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Патент USA US2404250

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July 16, 1946.
Y
,1. A. RAJCHMAN
2,404,250
COMPUTING SYSTEM
Filed Jan. 22, 1944
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July 16, 1946,.
v.|- A.' RAJCHMAN
2,404,250
COMPUTING SYSTEM
Filed Jan. 22, 19514
3 Sheets-Sheet 3
.Maman
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INVENTOR.
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2,404,250l
Patented July`16, 1946
UNITED _STATES PATENT "oEEicE y
».
_
2,404,250
coMrU'rTNG sys'rEM
Jan A. autumn, Princeton, N. J., assigner 'to
Radio Corporation of America, a corporation of'
Delaware
Application January 22, 19‘44, Serial No. 519,299
6 Claims.
(Cl. 235-61) `
1
2
.
whether there is a 4:22 or not, the fourth whether
there is an 8:23 or not, etc.
This invention relates to computing systems of
a type disclosed in a copending application Se
' It is obvious that fractions and fractional numrial No. 511,729 flied Nov. 25, 1943. It has for
bers can be expressed in the binary system in a
its principal object the provision of an improved
computing circuit and method of operation ß manner similar to the decimal fractions by using
a “binal point” analogous to the “decimal point."
whereby the sum of a plurality ofl numbers is
A table of a few fractions would be:
readily derived. The two inventions are dis
.tinguished from one another in that the pres
0
.0000
ent invention is directed to the problem of addi
1%
.0001
tion, whereas the invention of the copending ap ‘0
1A;
.0010
plication is directed to the problem of multiplica
13g
.0011
tion. Certain features are common to both inven
‘A
.0100
tions. The _broader claims appear in the co
1°C
.0101
pending application, the claims of the present '
%
.0110
application being directed more particularly to u
11.
.0111
the features which make possible the addition of
V2
.1000
two or more numbers.
19s
.1001
All the computations are performed in terms of
numbers. The present computing device is there
fore of the numerical type. as contrasted with '.0
ldevices using continuously variable physical quan
%
.1010
H
.1011
%
.1100
tities, such as voltage, current or phase, as variable
H
.1101
"/a
H
.1110
.1111
of computation. The whole computation is made
in the binary system of numeration so that any
number is expressed as a sum of powers of two u
in which the coemcients of the terms are zero
or one. These are the-only two digits of the
1
1.0000
' 1„1c
1.0001
.1%
1.0010
-
binary system.
In this system, a number is expressed thus‘.
where the coeiiicients ak are either one or zero.
The numbers can be written in the usual digital
representation as shown for the first seventeenl
numbers in the following table:
.0
1
2
a
0,
1
10
11
4
- 100
5
e
v
s
9
10
11
101
11o
111
1000
1001
1010
1011
12
_13
14
~
1100
1101
1110
só
13m/„4l
1101.011011
For any number the first digit from they right
of the binal point signiiies`whether there is a
1/2=2-1 in the number or not. the second whether
there is a V4=2-'-', the third whether there is a
35 l/ß=2-3 or not, etc.
« This system of numeration was chosen -be
cause Amost electronic computations are more
easily performed in it than in any other system.
This unusual method of expressing numbers does
not involve any practical diiliculty so long as the
input and output of the computing device are
converted automatically to, control some physical
apparatus, such as an anti-aircraft nre» control
_ system.
Under such conditions, no cipherlng or
46 deciphering to or from the decimal numeration is
_K involved.
