained in a substantially parallel relation-_ 7
of diagrammatically illustrating the adjustment
ship and which are centrally located with respect
to electrode. construction to be described pres
ently. The members I, 2 and 3 are preferably
disks constructed of copper or brass and a?ord
of the dimensions of member I9, I have chosen to
illustrate a thumbscrew assembly 2i, which is
supported from memberl by an arm 2i’, which
ready accessibility to the electrodeswhen used
for ultra ‘high frequency purposes.’ Members I,
2 and 3 are maintained in a spaced relationship
by means of. insulating walls or cylinders 4 and
5 which are interposed between the members I
and 2, and 2 and 3, and are sealed in end-to-end
relationship ‘to provide, at least in part, an
' evacuated‘ enclosure for the device.. As will be
_;obvious ,in view of the description appearing
raises and lowers the top thereof, thereby varying
the dimensions-of the tuning cavity. Input elec
trode means, such as a concentric’ line 22, may
be positioned as illustrated in the drawings and
' arranged to be in communication with the grid
cathode cavity. Of course, since it is desired to
maintain the cavity at a low pressure, this line
may be sealed by a conventional glass bead.’ I
also provide output electrode means responsive
‘to the electromagnetic waves of the anode-grid
hereinafter, the regions or cavities de?ned by’ 30 cavity. and in the particular embodiment illus
trated the output electrode means which consti
members I-¢-3 mayconstitute sealed‘region's, or
tutes a concentric line 23 is shown supportedfby
these regions may be associatedrwith a sealed
tuning chamber. '
.
.
I
the member I9.
Of course, since the tuning
.The electric discharge device comprises an an
chamber is in communication with the anode
ode 6 which is, supported‘ bythev member I. The,
supporting structurevfor the anode 6 is more'read
magnetic wavesgof the anode-grid cavity are also
ily- appreciated by referring to the view shown in
Fig. 2v wherein the supporting arms orspokes, ‘l
grid resonant cavity,,the frequency of the electro
present in the tuningrcavity.
Reference may be had to
'
2 to. obtain a
more explicit concept of the manner in which the
a plurality of openings 8 and 9 to communicate 40 grid I5'is positioned relative to rthe electrode con- .7
are illustrated. Member I maybe providedwith
with a, tuning chamber to be described herein
after. A suitable source of electrons, such as‘a
thermionic cathode I0,’ is interposed Within the
struction.
'
'
,1
,
Generally speaking, the resonance frequency of
the anode-grid and the grid-cathode cavities
should be substantially the same or correlated
region de?ned by members 2 and 3 and com- prises a ?anged cylinder I I terminated ina plate 45 with respect to a harmonic frequency. One ‘way
in, which the device may be constructed is to
I2 'of emissive material positioned in close proX-V .
design the two cavities to have substantiallythe
imity to a circular opening I3 in member 2. A
same dimensions so that‘the natural resonance
conventional type heating element, such as a
frequencies thereof are substantially equal. For
?lament 14, may constitute a part of the cathode
I0. Of course, the cathode construction may be 60 proper operation, one of the cavities may be de-'
signed so that its net reactance is slightly capaci
sealed in a conventional way. An electrostatic
tive, and the other designed so that its reactance
control member, such as a grid I5, is conductively
is slightly inductive for the desired operating fre
connected to member 2 and constitutes the third
_ element of the electronic'discharge path.
quency.
'
This
In connection with the general principles of
control element is illustrated diagrammatically 55,operation of the embodiment of'my invention il
' and, if desired, the grid may be positioned along
lustrated in Fig. 1, it will be appreciated that the
the lower‘ edge of plate. 2 in order to obtain the , anode-grid resonant cavity and the grid-cathode
desired inter-electrode capacity relationship.
