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Патент USA US2404261

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July 16, 1946.
J. R. wHlNNERY
2,404,261
ULTRA HIGH FREQUENCY SYSTEM
Filed oet. 51, 1942'
n
2 Sheets-Sheet l
inventor:
John RWhirmeT‘
y
His 'Attorney
July 16', 1946.
J. R. WHINNERY
2,404,261
ULTRA HIGH FREQUENCY SYSTEM
Filed Oct. 51, 1942
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
Invent or;
do'hn R. Whiïmery,
b
é‘î Ä
y )gw/Attorney
Patented July 16, 1946
2,404,261 '
f UNITED >srA'rrss >'izßiraN'r _OFFICE '
UL'rnA man FREQUENCY SYSTEM John R. vWhinnery, Schenectady, N. Y., assigner
to General Electric Company, a corporation of
New York
Application October 31, 1942, Serial No. 464,037 Y
15 Claims.
(Cl. 315-39)
My invention relates to ultra high frequency
`
in connection with high frequency' electric dis
systems and more particularly to electric dis
- charge devices.
charge devices and associated space resonant
cavities, orv regions, for the production and uti
It is another object of my invention to provide
new and improved space resonant regions, or
lization of ultra high frequency energy.
Energy may be transmitted dielectrically
through wave guides of the hollow-pipe type
vwhen the frequency at which the guide is excited
cavities, employing electric discharge devices.
It is a further object of my invention to pro
vide new and improved space resonant oscil
. lators.
is greater than a critical minimum or cut-off fre-4
It is a still further object of my invention to
quency, the energy being transmitted through 10 provide new and improved ultra high frequency
the dielectric of the medium within the guide and
space resonant amplifiers.
,
conductive or metallic defining members or walls
It is a still further object of my invention to
of the guide ser-ving to direct the propagation of
the electromagnetic wave.»
The types of waves which may be transmitted
dielectrically through guides of this nature are
provide new‘and improved space resonant cavi
, ties, or regions, having a'particular conn-guration
to facilitate the use therewith of electric dis
charge 'devices wherein the space resonant re
gions are formed by employing tuned sections of
a dielectric wave guide of> the hollow-pipe type
y manifold and have been classiñed in the early
stages of the development of this art into E and
H type waves; At a somewhat later date, the
and 'wherein the transverse dimensions of the "
terms “transverse magnetic” (TM) and ‘V‘trans 20 section of the wave guide are chosen in order to
verse electric” l(TE) have been'used to define
the E and H type waves, respectively. In the E
type wave, or the transverse magnetic type, the,`
electromagnetic waves have both longitudinal
and transverse components of electric field, but
only a. transverse component of magnetic field.
By the use of the word transverse is meant trans
compensate for the ,capacitance effect of the elec
tric discharge device so that electromagnetic
waves may be propagated therethrough or sus
tained in a manner substantially unaffected by
the presence of the discharge device.
verse to the direction of wave propagation
system wherein an ultra high frequency triode
through the guide. In the H type waves, or the
transverse electric type waves, the electromag
netic waves have both a longitudinal and a trans
verse component of magnetic field, but only a
transverse component of electric field. Waves
transmitted through guides of this nature have
‘
Itf is a still further Yobject of my invention to
provide s. new and improved ultra -high frequency
is positioned within a section of a dielectric wave
30 guide and wherein the wave guide is foreshort
ened in its width within the ’vicinity of the elec
tric discharge device in order that the impedance
of the guide is substantially uniform along its
longitudinal axis.
