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Патент USA US2404238

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July 16, 1945
B. D. L_oUGHLlN ET AL
2, l 4,238
POSITION‘INDI'CATING' SYSTEM
Filed Sept. 20, 1945
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INVENTOR
BERNARD D. LOUGHLIN `
'
BY
JAME
A
F. CRAIB
RNEY
NÓE
2,404,238
y" "listened-»July 16,1946
« ' .1 "wil-TitiiI S¥-`STAT ss PATENT oFFlcs l
Y 2,404,238
,`
_
-,
lPosrrloisi-INDIcM‘INd SYSTEM
' _ 'Bernard D'. Loughlin, Bayside, and James F. Craib,
~ ALittle Neck, N. Y.,- assigncrs, by mesne assign
~ ments, to Hazeitine Research, Inc., Chicago, Ill.,
` a'corporation of Illinois~ »
-
Application> september 20,1943, serial No. 503,072
1
indicatingtherelative position of two relatively
`AThis invention relates in general-„to a system .
movable memberscomprises an impedance-cou
for- indicating the relative position of 'two rel-l .` .,pling means :having relatively movable primary
atively' movable members. While theï._invention " l_and secondary elements _effective to vary the de
is subject to-a wide -rangezof applications, it is
especially suited for indicating the relative po
'ì gree and' the.. sense-_ of thel velectrical coupling
therebetween' in `accordance -with variations in
the relative position ofsuch elements. The sys
tem also- comprises 'means for mechanically cou
sition of two relatively rotatable members and
will be described in that connection.
`
Many prior art arrangements have- been. pro
pling the primary element to oneoflthe afore
posed for indicating by electrical: means the re1
Vmembers, means for-'f_mèchanically
ativeposition ofktwo vrelatively rotatable mem 10 mentionedcoupling the secondary element .to the other of
bers'. Some of these prior art arrangements have
comprised a device having a rotor and stator, » the'faforernentioned members, and -means effec
tive in 4the absence of the impedance-coupling
one or both of which comprise a single-phase
means for generating oscillations of >`a'-given fre
winding or crossed windings, at a transmitting
quency much greater than the effective maxi`
Station Where the relatively rotatable .members
are located, as well as a similar device at a re
ceiving station where the relative position of the
movable members is to be indicated.- In arrange»
. ments of the type under consideration, the sig
15
mum frequency of motion between >the two afore
mentioned members. Additionally, the system
includes means for varying'the frequency of the
generated oscillations in either direction from
20 the aforesaid given frequency in accordance with
-the electrical coupling between the elements of
nals transmitted to the receiving station gener
ally comprise two carrier waves of the same fre
the impedance-coupling means and means for
quency but modulated differently in the Vcou
utilizing the generated oscillations to produce an
pling system provided at the transmitting sta
indication of the relative position of the two
tion in accordance with the relative movement
members.
`
25
of the movable members. However, it may be
For a better understanding of the present in
very undesirable to use apparatus of the general
vention, together with other and further objects
type under consideration at the receiving sta
thereof, reference is had to the following de
tion. For example, it may be desirable to pro
scription taken in connection with the4 accom
vide at the receiver a cathode-ray tube indicator
30 panying drawing, and its scope will be pointed
which is substantially free of inertia eiïects.
out in the appended claims.
Another type of indicating system which has
In the drawing, Fig. 1 comprises a schematic
been proposed effectively comprises an alter
representation of a system in accordance with
nator for generating a polyphase output at the
the invention for indicating the' relative position
transmitting station together with a suitable
of two relatively movable members; Fig. 2 is a
35
motion-reproducing device, such as a cathode
graph utilized in explaining the operation of the
ray tube, at the receiving station. In such a sys
invention; and Fig. 3 represents a position indi
a tem voltages are supplied to the receiving sta
cation of the type which may be obtained in the
tion which canl be used directly to deflect the
system of Fig. 1.
`
cathode-ray beam of the indicator tube. How
Referring now more particularly to Fig. l, the
ever, in such a system the response is dependent 40 invention is there represented in a system for
upon the speed of rotation of the alternator at
indicating the relative position of two relatively
the transmitting station, a feature which in some
cases is very undesirable.