resonant cavity de?ned between members I and
In order to shield the space-resonant cavities, 60 2, and 2 and 3, respectively, have natural resothat is the anode~grid and the grid-cathode cav
nance frequencies determined by their dimen
ities, thereby providing regions which-are sub
sions. That is, each ‘of these circuits has an
stantially-bounded by metal, I provide metallic
elfective Q which'may be determined principally
walls or cylinders I 6 and I1 enclosed by the insu
bythe physical dimensions, that is the height and
' 'lating cylinders 4 and 5 and which may be co
the radius. A suitable unidirectional voltage is
axial with the'electrode construction described
above. Cylinders I6 and I'Ivmay be made inte
gral with members I', and 3, or may be formed sep
applied between anode 6 and cathode i0 through
members I and 3. Upon excitation of the grid
cathode cavity by energization of the input elec- i '
arately and attached thereto. It will be noted
trode ‘means 22, the potential of the grid I5
that cylinders I6 and‘ I1 extend toward the inter
undergoes highfrequency cyclic variations there
by controllingthe magnitude of the electromag
mediate member 2 and afford gaps I6’ and- I1’. , '
The principal effective capacitances of the re
' Vspective cavities are,'of course, determined by the
netic waves within the anode-grid cavity due to
the fact that the anode undergoes ampli?ed cyclic . 7
parallel or projected areas, between members I, ,_
Voltage variations, The output electrode means
2 and 2,3, The effective capacitances provided "
23 is thus energized and this output electrode
7
2,404,226
5
.6
means may be connected to any suitable ‘utiliza
tion circuit.
'
i 'Theie?ectivecresonance frequency of the device
\
increase thediameter of the insultaing and spac
i-ng cylinder-33 which maintains. members I and
‘Z in spaced relation. ‘It, of course, will be ap
may be controlled or adjusted by means of the
preciated that this. electrode construction is
thumbscrew assembly 21.
the collapsible mem 5 readily adaptableto high frequency electronlcrdish
her‘ [9 is varied in height, the {natural resonance
charge ‘devices generally, which includes ampli
frequency of the device is‘varied'.
?ers, oscillators, frequency changers, etc.
Fig; 3 ‘diagrammatically illustrates ‘another em
bodiment of my invention as applied to an electric
discharge device embodying the principles of my
invention, and which may be employed as an
oscillator. ‘In this arrangement, the elements
havé been assigned reference numerals corre
sponding to similarly disposed elements of Fig. 1.
Where it is desired vto con?ne the evacuated en
closure ‘to the region between members "I and 3,
suitable dielectric sealing partitions or windows
may be placed within the holes or openingst‘ and.
9, thereby making it unnecessary to seal the tun
In Fig. 6, I have there illustrated a still vfurther
embodiment of my invention wherein the anode,
cathode and the grid structure of the discharge
pathare maintained in the desiredrspace relation
by employing the shielding walls in conjunction
with alined insulating means?‘ such as rings.
More particularly, the anode assembly maybe
supported bya metallic member“ :of cylindrical
cross section and constitutes an anode 35 which
is supported by- a ‘spoke or arm construction
similar to that shown in Fig. 2. The member 34
is also provided with a metallic tubular wall 36
ing chamber. For example, glass insulating win 20 which de?nes the anode-grid resonantlcavity.
The anode-grid cavity may be ‘coupled with ‘a
rigid ‘metallic tuning chamber 3"! through dielec;
dows 24 and '25 may be positioned within the
openings and‘ these openings in themselves pro_
vide communication between the anode-grid
vcavity and the tuning cavity. However, in order
to obtain more effective coupling, I may employ -
metallic conductors 26 and 2'! in ‘the form of loops
extending through and sealed to the windows 24
and 25 and fastened at their extremities to the
metallic member l on opposite sides thereof.
The tuning chamber may comprise a rigid
tric windows ‘38 and 39? which are‘sea-led ‘to mom'
ber 34. A grid 40 is supported in spaced vrela
tion with respect to anode 3:5‘ and the cathode, to
be described hereinafter, by means of ya metallic
plate or disk 41 and which is insulated from
member 34 by means of an insulating or glass
ring 42., Of course, member 34 and ring 42 are
sealed to provide‘ an evacuated‘ space for-the elec
metallic cup 2-8 of cylindrical, cross section and
tronic discharge ‘path. A cathode ‘43 is supported -
maybe tuned by an adjustable metallic member,
by a metallic cup 44 of cylindrical cross’ section
and is also maintained. in spaced relation with
respect ‘to ‘the disk 4| by “means of an insulating
or glass ring 45. Rings 42‘ and 45V 'areof small
axial dimension relative tov the axial length. of the
device so that a relatively small‘area, 'de?nedfby
such as a metallioscrew ‘29. Output electrode
means, such as a concentric line 30, is connected
to the tuning chamber‘ or may be connected to '
the anode-gridresonant cavity.