been identified by the use of the subscripts,- as 35
indicated, En,m and Hmm. 'I'he subscript n indi
‘
'
Brieiiy stated, in the illustrated embodiments .y
of my invention I provide ultra high frequency
cates the order and the subscript m indicates the
space resonant systems comprising a tuned sec
mode of propagation. For` example in circular
tion of a dielectric wave guide of the hollow-pipe
guides, the order of the Waves is determined by
type which may be used for various purposes,
the manner in which the field intensity varies 40 such as for the production of electromagnetic ~
circumferentially around the axis of the guide,
oscillations, or for the amplification of electro
magnetic waves of high frequency. The trans
verse dimensions of the guide are chosen within
the guide. Although hereinafter in the discus
the vicinity of the electric discharge device so
45
sion of my invention an H01 type wave in a rec
that the guide oifers a substantially uniform im
pedance along its longitudinal axis. More spe
tangular guide will be referred to, ity is to be ap-~
ciñcally, the transverse dimension or width of
preciated that my invention is applicable with
.they guide is restricted within the .region of the
equal facility to other H type waves as well as
electric discharge device to compensate for the
E type waves. '
It is an object of my invention to provide new 50 capacitance effect of the device, thereby main
taining the desired relationship -between the ef
and improved ultra high frequency space 'reso
whereas the mode is determined by the manner
of its variation with distance from the axis of
nant devices.
-
v
It is'another object of my invention to provide,
new and improved dielectric wave guides for use 55
i'ective distributed inductance and capacitance
of the guide not only at points removed from the
position of the discharge device but within the
vicinity thereof.l
.
l
-
aicaeei c.
»
.
'
.
e
preciable distance along the guide.' Above the
_For a better underst anding of my invention, _i
reference may be had tothe following description
taken in connection with the accompanying draw
critical frequency, the electromagnetic waves are
propagated with an attenuation and velocity de
termined by the propagation constant of the
ings, and its scope will ‘be pointed out in the v‘
appended claims. Figs.'1 and 2 diagrammati'cally l
guide. yThe propagation constant h may be ex
5
pressed as follows:
illustrate an embodiment of my invention as ap
plied to an ultra high frequency space resonant
4
system which may be used either as an ultra high "
h'=a+iß
(1)
where a is the attenuation constant and ß is
frequency oscillator, or as an ultra high fre-A
quency amplifier. Figs. 3 and 4 represent a fur L10 the phase constant and both are real quantities
whose magnitudes depend upon frequency.
,ther modification which is provided with coupling
If the frequency is sufficiently large, a is very
means interposed betweenj the” anode-grid and c.,
the grid-cathode space resonantcavities. Figs. 5 , smallv compared to ß and the waves’are propa
_'gated'without appreciable attenuation at a'phase
c 'and 6 represent a 'further modification` of my in
vention as applied to a high frequency space >15 velocity
resonant system of the re-entrant type, and Fig.
w
'7 represents a modification of the arrangement.
shown in Figs. 5 and 6 Awherein a 'double _re
,
.
ß
which is a function of the transverse dimension
Referring now tol Figs. 1 and 2 jointly, 4I have 20 of the guide. vWhen the excitation frequency is '
below the critical frequency, the Equation 1 may
there illustrated my invention .as applied to an
» still be used but a and ß both become imaginary
ultra high frequency space resonant system com
with the -result that p determines the attenua
prising ’a pair of lspace resonant regions, or cav
tion 'and a determines the extent of wave action.
ities; I and 2 which are defined by sections of a
dielectric wave guide of the hollow-pipe type. 25 Physically, _this means that the transmission of
waves through the guide is virtually non-existent
These sections/may be defined'by conductive or
at frequencies below the cut-ofi’ frequency'.
metallic members constructed of ,copper or brass
The phase constant ß may be expressed:
and, of course, may assume vvarious cross sectional
entrant feature‘is employed.
'
'
'
configurations. For the purpose of‘illustrating
my invention, I -have `chosen to employ dielectric
ad
wave guides of rectangular cross- section, which
i
erger-err
where‘w is the angular velocity ofthe wave
. may be defined by metallic outer "plates or mem
propagated through the guide (w='21rf where f is.
the frequency of the wave), p is the permeability
bers 3 and ll, and having an intermediate coxn`
mon metallic member 5 which defines ‘a common
of the medium and e is the dielectric constant of
metallic boundary between `the two. regions. 35 the medium in consistent units, such as rational
Members 3-_-5 are positioned so that the heights
m. k.v s. The quantities n and m are the order
a 'of regions I and 2 are preferably equal, and
the width b may be established by means of lat
eral wall members 6 and ‘l which, of course, arer
conductively connected to members 3, d and 5.