It is an object of the invention, therefore, to
rotatable members.
These members are shown
as a rotatable handwheel i0 and a stationary dial
Il, which may, for example, comprise a
provide an improved system for indicating the 45 plate
portion of a control arrangement (not shown).
relative position of two relatively movable mem
A pointer I2, secured to the shaft of handwheel
bers which avoids one or more of the disadvan
tages of prior art arrangements mentioned above.
It is another object Yof this invention to pro
'vide an improved system for indicating the rel
ative position of two relatively movable mem
bers in which the apparatus employed at the
transmitting station has a high degree of sta
- I0 for rotation therewith. and suitable gradua
tions or scale divisions on the dial plate Il pro
50 videl a local indication of the Vcondition of the
control arrangement. The indicating system of
the present invention, presently to be described,
eiïectively monitors members I0, il for the pur
pose of producing a similar indication at a poin
bmty_
I, ,
,
In accordance with theinvention, a system for 55 which may be remote thereto.
3
2,404,288
4
'I‘he indicating system comprises an imped
ance-coupling means having relatively movable
primary and secondary elements the relative po
sition of which determines the electrical cou
pling therebetween. This means is provided by
put circuit of tube 2| and primary element I5.
Series resistors 32, 33 and 34 and shunt con
densers 35, 36 and 31 of network 38 provide a
phase-shifting network in the coupling circuit
for a purpose described more fully hereinafter.
an inductive-coupling `device having relatively n e
Resistor 34 is a voltage divider for adjusting the
phase shift obtained inl the described network,
and I6, respectively. The secondary element I5` while condenser 48 is a direct current blocking
rotates within the primary element I5 so that
condenser. The input circuit of repeater 38 is
their relative position determines the sense ‘and 10 coupled to network 30 through a second voltage
magnitude of the electrical coupling therebe
divider 3| for limiting, or controlling, the ampli
tween. As illustrated, primary element |5_is sta
tude of the oscillations applied to primary ele
tionary and thus is effectively mechanically
ment l5. The primary winding 40 of transformer
coupled to stationary dial plate Il. However, _
40, 4| is included in the output circuit of repeater
secondary element I6 is mechanically coupled to 16 38 and is tuned by a condenser 42 so that >the
handwheel I0 for rotation therewith by a means,
current'through winding 40 has a substantially
such as a shaft indicated by broken line I1, land,
quadrature-phase relation with reference'to the
preferably, this coupling is-such that the sec
voltage applied to the input circuit of the re
rotatable primary and secondary elements I5
ondary element rotates synchronously with hand
wheel I0.
»
The position-indicating system also includes
means_effective in the absence of the inductive
coupling device I5, I6 for generating oscillations
20
peater.
'I'he oscillations induced in secondary element
I6, by virtue of the application of oscillations to
element I5, are applied to generator 20 with such
phase as to vary the frequency of the generated
of a frequency fo which is much greater than the
oscillations in accordance with the relative po
effective maximum frequency of motion between 25 sition of members In, ||. For this purpose, sec
members I0, ||. Such generating means com
prises a generator or oscillator 20 of conventional
design and construction. As illustrated, the oscil
lator includes a vacuum tube 2| and a frequency
ondary element I6 is coupled to the input circuit
of vacuum tubev 2| through inductlvely-coupled
loops 43 and 44 and a transformer 45, 46, sec
ondary winding ’46 thereof being tuned by a con
determining circuit included in the anode-cathode 30 denser 41. Loop 43 is rotated with element I8,
circuit thereof, the frequency-determining circuit
as indicated by broken line I1, while loop 44 is
being comprised of a parallel combination of a
condenser 22 and an inductor 23. Either element
22 or 23, or both, may be adjustable to establish
stationary.