All the operation is made in a direct, system in
which the binary number is expressed by a sys
tem of as many‘potentials as there are digits inA
5o it, each potential having one of two definite values
V1 and V2 corresponding respectively to the digits
15
` 1111
zero and one. All these potentials exist simul
1s
10000
taneously -on a system of conductors each carry-l
ing a potential corresponding to one digit of the
For any number the first digit from the right,
or ñrst “digital position," signifies whether there u number. Thus, for example, to express the first>
seventeen numbers, iìve conductors would be
is a 1-=2° in the number of not, the second digital
required. The number 9 would be expressed by
place whether there is a 2=21 or not, the third
l giocato
3
the
in any column has an odd number of pairs. an
excitation of the live conductors:
VrYaViviVs. since it can be written as 01001. In? e
a
device, two or more such systems of
odd number- of groups of four or an odd num
ber of groups of eight. Thus in the above ‘ex
potentials are combined and 'a new system of po
ample the operation can be followed by starting
tentiils'isderivediromthem. Theresultofthe
from the right column and going through all
computation is the stationary unal value of these
output pot'entiais'antl` dependsA only on the sta
columns successively as follows: iive ones, write
one, carry over one two columns to the‘left (since
there is one group of four'in five and one is
odd) ; three ones, write one, carry over one to the
tionary value of the input potentials. regardless
of the manner in which they were reached. A
sudden change in one or more input digits will.
nex`t column to the left (since there is a pair
ai'ter short transientacause the output poten
in three); eight ones. write zero and carry over
tials to reach their correct stationary values. so
that the operation of the direct computing device
one three columns to the left (since there is.one
group of eight in eight); three, write one and
carry over one to the next column; two, write
zero and carry over one to the next column; six,
may be considered as "continuous" It does not
involve any `trigger elements with inherently
stable states or any other "holding” devices, nor
write zero and carry over one to the next column
does it necessitate any dennite sequence, timing.
and one two columns to the left, one write one.
or clearing pulses. Therefore. it is not a counterV v and ilnally one write one. This procedure may
of any'sort and does not involve impulses. It is Y be summarised by stating that the digits of any»
basically the fastest type of numerical device,
one digital position and digits carried over from
since no time is wasted in the proper sequencing of
preceding digital positions to that particular posi
operations.
.
.
'
'
tion are added, that is to say the number of ones
.
As pointed out above, in the direct binary sys
- is merely counted. Then the result of that count
tem of computation with ñxed constraints, the4 ' is expressed in the binary system, and its lowest
output potentials or currents are in direct rela
tion to the input potentials so that for each place
or digit of the inputs and outputs there must be
digit determines the corresponding digit of the
sum. its next digit, determines the carry over to
theenext digital position, its further next digit '
provided a conductor. `
determines the carry over to the further next
digital position, etc. Of course, the expression g
The sum of two binary numbers A=10111 and
B=10110 (A=23 and B=22 in the decimal numer
of a number in the binary system is obtained by
determining whether the number of Vunits in it is
odd or even for the lowest digital position, whether
the number of pairs of unitsin it is odd or even
for the next position, the number of groups oi.'
four is odd or even for the further next position,
ation)A can be made as is done in the usual ele
f mentary arithmetic.
1 1l
carryover
1o111
s
v as
+ 10110-
B
' +32
etc.
101101
A+B
'
_
v
'
This arithmetical process is performed by the
i 4s
_ computing circuit ci the presentinvention.
'I'his addition proceeds by adding successively
thedigitsofAandBofthesamedisitalposi
tion from right «to left, taking into account the
“carry over” number which results when the
sum of the digits in any digital position is equal
to two or more. Thus in the above example. the
operation can be followed by starting from the
right and saying successively: one and zero equal
Important features xof the present invention.
40 are (1) a plurality of input tubes (one for each '
digital position of the numbers to be added) each /
connected to operate as a cathode follower so\
I that it is either non-conductive or conducts a
standard unit (about 4 ma.) of current. (2) a,
plurality of carry overtubes (for transferring »
vunits of current from lower digital positions to a
one, write one: one and one equal two, write
aero, and carry over one; one, one and one equal
three, write one and carry over one; one, aero and
zero equal' one. write one; etc.
higher digital position) 'each connected in the -
same manner as the input tubes, «(8) a plurality
of carry over control tubes, (4) a resistance
network so interconnecting the input, carry over '
' control and carry over tubes as to ensure that the
More generally the sum of any number of num
bers can be made as is done in the usual decimal
digits oney are carried over to the proper higher~
arithmetic, provided the “carry over" digits are
properly taken into account. For example the
sumSofsixnumbersAaAaAsAiAsandAs
digital positions, and (5) means for registering
or indicating in their proper order the various
digits of the resulting sum.