Upon the application of a suitable unidirec
tional voltage to the anode 6 and cathode I0
a dielectric materiaLis associated with the‘ anode
‘through ‘members I and‘ 3', theelectronic device
grid' and‘the grid-cathode space-resonantcavities.
will oscillate at a frequency determined by its
dimensions Of course, the magnitude of the fre
quency may be controlled by adjustment of
In this particular embodiment of my invention,
the space de?ned by members 34 and. 44 is main?
screw v29.
'
In operation, it will be appreciated- that the
feed-back or coupling between the anode-grid
cavity and the grid-cathode cavity is obtained by
virtue of the inter-electrode capacity and by the
tamed at. a partial vacuum and the cathode 43
may be sealed in a proper manner to obtain best
results. The natural resonance frequencyof the
electronic discharge device maybe controlled by
means of the tuning chamber de?ned by mem
her 3.1 and may be provided with an adjustable '
design of ‘the dimensions of the respective cavi
metallic member 46, the position of which within
ties. This feed-back voltage ‘may be "made to
the tuning chamber may be established by any
have the requisite magnitude and the desired 50 suitable mechanical expedient.
phase to sustain the device in oscillation. In
Output electrode means may be inserted into
certain instances it may be desirable to provide
the anode-grid cavity and may comprise a cone '
an additional coupling between the anode-grid ‘
centric line 4.‘! which is sealed to maintain the
and the grid-cathode cavities. For example,
desired partial vacuum within the device.
openings or windows maybe placed ‘between these 55
Upon the application of a suitable unidirec
cavities and, if desired, may be provided with con
tional voltage to the anode and the cathode of
ductive coupling means. Electromagnetic energy
the device illustrated in Fig. 6, the system will
is interchanged between the anode-grid cavity
oscillate at ‘its natural resonance, frequency which
and the tuning chamber through loops 26 and 21.
may be adjusted. by means, of member 46 andv the
In Fig. a, an alternative arrangement of the
tuning chamber. As stated above, in this type
coupling between the anode-grid cavity and the
of embodiment of my invention the coupling be
tuning chamber is illustrated. Instead of using a
tween the anode-grid and the grid-cathode cavi
loop, it will be appreciated that a probe con
ties to produce the desired‘ feed-back isv accom—
struction comprising a linear metallic conductor
plished by the interelectrode capacity of the ele
3| may be employed. This conductor, of course,
ments constituting ‘the electronic discharge path.
is sealed in the insulating window 25.
'Fig. 7 diagrammatically illustrates a still fur
It will be readily appreciated that apparatus
ther embodiment of my invention. which may be
‘built in accordance with my invention may be
employed as ‘a frequency changer or mixer. 'A
applied with equal facility to devices employing
plurality of conductive or metallic disks 48;;49
other arrangements'oi the output electrode con 70 and'iiii are maintained in spaced relation bymeans
struction. For example, in Fig. 5 the output
of insulating cylinders" 5‘! and; ‘52 which are sealed
electrode means comprising a concentric trans—
to members 48-49‘ and 49'~—>50, ‘respectively, and
mission line 32 is shown as extending into the
provide in part an enclosed evacuated regioncwith
anode-grid cavity through the shieldingv wall Hi.
vin which the elementsv of ‘the electronic discharge
In such an arrangement, it may be preferable to
path arepositioned. Metallic shielding walls ~5-3
2,404,226
' 8
grid'and the grid-cathode cavities may be de?ned
by metallic walls which extend from the inter
and 54‘. establish with disks 48-50 space-resonan '
cavities substantially bounded by metal to localize
mediate member to the end or outer members.
the ?elds within these cavities. These walls may
be integral with disks 48 and 50 or'may be formed
separately and attached thereto. An ‘anode 55
extends into the region de?ned between disks 48
and 49 and may be sealed'thereto. This anode
may be constructed of solid metal; Grid 56 is
For example, in Fig. 8 the disks“, B9 and'lll’are
maintained in a spaced parallel relation by insu
lating cylinders ‘II and'lZ. Disk 58 supports an
anode 13 which maybe generally similar to the
supporting arrangement shown in Fig. 2. A grid
H is supported by disk 69 and the-cathode 15 is
maintained in proximity to grid 14. A coupling
‘supported by and conductively connected to disk
49. and constitutes the second electrode of the
discharge path. A cathode 51 may be placed in
close proximity to grid 56 and extends into the
grid-cathode cavity space through an opening in
disk 50.