It will be apparent from the immediately pre
ceding paragraphs that a second voltage feed
the operating frequency of the oscillator at a 35 back path is provided for oscillator 20, this path
desired predetermined value within its operating
including inductive-coupling device l5, I6. Pref
frequency range, condenser 22 being shown ad
erably, the components of this feed-back path are
justable for this purpose. An in-phase feed-back
designed-and arranged as indicated so that the
voltage for sustaining oscillations is supplied from
voltage applied therethrough to the input circuit
the output to the input circuit of the oscillator 40 of tube 2| has a substantial quadrature-phase
by way of an inductor 24, coupled to inductor 23
component with reference to the in-phase voltage
through mutual inductance M.
l
fed back to the input circuit of tube 2| by in
Frequency stability of the described oscillator
ductor 24. 'I‘he amplitude and polarity of this
is obtained through the use of an automatic ampli
quadrature-phase component vary in accordance
tude control arrangement which will be described 45 with the relative position of elements I5, I6 and,
in more detail hereinafter and which, per se,
thus, also in accordance with the relative position
maintains the amplitude of- the generated oscil
of members Ill and II.
lationsl substantially constant. This arrange
A second impedance-coupling means, having
ment, which also may be of conventional design,
substantially the same construction as that afore
includes an automatic volume control or A. V. C. 50 described, is included inthe system under con
rectiñer 25 coupled between the output circuit of
sideration to provide a synchronous indication of
the oscillator arid a control electrode thereof.
the relative motion of members Ill, ll I. This ad- '
The rectifier is caused to have’an amplitude-delay l ditional impedance-coupling means has a sta
action by a delay bias applied Íto the cathode tionary primary element 50 and a secondary ele
.thereof from a bleeder network including resistors 55 ment 5| also mechanically coupled, as indicated
21 and 28 and the source of space Ícurrent +B
by broken lline |1, with handwheel Ill for rota
of the oscillator. The A. V. C. voltage developed
tion therewith. An oscillator 52, which maybe
across a resistor 29 in the load circuit of rectifier
generally similar to oscillator 20, is coupled with
25 is applied to a control electrode of tube 2|
the second impedance-coupling means in a man
Athrough a conventional resistance-capacitance 60 ner described in connection with the coupling be
ñlter.
'
tween elements | 5, I 6 and 20.
The position-indicating system further lincludes
Further, the position-indicating system includes
means for varying the frequency of the generated
oscillations in accordance with the electrical cou
»_pling between the elements yof impedance-cou
pling means |5,-_|6. To vthis end, anarrangement
is provided for applying the generated oscillations
to primary element I5 of the described inductive
means for utilizing the generated oscillations to .
produce an indication of the relative position of
members I0, II. This means consists oi' an indi
cator 55, preferably comprising a conventional
cathode-ray tube which may -be remotely located
from the aforedescribed apparatus, The oscilla
coupling device, thereby to induce in secondary
tions from oscillator 20 are utilized in a vertical
element I6 thereof oscillations having an ampli 70 deflection channel to derive voltages for deflect
tude> modulated in accordance with the relative
ing the cathode-ray beam of tube 55 in a vertical
position of members I0, Il. This arrangement
direction. This channel is provided by an’ampli
comprises a coupling condenser 25, a network 30,
tude limiter 56, a frequency-modulation detector
a repeater 38, and a transformer 40, 4| connected
51, and a deflection amplifier 58 connected in cas
in cascade, in the recited order, between the out 75 cade and coupled to the output circuit of oscilla
l
s
'
.
f
6
,
indicating system, it-will be assumed that ythe
tor 20. . voltages-for de'iiectlngthe cathode-ray
beam in a horizontal direction are derived from
the oscillations of oscillatorä! in a horizontal de- . .
` iiection channel comprising an 'amplitudelimiter
59, a frequency~modu1ation _detector 60, and a
deflection amplifier 6I connected in cascade to
the output circuit of oscillator 52. Scale divi
sions corresponding tothe g'raduations of dial
plate Il are provided on screen 52 of the tube to
aid in obtaining position indications as indicated
. system has beenadjusted‘ in the aforementioned
manner. For, the assumed condition._it will be
apparent that the instantaneous relative position
of members l0, Il determines the instantaneous
relative position of Aand the electrical., coupling
between the primary and secondary elements of
each impedance-coupling means.. This electrical
coupling, in turn, determines the magnitude and
10 polarity of the quadrature-phase feed-back Ivolt
age applied to each oscillator and, in a manner
.similar to the operation of the well-known react
ance tube, determines the instantaneous operat
justments required to obtain optimum operation.