'
The input tubes for any given digital position
of the numbers to be added are connected in
can be calculated by writing the ynumbers in a
column and adding as usual. The following
parallel with one another and. through a com-_
mon resistor, to a source of plate potential. Also
example illustrates the procedure:
näl à }carry over digits A
A1 ________________ -_
-\ 100101
37
A: ________________ _.-
001101
13
As ________________ _-
101111
47
A4 ................ -_
010101
21 v
A1 ................ .__
101110
46
As .......... --_..._--..
`100111
39
Total _____ __.- 11oo1o11
20a
'
~
This addition proceeds by adding successively
AthedigitsofAnAz . . . Asofthesarnedigitalposi
\ tion from right toleft, taking into account the
connected in parallel with each digital position
group of input tubes and supplied with plate
voltage through the same common resistor are
whatever carry over tubes that are required to
transfer digits one to this digital position'from
lower digital positions. To the control grids of
the input tubes are applied either --180- (when
the corresponding digit is zero) or zero voltage
(when the corresponding digit is one). >The
f tubes conduct current only when the zero volt
70 age is applied to their grids. Each conducting
input tube is utilized to represent a digit one
and each non-conducting tube is utilized to rep
resent a digit zero.
As the parallel-connected input tubes and the
“carry over” digits which >occur when the sum 75 parallel-connected carry over tubes. if any, for
2,404,9so
I
a given digital position become conducting one
after another, the plate voltage of all these tubes
is reduced by discrete steps because all the tubes '
6
means may be utilised to app - these digital rep
resentative potentials tothe input leads. ~
The condition of the two ~ ‘l
of input tubes
Ilto "and Ilto2i is'dete -«
bythedigits
draw current through >the same plate resistor.
This voltage reduction in discrete steps is uti 5 of the two numbersto be ad. Each of these
tubes is conducting a standard amount of cur
lized to control the conductivity of the indicator
rent of about 4 ma. when a potential (0 v.) rep
tube and the carry over control tubes for this
tative of the digit -one is applied to its con
given digital position. The carry over control
trol
d and is biased oi'f when a potential
tubes, in turn, control the carry over tubes by
which digits are transferred to high digital po 10 (_180 v. representative of the digit zero is ap
plied to its control grid. These standard unit
sitions. Adjacent the resistors and leads inter
currents are supplied through a common resistor
connecting these various tubes are legends indi
42 and are determined by the fact that each of
cating suitable values which may be utilized in
the tubes is connected to operate as a cathode fol
assembling and operating the circuit.
lower. Under these conditions, the anode poten
In the operation of the circuit, the indicator
tial oi' all the input tubes decreases by a standard
and carry over control tubes are conducting
amount for each tube that is made to conduct the
when no input or carry over tube corresponding
standardunitsof4ma.andeachofthetubesmay
to the' given digital position is conducting. When
be considered as representing a digit one or a digit
„one of the parallel-connected input and carry
‘
over tubes is conducting the indicator tube is 20 zero.
For converting these various digits into a bi
biased ot! so that an indication for that digital
position is produced. When two of the parallel
connected tubes are conducting. the ilrst carry
over control tube is biased off, a carry over tube
nary number which is the sum of the two num
bers, a group of carry over tubes 22 to 26 and a
group of carry over control tubes 21 to 32 are
in the next higher digital position is made con 25 provided. The resulting sum is registered or in
dicated by a group of indicators 22 to 3l which
ducting, and a potential applied from the cathode
of this carry over tube biases of! the indicator
tube. Further steps in the operation are here
may include a neon lamp or the like.
The man
ner in which these results are accomplished will
be more easily understood in connection with
ever, it should be noted that (1) the conductivity 30 Fis. 2.