>
_
-
between the anode-grid cavity and the tuning
chamber (not shown) may be effected by means
of probes 16 and ‘H which may be sealed in Win
dows ‘I8 and ‘(9.
'
therespective cavities are substantially enclosed
by metal."
metal walls 6| and 62 which are joined through
a circular plate 63 having an opening 64 to pro—
vide a space within which the connectionsjto
cathode 51 may be made. Input electrode means,
such- as-a concentric line 65, may be connected
'
v
‘
p
In‘ order to‘ decrease the amount of energy
which is transmitted from the space-resonant
cavity through ‘the openings between the disk
members and the metallic cylindrical walls 80 and
3!, I provide ‘tuned sections or lines of substan
tial impedance in order to prevent the loss of ap
preciable energy. In Fig. 9 walls 80 and 8| are
member 60 comprising two cylindrical collapsible
'
.
, shaped metallic walls 80 and 8| which extend to,
wardbut do not engage disks 68 and 10 so that
/ prise a sealed collapsible or bellows-type metallic
torthe tuning chamber;
r
The disk 65 may be provided with cylindrical
In this modi?cation of my invention, the tun
ing' chamber may be associated with the grid
cathode resonant cavity by means of holes, or
openings 58 and 59. The tuning cavity may com
r ,
provided with tuned transverse extensions such '
as rims or ?anges 82 and 83 which may extend
toward the axis of the device, or may extend away
; Where the discharge device shown in Fig. 7
is’ employed as a‘ frequencychanger or mixer,
as :for example in an arrangement for energizing I
an intermediate frequency stage of a high fre 30 from the axis, and which are proportioned and
‘ designed to afford a maximum impedance or a
, quency system, the anode 55 and grid 56 may be
tuned line effect to prevent the transmission of
appreciable energy bymeans of the electromag
connected to an.output circuit 66 in the manner
‘illustrated where the anode is connected to the
circuitj'?? and the‘ grid, is also connected to the
netic waves through the gaps.
circuit through disk 49, and a cylindrical or tubu
35
lar conductor Bl, thereby-affordingreadily ac
. ,
r
.
While I have shown and described my inven
tion as applied to a particular system-and as em
bodyingvarious devices diagrammatically shown,
j cessibleelectrodes for high frequency purposes.
_'.Upon. the ‘application of suitable unidirectional
it will be obvious to those skilled in the art that
voltage to the anodeand cathode and upon the
impression of high frequency excitation'to the
. changes and modi?cations may be made without
40 departing from. my invention, and I therefore
input electrode means 65, the device'of Fig. '7 will
aim in the appended claims to cover all such . '
operate to’ transmit to circuit 66 high frequency
changes and modifications as fall within the true
spirit and scope of my invention.
vWhat I claim as new and desire to secure by
oscillations which are of a beat frequency deter
mined byrthe frequency of the input excitation
7
V and the natural resonance frequency at which 4; Letters Patent of the United States is:
1. A high frequency electronic discharge device
the discharge device operates. The natural reso
comprising electrodes including an anode, a cath
nance frequency at which the device operates is
ode and a grid, a plurality of metallic imembers
determined principally by the dimensions of the
spaced in parallel relationship and each being
device, particularly theanode-grid and the grid
The device, of course, operates '
conductively connected to a different one of said
in accordance with the difference betweenv its,
electrodes, the outer members each comprising a
metallic wall extending toward but not engaging
‘
cathode
cavities.
natural resonance frequency and the frequency
the intermediate member: and providing cavity
resonators substantially bounded by metal, and
of the input excitation“ Adjustment of ' the tun
ing chamber controlsthe natural resonance fre
quency of the device and consequently permits
adjustment of the frequency of the current sup- '
'
(replied to circuit 66.
-
‘
l insulating walls supporting said metallic mem
bers andsealing said device to form an evacuated
enclosure for said metallic walls and for said
' r In view of the above disclosures, it will be ap
electrodes.
preciated ‘that I provide improved high frequency.