ing frequencies -of oscillators 20 and 52. The gen
In particular, it is preferred to adjust the system 15 erated oscillations are utilized in the horizontal
to have the operating characteristics represented
and vertical deflection channels of tube Il t0
by the curves of Fig. 2. In this figure, curves A
derive, in a conventional manner, horizontal and
and B represent the frequency variations of oscil
vertical deflection voltages'for the cathodehray
lators 20 and 52, respectively, in response to the
beam thereof, which voltages have a magnitude
rotation of handwheel l0, assuming the oscillators 20 and polarity determined by the frequency of the
to have the same mean operating frequency fo.
translated oscillations. These voltages deflect the
It will be evident that the frequencies ofthe gen
beam to a position with reference to the scale
erated oscillations are varied in accordance with
divisions‘on the screen of tube 55 which corre
a sine function of the rotation of handwheel I0
spends to the position of pointer I2 with reference
betweenthe limiting values of forni. The maxi 25 to the scale divisions on dial plate l l.
.
The operation of the system may be more fully
mum frequency variation A! is determined by the
maximum amplitude of the induced oscillations
understood by considering the indication pro
supplied from secondary elements I6 and 5l, re
duced _on the screen of tube V55 Afor a specific posi
tion of pointer l2. For example, assume the
spectively, to oscillators 20 and 52, Voltage divid
er 3| is adjusted to limit this maximum frequency 30 pointer to be in the position shown in Fig. l.
variation to a desired predetermined value. Ad
where it is displaced from a reference or zero
ditionally, voltage divider y3l of network 30 is ‘ position by an angle 01. The'frequencies of the
suitably adjusted to cause the frequency varia
oscillations generated by units 20 and 52, for this
tions of thev generated oscillations to be symmetri-v
condition, are indicated by the intersections of
in Fig. 3.
'
„
Before considering the operation of the de
scribed system, it is desirable to refer to the ad
cal about the mean frequency fc. In other words,
network 30 is adjusted to compensate undesirable
phase shifts which may be introduced in the
the ordinate line 01 in Fig. 2 with curves A and B,
respectively. A positive unidirectional potential
is developed'in the horizontal deflection channel -
quadrature-phase feed-back circuit including re
and a negative` unidirectional potential is devel
peater 38. For example, the phase-shift fre-- 'i oped in the vertical deflection channel inresponse
quency characteristic of the circuit including ini-_ 40 to' 'such generated oscillations. These voltages
pedance-coupling means I5, I6 will generally be
deflect the cathode-ray beam of tube 55 to pro-_
found to be nonuniform over the operating fre
duce an indication on the screen thereof which
represents the assumed position of pointer I2.
quency range of the associated oscillator and,
consequently, this circuit tends undesirably to
Such indication is shown at P in Fig. 3.
shift the phase of the oscillations induced in sec 45
If desired, a control arrangement may be pro
ondary element I6. Thus, for optimum operation,
vided for energizing the cathode-ray bearn.> of
the compensation afforded by network 30 is re-`tube 55 only when a position indication is to be
quired, While mention has been made only of
obtained. Such an arrangement avoids damage
the adjustments to oscillator 20, it will be under
to the screencaused by focusing the beam thereof
stood that like adjustments are to be effected in 50 on a given spot fora sustained period.
oscillator 52.
It will be apparent that if handwheel I0 is con
It will be further apparent from the curves of
tinuously rotatedat a constant speed, the detector
Fig. 2 that, for optimum operation, the modula
means in the horizontal and vertical deflection
tion of oscillator 20 has a phase displacement of
channels derive pulsating potentials lhaving a
90 degrees with reference to the modulation of
sinusoidal wave form and a 90-degree phase dis
oscillator 52. To achieve this result, primary ele
placement. As is well known, such _deflection
ments l5 and 50 are arranged in the same or in
voltages will cause the beam of tube 55 to trace
parallel planes, while secondary elements I6 and
a circular path` in synchronismwith the rotation '
5I are arranged in mutually perpendicular planes.
of member Ill. If the cathode-ray tube has a long
Additionally, it is preferred so to orient element. 60 persistent screen, a circular pattern will be pro
duced thereon indicating the path of movement
5I with reference to handwheel I0 that there is
substantially zero electrical coupling between ele
of member I0.