In order tov facilitate the/employment of an
electric discharge device, to be described pres
and mode of the particular wave being transmit
ted through the guide.
_
,
Furthermore, it can be shown> that the critical
io ` frequency
fn may be defined as follows:
_
1
E 2
LL 2 lé
f" ‘2i/EUG) +(b)]
.
<3)
ently, in the space- resonant system, plates 3, il
and 5 are provided, respectively, with apertures,
The wave length is of the electromagnetic
preferably circular apertures, .8, 9 and IIJ which 45 waves propagated through the guide may be de
are substantially coaxial, the axis of which lies
fined as:
'
substantially perpendicular to the longitudinal
axes 0f the cavities I and 2.
v
As a means for establishing the longitudinal
dimensions of the cavities tand 2, and as a
means for tuning these cavities with'respect to
the electromagnetic waves established therein, I
employ a plurality of adjustable end-wall mem
" In order to simplify still furtherthe presenta-1
tion of the subject matter relative to a rectangular
dielectric wave guide, it will be assumed that- the
` dielectric is- air and that the system is arranged
bers which may take the form of plungers II, I2.
for the transmission of an Hoi type .wave where
'I3 and It which may be actuated by> any suitable 55 the electric component of the field is perpendicu
mechanical expedient, such as rods l5. .It will
lar to the base b. With >these assumptions,
be observed-thatplungers II and I2 engage the
vEquations 2 and 3 become:
`
metallic walls of members 3 and 5 which define
space resonant cavity II, and that the plungers
I3 and I4 engage the walls of metallic members ï"
4 and' 5 which define the space resonant cavity 2.
Prior to a further description of the system,
.it is believed that at this time it will be helpful
to point out certain fundamental aspects of di
electric wave guides of the hollow-pipe type, with
particular attention to rectangular guides. vAs '
stated above, there is a critical minimum or cut
off frequency for each mode in a dielectric guide,
(5)
(6)
where c is the velocity of îlight.
A concept of total impedance useful in> match
ing wave'guidessuggests that the ‘impedance ofl
the guide remain substantially constant along its
longitudinal dimension, and it will of course be _
which is determined by the mode,‘the dielectric
observed that there must be a fixed or predeter
constant of the medium within the guidé throughv °_ mined relationshipor ratio between the height a
which the electromagnetic waves are~propagated,`
and the base b.fThis~ concept may be put into
equation'form as follows:
and the transverse dimensions of the guide, Be
low this minimum or cut-off frequency the elec- _
tromagnetic waves are rapidly attenuated and
theenerg'y thereof is not transmitted an ap
.2,404,961
where Z represents the impedance; a is the per
of the discharge device and for maintaining the
electrodes
in spaced relation, there is provided
It the guide impedance is constant, the wave
cylindrical vitreous insulators 33 and 34 imme
will be propagated or sustained uniformly and to
diately surrounding the' anode |1 and cathode I8
maintain this impedance constant for changes in 5 and
which are sealed to members 20, 2| and part
guide dimensions or changes in-guide character- ,
24. vAnmie i1 is electrically insulated from the
istiœ, one must have at any
meability of air, and c is the velocity of light. .
length the following relationship:
particular. wave
ì metallic or conductive structure of the space reso
nant cavities, and particularly from plate 3, so
far as direct current potentials are concerned,
(8) 10 by means of an insulator 35, so that a suitable
potential may be applied across the anode I 1 and
Returning now to Figs. 1 and 2, the longitudinal
cathode I3 through conductors 36 and 31. The
and transverse dimensions a and b of the space
anode is eliectively connected to the top of cavityI
resonant cavities | and 2 are chosen so that the
3 for high frequency currents by the electrostatic
cavities are tuned or substantially resonant to an
electromagnetic wave of a predetermined fre 15 coupling between plates 3 and 2li.