2. A high frequency electronic discharge device
comprising electrodes including an anode, a cath
electronic discharge devices which permit the use
of desirable electrode arrangements suitable'for
I
ode and a grid, a plurality of metallic members
high frequency purposes, and which also obtain
spaced in parallel relationship and each being
a high efficiency by localizing the electromagnetic
fields of the space-resonant cavities associated
ferent one of said electrodes, metallic walls sub
with the electrodes of the discharge paths. ' In
other words,
the . space-resonant cavities are
shielded or enclosed by metaL'thereby reducing
‘the amount of energy which would otherwise be
lost by vpassage of the electromagnetic waves
through the dielectric material which in many
instances is found desirable as a supporting means
to maintain the electrodes of the discharge device
in a desired spaced relation.
'
I
‘
Fig.8 diagrammatically illustrates another em
bodiment of my invention whereinthe anode- ,
conductively connected to and supporting a dif- '
stantially enclosing the anode-grid and the grid
cathode regions providing cavity’ resonators, and
a pair of insulating walls sealed in end-to-end
relation between said members supporting said
metallic members and sealing said device to form
an evacuated enclosure for said metallic walls and
for said electrodes.
‘
3. A high frequency electronic discharge device 7
comprising electrodes including an anode, a cath
ode and a grid, a plurality of metallic members'
"spaced in parallel relation, insulating walls spaced
2,404,226‘
"9';
.
inend-to-end relation between said members pro
viding an .enclosure for said electrodes, metallic
wall members enclosed by said insulating mem
bers' providing cavity resonators substantially
bounded by metal and adjacent the anode-grid
and grid-cathode electrodes of said device, and
electrode means connected to one of said cavity
resonators.
.
,
4. A high frequency electronic device compris
ing electrodes including an. anode, a cathode and
a grid, a plurality of metallic members spaced in
parallel relation, a pair of insulating cylinders
spaced in end-to-end relation between said meme
r
‘
l0
,
constituting an anodeand. a cathode, andout'put
means coupled to one of said cavity resonators.
9. A. high frequency electronic device compris
ing electrodes including an anode, acathode and
a grid; three metallic members spaced in parallel
relation, 3, pair of insulating cylindersv sealed in
end-to-end relation between said members pro.
viding an enclosure for said, electrodes, metallic
walls enclosed by said ‘insulating cylinders pro
10 viding cavity resonators substantially boundedv
by metal, means establishing a space of ad
justable dimensions, in communication with the
anode-grid cavity resonator to tune the‘latter,
bers providing an enclosure for said electrodes,
and output means connected to the last men-'
metallic walls enclosed by said insulating cylin 15 tioned means.
ders providing cavity resonators substantially
10.. A high frequency space resonant system
bounded by metal: and adjacent. the anode-grid
including an electronic device comprisingelec
and grid-cathode electrodes of said device,- and
trodes including an anode, a cathode and a grid,
electrode means connected to the anode-gridcav
three circular metallic disks, said disks being in
ity resonator.
‘parallel spaced relation, a pair of insulating cyl
5. A high frequency electronic device compris
inders sealed in end-to-end relation. between said
ing electrodes including an anode, a cathode and
disks. providing an. enclosure for the electrodes,
a grid, three metallic members spaced in parallel
the outer disks being provided with metallic ex
relation and supporting said electrodes, a pair
tensions concentric with the axial dimension of
of insulating cylinders spaced in end-to-end rela
said device and enclosed by the insulating. cyl
tion between said members providing an enclo
sure for said electrodes and maintaining said elec
trodes in spaced relation, metallic, walls enclosed
inders providing .a pair of cavity resonators. ad- >
J'acent the anode-grid and grid-cathode elec
trodes of said electronicdevicameans connected '
by said insulating cylinders providing cavity res
thereto for establishing a difference in potential
onators adjacent the anode-grid and grid-cath 30 between, said anode andsaid cathode, and output
means. connected to one of. said resonatorsrespon
sive to the electricaloscillations established in
ode electrodes of said device, and means con
nected to one of said resonators for controlling
the natural frequency of one of said resonators.
the anode-grid cavity ‘resonator.