Where a` specific indication` 'of ,
position is required in an arrangement including
a~ continuously rotating member, it is necessary
tion with the zero calibration mark of dial Il.
The impedance-coupling means may be arranged 65 to, key the operation‘of the indicating device at
in this manner by adjustably connecting elements l
intervals which are long with reference to the
persistence> of the screen. This maybe` accom
I6 and 5| with mechanical coupling means l1 in
plished, for example, by modulating the intensity
a 'conventional manner, With the impedance
of the cathode-ray beam of tube. 55 >at intervals
coupling means adjusted as described, the scale
ments 50 and 5I when pointer l2 isin registra- '
associated with the screen of tube 55 maybe 70
corresponding to predetermined positions of the
properly oriented Withreference to pointer l2.
rotating member.
Specifically, the zero calibration mark of the scale
is to be positioned at thetopof the screen, as
illustrated in Fig. 3.
scribed position-indicating system tohave a high
degree of stability. , First, the. automatic ampli-v
Several factors vcontribute to- cause the vde--r
In considering the operation of .the position-` 75 tude control arrangement of the oscillation gen-‘_
_3,404,238 '
_
erators maintains the amplitude of the generated
oscillations constant.
For> this reason, the in
` phase feed-back component is maintained at a
constant magnitude. Additionally, each oscilla
tion generator has its mean operating frequency
fo `for >two positions .of the inductive-coupling
device associated therewith, such positions hav
8
discriminator arrangements of detectors l1 and
60. Furthermore, by adjusting oscillators 20 and
52 to have sufficiently different >operating fre
quencies. the generated oscillations may be trans
lated to remote indicator 55 and its associated ele
ments ISG-6i, inclusive, by means of'a single sig
nal-translating channel which, per se. may be in
inga spacing of 180 rotational degrees and corre
capable of transmitting » direct current signals,
sponding to the positions of the primary and sec
îillxlch"
as a standard audio-frequency telephone
ondary elements of the particular inductive 10
coupling device when there is substantially zero
While the connections from oscillators 20'and
' electrical coupling therebetween.
52 to the indicating device 55 and its associated
While the invention has been described in con
elements have been represented schematically, it
nection with two relatively rotatable members I0
will be understood that transmission between
and |I,-,it will be understood that the system is 15 these units may be over a direct line or through a
equally applicable for producing an indication of.
radio-frequency link- circuit.
~
the relative position of two members having some
other mode of movement. For the preferred em
While there has been describedwhat is at pres
ent considered to'be the preferred embodiment of
bodiment, it is only necessary mechanically to
this invention, it will be obvious to those skilled
couple the primary or secondary element of each 20 in thefart .that various changes and modifications
impedance-coupling means with one of the mov
may be made therein without departing from the
able members so that the selected element rotates
invention, and it is, therefore, aimed in the ap
in response to the relative movement of the mov
pended claims to cover all such changes and mod
iñcations as fall within the true spirit and scope
members have a relatively linear pathy of motion, 25 of the invention.
a rack and pinion arrangement fmay be utilized
What is claimed is:
t
for controlling the primary or secondary elements
1. A system for indicating the relative position
of the impedance-coupling means to produce a - of two relatively movable members comprising, an
able members. l,For example, where the movable
position indication.
Y
t
impedance-coupling means having relatively`
A
In many applications, such as `that represented 30 movable primary and secondary elements-eifec
in the drawing, it will be preferred to rotate one
tive to vary the degree and the sense of the elec
element `of, each impedance-coupling means in
trical coupling therebetween in accordance with '
synchronism with the movement of the movable
variations in the relative position of said ele
members. However, there are instances where it
ments, means for mechanically coupling said pri
is desired to rotate the selected element at a fre 35 mary element to one of said members, means for
quency corresponding to some harmonic of the
mechanically coupling said secondary element to
lfrequency of motion of the movable members.
the other of said members, means effective in the
An example of such application of the invention
absence of said impedance-coupling means for
may be found in copending application Serial No:
generating oscillations of a given frequency much
503,069, ñled concurrently herewith in the name 40 greater than the effective maximum frequency of
of Bernard D. Loughlin.