Where it is desired to impress a unidirectional
quency. For example, the dimension b should be
biasing potential on the grid I8. I may employ a
chosen to have a value which is somewhat greater
circuit 38 connected to conductor 31 or cathode
than a free-space half-wave length. or multiples
I8 through contact pin 3|, and to the interme
thereof, of the electromagnetic wave sustained
within cavity I or 2. Furthermore, by the ad 20 diate plate member 5. For example, this bias
ing means may comprise a high resistance grid
justment of plungers |I--|4, the cavities may be
lead connected'in circuit 38.
-adjusted to have longitudinal dimensions equal
%)\,= constant Il k
multiples thereof, so that standing electromag
Energy may be extracted from the anode-grid
space resonant cavity _I by suitable electrode
That is, upon adjustment of plungers ||-|4 the
standing potential and current curves of the elec
stituting an extension of an inner conductor 48 ~
-of. a coaxial or concentric transmission line com
rent node occurs at a point midway between the
ends of the cavities. the voltage and current
ciable longitudinal dimension, thereby permit
to a half-wave length, measured in terms of xg, or
netic waves are established within these cavities. 25 means which may take the form of a loop 38 con
prising the inner conductor 40 and an outer tubu
tromagnetic waves assume positions fixed in
lar'conductor 4|, the latter of which is conduc
space butv undergoing sinusoidal time variations.
More particularly, voltage nodes of the potential 30 tively connected 'to outer member 3 and is ar
ranged to~ slide along the outer surface thereof.
curves occur at the end of the cavities, and a curPlate 3 is provided with an opening 42 of appre
ting .adjustment of the position of loop 39 to
`
I position within the apertures B, 8 and I0 an 35 that optimum position wherein maximum energy
may be extracted from the space resonant region
electric discharge device |8of the type disclosed .
I. Any suitable mechanical -arrangement may
and claimed in copending patent application Se
standing waves belngin time quadrature.
be provided for adjusting loop 39, and such an
rial No. 436,633 of James E. Beggs, filed March
arrangement is diagrammatically illustrated as
28, 1942, and which is assigned to the assignee of
the present application. This discharge device is 40 constituting a plate 43 welded or soldered to the
' outer surface of member 3 and which positions
peculiarly adapted for the utilization of ultra high
and guides the flanged part of outer conductor 4 I.
frequency energy and comprises a plurality of
Where the arrangement illustrated in Figs. 1
. enclosed electrodes including a cylindrical anode
and 2 is employed as an amplifier, the input ex
I1, a cylindrical cathode I8 and a grid I8 main
tained in spaced relation between the anode and 45 citation for the grid-cathode space resonant cav
ity 2 may be provided by means of input electrode
the cathode. Anode |1 and grid I8 are supported
means 44 constituting an outer tubular conductor
by metallic discs 20 and 2|, the latter of which
45 and an inner conductor 46 terminated in -a
is conductively connected to the intermediate
loop 41 whichv projects into the space resonant
plate member 5 through resilient fingers or an
annular metallic collar 22. Cathode I8 is sup 50 region 2. It will be understood that other forms
of electrode means, such vas probes or the equiv
ported by a cylindrical member 23 having a flatl
aient, may be employed for this purpose.
disc part 24 substantially parallel to disc 2|.
In order to maintain Ithe impedance of the
Members 2I and 23 provide externally accessible
guide constant along its length and particularly
high frequency terminals for grid I9 and cathode
i 8. Cathode |8 is provided with a flanged part 25 55 to arrange cavities i ‘and 2 so that the cavities.
oiïer substantially no discontinuity due to the
substantially parallel to the lower surface of part
presence of the discharge device I6, I provide
24 and is spaced therefrom by means of an insu- _
means within the respective cavities for restrict
lator 26 so that the cathode is electrically insu-'
ing the transverse dimension b within the vicin- `
lated therefrom, so far as direct current poten
tials are concerned, but effectively connected 60 ity of the discharge device, thereby compensat
lng for the capacitance effect of the discharge
thereto with reference to high frequency cur
device in order that the waves Within the respec
rent, by virtue of the electrostatic coupling be
tween the parallel surfaces. Cathode I8 is also - tive cavities are substantially unaiîected by the
presence of the discharge device. More partic
provided with a coiled heating element 21 to
which current may be supplied through suitable 65 ularly, the transverse dimension within 'the vicin
ity of the electric discharge device I6 is fore
conductors terminated in contact pins 28 and 29.