11, A high frequency electronic device compris
ing electrodes including an anode, a cathode and 35 ing electrodes includingran anode, a cathode and
a grid, three metallic members centrallylocated
a grid, three metallic members spaced in parallel
with respect to said electrodes. said members be
relation and supporting said electrodes, a pair of
‘ng in parallel. spaced relation and constituting
insulating cylinders spaced in end-to-end rela
6. A high frequency electronic device compris
externally accessible terminals forsaid electrodes, ‘
a pair of insulating cylinders sealed in- end-to
end relation between and to said members pro
tion between said members providing an enclosure
for said electrodes and maintaining said elec
trodes in spaced relation, metallic walls enclosed
viding a part of an evacuated enclosure for said
by said insulating cylinders providing cavity res
onators adjacent the anode-grid and grid-cathode
electrodes, the outer members being provided
with metallic walls substantially perpendicular to
electrodes of said device, and means comprising a
tuning chamber connected to the anode-grid res 45 the planes of sa1d members and enclosed by said
insulating cylinders providing a’ pair of cavity
resonators substantially bounded by metal, means
for controlling the frequency of the anode-grid
onator for controlling the natural frequency of
the anode-grid cavity resonator.
'7. A high frequency electronic device compris
ing electrodes including an anode, a cathode and
a grid, three metallic members spaced in parallel
relation andv supporting said electrodes, a pair
of insulating cylinders spaced in end-to-end rela
cavity resonator comprising an adjustable metal
lic housing sealed to the outer member which is
conductively connected to said anode, input means
connected to the grid-cathode cavity resonator,’
and output means connected to said housing.
12. A high frequency electronic device com
prising electrodes including an anode, a cathode
and a, grid, three metallic members centrally lo
cated with respect to said electrodes, said mem
bers being in parallel spaced relation and con
tion between said members providing an enclosure
for said electrodes and maintaining said elec
trodes in spaced relation, the outer members be
ing provided with metallic walls enclosedlby said
insulating cylinders providing cavity resonators
adjacent the anode-grid and grid-cathodev elec
stituting externally accessible terminals for said
trodes of said device, and means connected to one
of said resonators for controlling the natural fre
to electrodes, a pair of insulating cylinders sealed
quency of the grid-cathode cavity resonator.
8. A high frequency space resonant system in
cluding an electronic device comprising electrodes,
bers providing a part of an evacuated enclosure
for said electrodes, the outer members being pro
vided with metallic walls substantially perpen
a series of circular metallic members, said mem
bers being in parallel spaced relation, a plurality
of insulating cylinders sealed in end-to-end rela
in end-to-end relation between and to said mem
65 dicular to the planes of said members and en.
tion between said members providing an en
closure for said electrodes, substantially cylin
drical metallic partitions spaced concentrically 70
with respect to and enclosed by said insulating
cylinders and coaxial with the electrodes of said
device de?ning substantially metallic bounded
cavity resonators, means for‘establishing a dif
closed by said insulating cylinders providing a
pair of cavity resonators substantially bounded
by metal, input means connected to the grid
cathode cavity resonator, and output means in
said anode-grid cavity resonator.
,
13. A high frequency electronic device com
prising electrodes including an anode, a cathode
and a grid, a plurality of metallic membersat
least three in number, said members being in
ference of potential between two of the electrodes 75 parallel spaced relation and having externally
‘2,404,226
v11
t
_
.
<
‘ l7; 'A high frequency ‘electronic discharge 'de- -
accessiblesurfaces providing symmetrical high
vice comprising electrodes including an anode, a
frequency terminals ‘fromsaid ‘electrodes, said
anode and said‘cathode being connected respec
tively to the outer members and said grid being
connected to the intermediate member, a pair of
insulating cylinders sealed in end-to-end relation
between said members providing a part of the
cathode and a grid, a'plurality of metallic mem
bers spaced in‘ parallel ‘relation, insulating Walls
in’ end-to-end relation between said members
bers ‘being provided, with ‘conductive walls en-V
providing an enclosure for said electrodes, metal
lic wall members enclosed by said insulating walls
and supported by the intermediate member and
extending toward but not. engaging the outer
closed by said insulating cylinders forming anode
members, providing a: cavity resonators substan
‘enclosure for said electrodes, the said outer mem
tially bounded by metal and adjacent the anode
g'rid ' and grid-cathode ‘cavity resonators which
grid and the grid-cathode electrodes of saidide
vice, said metallic wall members being provided
' are substantially bounded by metal, means com
prising‘ an adjustable metallic bellows-type mem
‘ber' sealed to the member connected tosaid anode
with tuned transverse‘ extensions to minimize the
transfer of electromagnetic’ energy from said
cavity resonators to the region bounded by said
and communicating with said anode-grid cavity
resonator through opyeningsin, said outer mem
ber; input'means connected to the grid-cathode
insulating walls and saidfmetallic wall members.