~
»
à
motion between- _said two members. means for
varying the frequency of said generated oscilla
The term' “eñective `maximum frequency of
. motion” as used in the foregoing description'and
tions in either direction from said given frequency
in accordance with the electrical coupling between
in the appended claims is intended to describe
the elements of said impedance-coupling means,
a repeating movement or a single movement. In
andmeans for utilizing said generated oscillations
the latter case, this lterm may be deñne'd as the
.to produce an indication of the relative position
reciprocal of the time required for such motion.
of said two members.
While oscillation generators 20 and 52 in the
2. A system for indicating the relative position
preferred embodiment of the invention have the
same mean operating frequency, it will be under 50 of two relatively movable members comprising,
an impedance-coupling means having relatively
stood that this is not _a necessary condition. If
movable primary and secondaryl elements effec
desired, the oscillators `may have widelysepa
tive to >var_y the degree and the sense of the elec
rated operating frequencies. Furthermore, it-will
be apparent that while the circuit arrangement l trical coupling therebetween in accordance with
illustrated for these generators is particularly 55 variations in the relative position of said ele
ments„means for mechanically coupling said pri
adapted for operation in the audio-frequency
mary element to oneof said members, meansfor
range, yother arrangements may be utilized, such
mechanically coupling said secondary element to
as those designed for operation in high-frequency
the other of said members, means effective in the
Several distinctadvantages inherent in the po 00 absence of said impedance-coupling means for
generating oscillations of a given frequency much
sition-indicating system of this invention will be
greater than the effective maximum frequency of
immediately apparent. It will be seen, for exam
motion between said two members, means for ap
ple, that the system is capable of producing at a
plying said generated oscillations to said primary
remote point an indication of the relative position
of members I0 and Il for the condition when 65 element, whereby there are induced in said sec
, ondary element oscillations having an amplitude
those members have a continuously changing rel
'modulated in accordance with the relative posi
ative position and for static conditions, that is, for
tion of said two members, means for applying said
conditions when members l0 and Il have a fixed
'induced oscillations to said generating means
relative position. In producing position indica
with such phase as to vary the frequency of said
tions for such static conditions, frequency modu
generated oscillations in either direction from said
- lation as utilized in the described system is espe
given frequency in accordance with said relative
cially desirable since a frequency reference may
position,'and means for utilizing said generated
be readily obtained at the remote point through
ranges.l
Y
‘
1
_
suitable frequency-selective circuits, these circuits
for the illustrated embodiment comprising the`
oscillations to produce an indication of the' rela
tive position of said two members.
2,404,238
3. A system for indicating‘the relative position
of two relatively movable‘members comprising, v
an impedance-coupling means having relatively
movable primary and secondary elements effec
tive to vary the degree and the sense of the elec
trical coupling therebetween'vfin accordance with
variations in the relative 'position of said ele
ments, means for mechanically coupling `saidvpri
mary element to one of said members, ~means for
mechanically coupling said ‘secondary element'to
yc. A system for indicating the relative position .
of vtwo relatively vmovable members .cor'nprisingn`
'an impedance-coupling. means. having relatively
movable 4primary and secondary elements effec
h tive to varythe degree and thesense'fof the elec-k
trical coupling therebetween in accordance with
‘ variations in the relative position of said elements,
meansfor mechanically coupling said primary
element to one of said members, Ameans for me
chanically coupling said secondary element to
the other of said members, means effective in the
absence of said impedance-coupling means for
generating oscillations of a given frequencymuch
greater than the effective maximum frequency of ' - ‘greater than the effective maximum frequency
of motion between said two members, means for
motion between said two members, means for ap- .