Fig. 2 shows the details of that part o_f the cir
of the indicator tube for the given digital posi
cuit which appears in the heavy lines of Fig. 1.
tion is controlled jointly by the parallel-con
It will be noted that the input tubes Il and II
nected tubes and by the higher digital position
inalter explained in detail.A At this point, how
are connected to the same terminal of the re
carry over tubes and (2) the carry over control
tubes each include a diode element which en 35 sistor 42 as the carry over tube 2l which has its
control grid connected to the carry over control
ables the grid of the corresponding carry over
tube Il for applying a positive potential when .
tube to assume a predetermined voltage.
a one is to be transferred from the second digital
The invention will be better understood from
the following description considered in connec
tion with the accompanying drawings and its
scope is indicated by the appended claims.
Referring to the drawings:
Figure 1 is a diagrammatic representation of
a computing circuit arranged in accordance with
position to the third digital position which'is rep
resented by the input tubes I2 and' I 9. All the f
carry over tubes 22 to 28, like the input tubes Il
to 2|, are of the cathode follower type so con
nected as to conduct a standard unit (4 ma.) of
current.
It is apparent that the potential at the lower
terminal of the resistor 42 is reduced by a pre
determined amount when one of the tubes 2l, Il
or Il takes current, by twice this amount when
in the various connections.
two of these .tubes take current and by three
Figure2isawiringdiagram ofapartofthe
50 times this amount when all three of these tubes
circuit of Fig. 1, and
.
take current. These different voltages are ap
Figure83and4aresimilartol1‘iga1and2 plied
through the resistors 4I and 44 to the first
with the exception that the circuit is so extended
or control grids of the indicator tube I1 and the
as to add six numbers each having six digital
carry over control tube 2l. Potential is applied
positions.
'
Upon detailed consideration of the circuits of 55 also to these grids from a -150 v. lead through
resistorsßandß. Tothesecondorscreen
Figs. 1 to 4, it becomes obvious that these cir
grids of the tubes Il and I1. potential is applied '
cuits are readily extended to deal with any de
sired number of numbers having any number of
the invention for adding two numbers (A and B) l 45
of six digital positions. circles being used to in
dicate the electron discharge devices involved
digital positions.
'
Connectedinshunettothetubel‘lisaneon.
The circuit of Fig. 1 includes one group of in 60 tube 41 for indicating when this tube is not con
ducting (a condition existing when a digit xero
put tubes Il to i5 to which are applied potentials
isin the third digital position of the sum of the
representative of the various digits of a number
two numbers being added).
A and another group of input tubes Il to 2| to
. The carry over tube 24 of the fourth digital po
which are applied vpotentials representative of
the various digits of a number B. In each of 65 sition has the upper end of its cathode~ resistor
connected through a resistor 4l to the first or
thesefgroups, the lowest digital position is at the
control grid of the indicator tube 21. The con
top and highest digital position is at the bottom.
trol grld of the tube 24 is connected to the diode
This is indicated by the binary numbers placed
element of the tube Il and through a resistor 4l
above the various input leads. When zero volt
age isapplied to one of'these input leads, the 70 to the anode of the tube 2l so that the tube 24
conducts current only when the tube Il is biased
digital position which it represents contains a
oil. The purpose of the diode element of the tube
one. When _180 volts are applied to an input
3|) istoestablish atthegrid of theearry overtube
lead, the digital position which it represents con
24 a predetermined potential which is interme
tains a zero. Switches 40 and 4l (Fig. 2), an
other computing circuit or any other suitable 75 diatethose ofthe +550 v. and -600 v. leadswhen
2,404,250
the tube 30 becomes non-conducting and no Plate
current is drawn through its anode resistor by
the tube.
`
,
.
The manner in which the circult'operates to
convert the digits established by the tubes 25. I3 5
and I9 into a binary number is- indicated by the
and 99-I00 function to .transfer a digit one tov
following tabulation:
higher digital positions is obvious from the f_ore
going explanation.
Input tubes conducting
’
Additional indicatorltubes | 0| and |02 are
used, together with the tubes 39 to 39, to indicate
the sum of the six numbers. A tenth digital po
sition indicator tube |03and .carry .over tube |04
None .............. _; ...... _
1
2
3
have been indicated in dotted lines for the rea
son that they- may be omitted since the corre
From this tabulation, it is evident that the
tubes 30 and 31 are conducting and the tube 24 is
sponding digit is always zero. ' This is true be
biased off when none of the tubes 25,_i|2 and I9
is conducting. When one .of the tubes 215, ilv or.
at most 101111010A when each of the numbers is
I9 is conducting, the potential at the lower end of
As shown more ’clearlynin Fig. 4, thegcominon
cause the sum of six numbers of six digits can be
111111.