18. A high frequency electronic'device compris
cavity resonator, ‘and output means extending
into said bellows-type member. '
'
‘
7 ing threesubstantially parallel conductive mem
_14:jAn evacuated device comprising three sub 20 bers, one of the outer members and the interme
diate member constituting a cavity resonator, a
stantially parallel conductive disks, one of the
metallic member connected to said outer member
outer. disks and the intermediate disk constituting
alcav'ity resonator and said intermediate disk and ' external of said resonator and forming therewith
a substantially" closed housing'coupledto said
the other outer disk constituting a second cavity
~ resonator for high frequency currents, adjustable
resonator,‘ a pair .of insulating cylinders main
means connected to said metallic member for con‘- .
I taining said disks in spaced relation, electric dis
trolling the‘ natural resonance frequency of said
charge means within said‘ device and comprising
an anode conductively'connected to the ?rst men
resonator, said intermediate member and the
other outer member constituting a second cavity
tioned outer disk, ‘a grid connected to said inter
mediate disk ‘and' a cathode within said second 30 resonator, electricdischarge means within'said
device and, comprisingv electrodes including. an
cavity resonator "and conductively connected to
anode connected to the ?rst of said outer ~mem-'
said other outer disk, and cylindrical shaped con
bers, a grid connected to said intermediate, mem
ductive members conductively connected to the
outerndisks andfenclosed by said’ cylinders and
extending ‘toward-said intermediate disk thereby
de?ningsubstantially exclusively metallic bound
ber and a cathode connected to the second of said
35 outer members, conductive walls surrounding said
anode and said cathode between said three con
ductive members and forming therewith a pair
of resonators substantially completely enclosed
by conductive walls, and insulating means sealing
' and a grid, a plurality of metallic members spaced 40 said resonators and maintaining said electrodes
in "parallel relation, va pair of insulating Walls
in spaced relation.
,
_
1
,
aries for the cavity ‘resonators.
-
'
I
l5.'Z'A high frequency electronic ampli?er com.-'
prising electrodes including an. anodeQa cathode
19: An evacuated ‘device comprising three sub
stantially parallel conductive membersinsulat
spaced in end-tO-erldrelation between said mem
bers providing an enclosure for said electrodes,
metallic wallsv enclosed‘by saidinsulating walls
prbviding cavity resonators substantially bounded
ing means maintaining said members in spaced
a cathode structure extending
through one, of the outervmembers and having an
electron emitting surface within the vicinity of,
45 relationship,
bylf'metal and coupled with the anode-grid and
vgrid-cathode ' electrodes ‘of said device,‘ input
said intermediate member, a grid supported by
and ‘outputrmeans connected to the anode-grid
said intermediate member, an anode conductively
cavity ‘resonator for deriving energy from “the 50 connected to‘the other outer member and extend—,
means connected to the grid-cathode resonator,
-"’l6.' A high frequency velectronic discharge de
ing into theregion defined’, between said other
outer memberand said intermediatemember, an
vice' comprising‘ electrodes including an anode, ‘a
cathode and a grid, a plurality of metallic mem
'nected to one of said parallel member'srforming
anode-grid cavity resonator.
:;
‘
bers spaced in‘ parallel relation, insulating walls
spaced in end-to-end relation between said mem
bers providing an enclosure for the electrodes,
and-‘metallic wall members enclosed by said insu
lating walls providing cavity resonators substan
tially bounded by metal and adjacent the anode
adjustable metallic bellows-type member con-'
55
housing constituting a part of said device for'con
trolling the natural resonance vfrequency, said one
parallel member being provided with openings to
permit transfer of energy to said housing by
60 means of electrical oscillations, and output means
within said housing for deriving ‘energy there
grid and'the grid-cathode electrodes of said de
vice,rsaid metallic walls having a con?guration
which minimizes the transfer of energy from the
cavity resonators to the region bounded by the
‘ insulating walls.
therewith a substantially closed ‘housing,’ said
from.
r
65
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ANATOLE M. GUREWITSCH.
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