plying said generated oscillations to said primary A applying said generated oscillations to said pri
mary element, whereby there are induced'in said
element, whereby there are induced in said sec
secondary element `oscillations having an'ampli
ondaryÑ element oscillations having an amplitude
tude modulated in accordance with the relative
modulated inaccordance with the relativev posi
’ tion of said two members, means for applying said 20 position of said two members, means for apply
induced oscillations to said generating means in ' ing said induced oscillations to said generating
means with such phase as to varyv the frequency
substantially phase-quadrature relation with ref
of said generated oscillations in either direc
erence to said generated oscillations thereby to
tion from said given frequency in accordance
vary the frequency of'said generated oscillations
in either direction from said given frequency in 25 with said relative position, means for limiting the
amplitude of said oscillations applied to said pri
accordance with said relative position, and means
mary element to adjust the maximum frequency
for utilizing said generated oscillations to produce
an indication of the relative position of said two ' variation of said generated oscillations, and means
for utilizing said generated oscillations to pro
4. »A system for indicating‘the relative position 30 duce an indication of the relative position of said
two members.
. ~
of two relatively movable members comprising,
7. A system for indicating the relative position
an inductive-coupling means vhaving relatively
of two relatively movable members comprising,
»movable primary and secondary elements effec
an impedance-coupling means having relatively
tive to vary the degreeand the sense of the elec
the other ofV said members, means effective in the
absence of said impedance-coupling means for
generating oscillations of a given vfrequency much
members.
»
i
trical coupling therebetween‘in accordance with 35, rotatable primary and secondary elements effec
variations in the relative position of said elements,
means for mechanically coupling said primary.
tive tov vary the degree and the sense of the
electrical coupling 'therebetween in accordance
with variations in the relative position of said
elements, means for mechanically coupling` one
chanically coupling said secondary element to
the other of said members, means effective in the 40 of said elements to one of said members; means
for so mechanically coupling the other of said
absence of said inductive-coupling means for gen
elements to the other of said members that said
erating oscillations of a given frequency much
other element rotates in synchronism with the
greater than the effective maximum frequency
relative movement of said two members, means
of motion between said two members, means for
effective in the absence of said impedance-cou
varying the frequency of said generated oscil
pling means for generating oscillations of a given
lations in either direction from said given fre
frequency much greater than the effective maxi
quency in accordance vwith the electrical coupling
mum frequency of motion between said two mem
between the elements of said inductive-coupling
bers, means for varying the frequency of said
means, and means for utilizing said generated
oscillations to produce an indication of the rela 50 generated oscillations in either direction from
said given frequency in accordance with the elec
tive position of said two members.
trical coupling between the elements of said im
5. A system for indicating the relative position
pedance-coupling means` and means for utiliz
of two relatively movable members comprising,
ing said generated oscillations to produce an indi
an impedance-coupling means having relatively cation of the relative position of said two mem
movable primary and secondary elements eiïec
tive to vary the degree and the sense of the elec
’ 8. A system for indicating the relative position
trical coupling therebetweerrin accordance with
of two relatively movable members comprising,
variations in the relative position of said ele
an impedance-coupling means having relatively
ments, means for mechanically coupling said pri
mary element to one of said members, means for 60 rotatable primary and secondary elements effec
tive to vary the degree and the sense of the elec
mechanically coupling said secondary elementto
trical coupling therebetween in accordance with
the other of said members, means effective in the
variations in the relative position of said elements,
absence of said impedance-coupling means for
means for mechanically coupling oneof said ele
generating oscillations of a given frequency much
ments to one oi' said members, means for so me
greater than the effective maximum frequency
chanically coupling the other of said elements
of motion between said two members, means for
to the other of said members that said other
varying the frequency of said generated oscil
element to one of said members, means for me
bers.
lations in either direction from said -given fre
quency in accordance with the electrical cou
'
»
element rotates in response to relative move
ment of said two members, means effective in
pling between the elements of said impedance 70 the absence of said impedance-coupling means
for generating oscillations of a given frequency
coupling means, vmeans for adjusting the maxi
much greater than the effective maximum fre
mum frequency variation of said generated os
quency of motion between said two members, cir
cillations, and means for utilizing said-generated
cuit means for applying said generated oscilla
oscillations to produce an indication of the rela
75 tions to said primary element whereby there are
tive position of said two members.