,_
4
.
’
.
the resistor 42 is reduced suiliciently to bias of! 20 anode lead of the. carry over tubes 15 and 25 and
the tube 31 thereby lighting the lamp 41 and in
the input tubes |3,‘I9, 53, 59, 55 and 1| is con
nected through resistors |05 and |05, respective
dicating a. digit one in the third digital position
ly, to the ?rst or control grids of the carry over ‘
of the binary number. When two _of the tubes '25,
I9 or I9 are conducting, the potential Jat the lower
control tubes 18 and 80 (aswell as tothe control
end of the resistor 42 is reduced sufficiently to 25 grids of tubes 90 and 31'). Potential is also ap
plied to these control- grids from a ---150 v. lead
bias oil the tube 30. This has two results. It
makes the tube 24 conducting so that a digit
through the resistors |01 and |00. Poten
one is carried over to the fourth digital position.
tial- is applied from a +18 v. lead to the
When the tube 24 conducts. a positive potential
second or screen grid 'of .the indicator tube
is applied to the control grid of the tube 31 so 30 31j and from a +45> " volt lead 'to the sec
that this tube takes currentand the lamp 41
is extinguished. When all of the tubes 25, Il and
I9 conduct the potential at the lower end fof the
resistor is sufficiently negative to bias »oil both
tubes 30 and 31 so that the carry over tube 244 35
remains conducting and the lamp 41 is lighted;
Under these conditions, a binary number of 1100
is established in the part of the circuit detailed*
in Fig. 2. How the complete sum' of two num
bers represented by potential applied to all 'the
input' leads is established is readily understood
yfrom the foregoing explanation.
Figs. 3 and 4 illustrate how the circuit of Figs.
1 and 2 may be extended to produce the sum'oi‘
ondcontrol grids 'of the carry over control tubes
@0, 10 and 80.' Potential is applied to the anodes
ofthe‘tubes 31, 30, 1liv and 00 from a +550 volt
lead. IPotential is applied 'to the grids of the
carry over tubes- 24, 1'9'and 0I from a -600 v. lead
respectively through'resistors |09, I|0 and III.
The grids of _the- tubes 24, 19 and 0|> are con
nected directly to the diode elements of the tubes
30, 19 'and 00 and through the resistors 49, ||2
and -I Il to the anodes- ofthese tubes. >When the>
tubes 30,19 and 00 are biased off, the correspond
.ing vdiode -elelirient functions-to establish a pre
determined potential at the grid ofthe tube 24,
19Yor 0|; Adjacent eachyresistor of' the circuit is
six numbers each having six digital lpositions, 45 -a -legend indicating a suitable value which may
the same reference numerals being fapplied to
be' utilized in‘assembling the circuit.
corresponding parts of all the ilgure's.
`
' It will be noted that -~this extended circuit in-l
p As in the case` of Fig. 2, the input _and carry
over tubes are _oi' the cathode follower type so
cludes a group of input tubes 50 to 55, 55 to 6|,
connected that each is either out oft' or draws a
52 to 61 or 68 to 13 for each additional-number 60 standard unit (about 4 ma.) of current. ' With
to- be added. Since there are six input'tubes
theseA connections, the potential at the upper
|542 |-55-6 |--91-'-~13,
I4-20-54f-60-60ï
end of the common -resistor"- is dependent on
12, I3«-|9-53-59--65--1I, I2--|0-52-59-A
54-10, I'I--I1-5I--51-63--59 or |0--^|6j-50---
how mamr of theïtubes 15, 25, I9. I9, ’53, 59, 65
and 1| are conducting and decreases in equal
55-52-68'for each] digital position of the num- 5 el steps'äas one after another= of the ltubes become
bers to be added, additional carry over tubes and
conducting.
'
I
carry over control tubes are required. Thus a
The values of the various resistors and the ap
carry over control tube 14 and a carry over tube
plied voltagesare so'ehosen- that, when one of
15 are required forV transferring 'a digit one- to
the tubes 15, 25, I3, I9, 59, 09, 55 or _1| is con
the third digital position when four or more of
ducting, vthe-voltage atv the uppe'?'termlnal ofthe
the ñrst digital position -input tubes |5--2|-`--55--
common resistor 42' is so reduced that the tube
5|-51-13 are conducting. A carry over conf' , ,311s biased'oñ, lighting the lamp 41 and indicat
trol tube 19 and a carry over tube 11 are re-v
ing-a binary number of- 100.
'
,
quired for transferring a'digit one-to the fourth~
When' two- of these tubes -are conducting. the
tube’ SII>> isbias'ed ofi, the -tube 24'becomes con
ducting thereby transferring a digit one to the
next""higher or fourth digital'position, and a volt
age"applied from the cathode- of the'tube 24
through- a resistor | I4 to the ?rst grid of the tube
70 l1“ makes this tube conductive and extinguishes
digital when four-or more o1'- the second digital y '
position input tubes |4--20--54-50--55----12 'or
three of these tubes and the' carry over-tube“
are conducting.
A carry over control tube 18 and a carry- over
tube 19 are required to carry a digit -one to the
iifth digital position when four-and vup tofeight
of the tubes 15-25-I3-I9-53--59ä-â-55-L-H are
conducting and a carry over control tube 50 and
a carry over tube 8| are required for vtransfer
the' lamp 41.
e
'
When three tubes are conducting, the voltage
atethe upper end of the resistor 442' is reduced so
that the tube I1 is again biased ci! and the lamp
ring a digit one to the sixthv digital when all of 1l 41‘is lighted. At this point, 1000 is registered at
2,404,250
10
and means for applying to other of said tubes
the tube 24 and 100 is registered at the tube 31
making a binary total of 1100.
When four tubes are conducting, the voltage
at the upper end of the resistor 42 is reduced
further so that the tube 18 is biased of! and the
carry over tube 19 is made conducting. A poten
tial applied from the cathode of the tube 19
through resistors H5 and IIS to the grids of the
tubes 31 and 30 makes these tubes conducting so
that the lamp 41 is extinguished and the tube 24
is biased ofi. `A binary count of 10000 is now reg
istered in the tube 19.
control potentials representative of digits to be ,
transferred from lower to higher digital posi
tions, means for establishing at the anodes of
the‘tubes of each group a potential depending
on the number of conducting tubes in that group,
and means responsive to the potentials so estab
lished ior indicating the sum or' said numbers.
2. An adding circuit including a separate
group of tubes for each digital position of the
numbers to be added, means for applying to cer
tain or said tubes control potentials representa
tive of the digits of the numbers to be added, and
means for applying to other of said -tubes control
When ñve tubes are conducting, the tube 18 is
biased oiî, the tube 19 is conducting and the tube
31 is biased ofi. Under these conditions, a bina 15 potentials representative of digits) to be trans
I'erred from lower to higher digital positions,
ry number of 10000 is registered in the tube 19
means for establishing at the anodes of the tubes
and a binary number of 100 is registered in the
of each group a potential depending on the num
tube 31 making a total of 10100.
ber oi conducting tubes in that group, and means
When six tubes are conducting the tubes 30
including
a resistance network responsive to the
and 18 are biased oil', the tubes 24 and 19 are
potentials so established for indicating the sum
conducting, the tube 31 is conducting, a binary
ofy said numbers.`
1000 is registered in the tube 24 and a binary
3. An adding circuit including a separate
10000 is registered in the tube 19. The total is
group of tubes for each digital position of the
now binary 11000. In this- case, the tube 31 is
made conducting by potentials applied from the 25 numbers to be added, means for applying to
certain of said tubes control potentials repre
cathodes of the tubes 24 and 19 through re
sentative of the digits of the numbers to be
sistors I|4 and H5 to its control grid.