,
2,404,288
11
induced in said secondary‘element oscillations.
y prlsing, an impedance-coupling means having rel
having an amplitude modulated in accordance
atively movable primary and secondary elements .
with the relative position of saidtwo members,
effective to vary the degree and the sense of the '
circuit means for applying said induced oscilla
electrical coupling therebetween in accordance
tions to said generating means with such phase
with variations in the relative position of said
as` to varythe frequency of said generated os
elements, means for mechanically coupling said
cillations in either'direction from said given fre
‘ primary element to one of said members, means
quency in accordance with said relativel position,
for mechanically coupling said secondary element
said impedance-coupling means and said circuit
to the other of said members, means effective in ~
10
means having a -phase-shift frequency charac
the >absence of said impedance-coupling means
teristic tending undesirably‘to `shift the phase
for generating oscillations of a given frequency
of said induced oscillations, means for compen
much greater than the effective maximum fre
sating at least in part said phase-shift frequency
quency of motion between said two members,
characteristic to cause the frequency variations
means for varying the frequency of said gener
ofsaid generated oscillations to be substantially
ated oscillations in either direction from said
symmetrical with reference to said given- fre
given frequency in accordance with the electri
quency, and means for utilizing said generated
-cal coupling between the elements of said im
‘ oscillations to produce an indication of the rela
pedance-coupling means, detecting means cou
tive position of- said two members.
pled to said generating means for deriving from
9. A system for indicating the relative position ',20 said generated oscillations a pulsating potential
of two relatively movable members comprising,
having an amplitude modulated in accordance
an impedance-coupling means having relatively " with the relative position of said two members,
rotatable primary and secondary elements effec
and means for utilizing said pulsating potential to
tive to varv the degree and the sense of the elec
produce an indication of the relative position of
trical coupling therebetween `in accordancefwith 25 said two members.
variations in the relative position of said ‘ele
1l. A system forv indicating the relative posi
ments, means for mechanically coupling one of
tion of two relatively rotatable members com
said elements to one of said members, means for
prising, an impedance-coupling means having rel
so mechanically coupling the other of said `ele
atively movable primary and secondary elements
80
ments to the> other of said members that said
eiîective to vary the degree and the sense of
other element rotates in response to relative
movement of said two members, means effective
in the absence of said impedance-coupling means
for generating oscillations of a given frequency
much greater than the enective maximum fre
quency of motion between said two members. cir
cuit means for applying said generated oscilla
tions to said primary element whereby there arey
induced in said secondary element oscillations
having an amplitude modulated in accordance
with the relative position of said two members,
circuit means for applying said induced «oscilla
tions to said generating means with such phase
as to vary the freouencv of said generated 1os
cillations in either direction from said given fre 45
quency in accordance with said relative position.
said impedance-coupling means and said circuit
means having a phase-shift frequency charac
teristic tending undesirably to shift the phase of 50
said induced oscillations, a¿phase-shifting net
the electrical coupling therebetween in accord
ance with variations in the relative position of
said elements, means for mechanically coupling
said primary element to oney of said members,
means for mechanically coupling ysaid second
ary element to the other 0f said members, means
effective in the absence of said impedance-cou
pling means for generating oscillations of a
given frequency much greater than the effective
ma'ximum frequency ofA motion between said two
members. means for Avarying the frequency of
said generated oscillations in accordance with the
electrical coupling between the elements of said
impedance-coupling means, detecting means‘cou
pled to said generating means for deriving from
said generated oscillations a pulsatingpotential
having an amplitude modulated in accordance“
with the relative position of said two members,
a cathode-ray tube, means for vutilizing said pul
sating potential to deflect> the cathode-ray beam
work included in said means for applying oscil
of said tube in one direction, means for deriving
lations to said primary element for compensat
a similar pulsating potential having a predeter
ing at least in part said phase-shift frequency ' mined phase displacement with reference to said
characteristic to cause the frequency variations 55 first-named unidirectional potential, and means
of said generated oscillations to be substantially
for utilizing said last-named pulsating potential
.symmetrical with reference to said given fre
to deflect said beam in another direction normal
quency. and means for utilizing said generated
to said one direction, thereby to produce a syn
oscillations to produce an indication of the rela
chronous indication of vthe motion of said two
tive position of said two members.
members.
`
10. A system for indicating the relative posi 60
BERNARD D. LOUGHLIN.
tion of two relatively rotatable members corn
JAMES F. CRAIB.
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