added, and means for applying to other of said
When seven tubes are conducting the tubes 31,
tubes control potentials representative of digits
39 and 18 are biased on, the tubes 24 and 19
are conducting, and the total binary number 30 to beltransferred from lower to higher digital
positions, means for establishing at the anodes
registered is 11100.
of the tubes of each group a. potential depending
When all the tubes are conducting, the tube
on the number of conducting tubes in that group,
90 is biased on, the tube 8| is conducting, the
and means including a plurality of electron dis
tubes 24 and 19 are biased ofi.’ and the. tubes 31,
30 and 18 are conducting so that a binary 100000 35 charge devices controlled by the potentials so
established to indicate the sum of said numbers.
4. An adding -circuit including a group of
This entire operation may be expressed in"
input
and carry over tubes, means for applying
tabulation form as follows:
is registered in the tube 9|.
to said input tubes control potentials repre
Tubes con- Tube Tube Tube Tube Tube Tube Tube Total
duet
80
78
30
37
81
79
24
40 sentative of digits of the same digital position
of the numbers to be added, means for applying
to said carry over tubes potentials representa
tive of digits to be transferred to said digital
0n.. On._ On._ On._ Oil.. 011 Oil..
0
On-. On-_ On.. OH-, Ofi-. Oil.. Ofi-.
100
position from lower digital positions, means for
On._ 0n.. Oil.. 0n.. OIL. On._ 0n..
1,000
On._ 0n-- Ofi.. Ofi.. Ofi.. O11.. On._
1,100 45 establishing at the anodes of said tubes poten
0n-. Oil-. On-. On.- Oil-. 0n.. 0d.. 10,000
tials dependent on the number of conducting
0n. 0i1_. 0n-. O11.. Oil-. On-- 011.. 10,100
tubes in said group, and means responsive to
On._ O11.. Oil.. On.. Ofi.. 0n.. On-_ 11,000
On._ 01T.. 011'.. 011. Ofi.. On._ 0n.
11,100
said potentials for indicating when the number
O11.. 0n-. 0n.. On-. On._ Oi’l-. 0 __ 100,000
of said conducting tubes is odd.
5. An adding circuit including a group of
It is apparent from the foregoing description 50
inputand carry over tubes, means for applying
that an important feature of the carry over
to said input tubes control potentials represen
system is the resistive couplings controlling the
tative of digits of the same digital position of
potential of the grids of the carry over control
the numbers to be added, means for applying
and indicator tubes. This system of couplings
to said carry over tubes potentials representa
operates in such a way that the effective number 55 tive of digits to be transferred to said digital
of voltage steps on any grid is equal to the num
position from lower digital positions, means for
ber of conducting tubes l to 8 (to be converted
establishing at the anodes of said tubes-poten
to the binary system) minus the sum of the
tials dependent on the number of conducting
products of the carry over digits of higher digital
positions by the corresponding power of two. 60 tubes in said group, and means responsive >to
It is evident that such eiïective number of _volt
said potentials for transferring digits to higher
age steps is precisely the correct binary digit.
digital positions.
tube 28 and the input tubes I3 and I9 of Fig. 2.
devices potentials representative of said first
6. An adding circuit including a iirst group
From the circuit of Fig. 4, it is seen that the
which has an electron discharge device for each
carry over tubes 24, 19 and 89 are at the same
D. C. level as the input tubes i3, i9, 53, 69, 65 05 digital position of a first number. a second group
which has an electron discharge device for each
and 1l so that they are suitable for group
digital position of a second number, means for
ing with the input tubes of the higher digital
applying to said ilrst group of electron discharge
positions. The same is true of the carry over
number, means for applying to said second group
I claim as my invention:
70 potentials
representative of said second number,
1. An adding circuit including a separate
and means for converting said potentials into
group of tubes for each digital position of the
potentials representative of the sum of said ?rst
numbers to be added. means for applying to cer
tain oi said tubes control potentials representa
tive of the digits oi the numbers to be added. 75
and second numbers.
`
JAN A. RAJCHMAN.
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