` Unidirectional potential may be applied to the
cathode I8 through other conductors terminated
Contact pins 28-3I
. in contact pins 33 and 3|.
are supported by a base 32 which encloses a me
tallic header (not shown) and in which the var
ious conductors for the cathode heating element
and the cathode are sealed.
-
shortened so that the guide at this point is sub
stantially resonant to the electromagnetic waves
. which it is desired to sustain. In other words,
70 inasmuch as the electric discharge device |18
oiiers anappreciable capacitance by virtue of its
configuration and presence, the dimension b is
foreshortened so that the resultant or eii‘ective
distributed capitance and the capacitance of the
To complete the enclosure for the electrodes 75. discharge device i8 resonate with the distributed
amasar
y
.
_
7;
-
,
-
-
.
. ' inductance of this portion of-the Vguide or cavities'.
ties. Furthermore.' tuning and coupling may Alie
, One way in which this desired symmetry oi.' the _ ~ obtained with facility.
longitudinal impedance` of the respective cavitiesv
The arrangement of Fig. u1 maylalso be em
may be obtained is by restricting thetransverse , ployedas an amplifier or ultra high> frequency
dimension b and by providing the lateral wall’v voltages or- ‘currents, in which case the input
members 6 and 7 with appropriately enlarged , electrode means, and particularly loop tl, is ener
. ing a curvature and a conñgura/tion so that no
gized. through the concentric transmission line
. tt, establishing vwithin the grid-cathode space
abrupt discontinuityy is encountered4 as the wave
resonant region 2 an electromagnetic oscillation.
wall members t and 1. Where the protuberances'l
to modulate the electron beam transmitted be
wall thicknesses or protuberances wand 49 hav->
progresses along the' longitudinal axis. For ex 10 In this case, of course, the cavity 2 being tuned
ample, the protuberances t8 and Il@ may be l, to the -i’requency of the input excitation sustains
a standing. electromagnetic wave and, by virtue
' formed integral with the lateral wall members 6‘
of, the fact' that theelectric. discharge device it
and 1,' or may be constituted separately and in
serted in the proper position. Of course, it is " is positioned within the vicinity‘of the ps1-,enum
required that these protuberances t8 and 49 be 15 maximum of this standing wave, the grid and
the cathode undergo cyclic variations of potential
conductiveand be conductively connected to the
are constructed separately, these parts. may be t’ tween `anode Il and cathode i8, consequently
welded or soldered to the lateral wall members 6 . eiïecting energization ofthe anode-grid cavity
20 I and» maintaining this cavity in oscillation.
Upon the application of a suitable potential,V
`
‘ Energyl is vextracted from the anode-grid cavity
such as a unidirectional potential, to the anode
I1 and cathode I8, the space resonant system
shown in Figs. l and 2 are initiated in operation.
Each of the cavities I and 2 is tuned or resonant
'3l by loop 39 and the associated concentric
the boundary member 5 are common to the two .
eiîlï'ect.>
transmission line. >The ampliiìcation of the in
put signal is obtained by virtue of the ampliñ
as cation edect due to the electric discharge device
I6 which couples the respective cavities.
to the desired frequencyl and energy is supplied
Figs. 3 and 4 show a further embodiment of
to an external utilization circuit from the anode
my inventlon.simi1ar in many respects to that
grid cavity through loop 39 and the concentric
shown in Figs. l and 2, and corresponding ele
transmission line comprising conductors dll and
di.
In the arrangement of Figs. 1 andv2, when 30 ments have been assigned like reference n`u
merals. ÀIn the arrangement of Figs. 3 and 4,
used as an oscillator, the coupling between the
there is provided separate lcoupling means, such
anode-grid cavity I and the grid-cathode cavity
as a, probe 50,. supported by the intermediate
2 is obtained principally by virtue of the inter
metallic member 5, but spaced electrically there
electrode capacitance effects of the electric dis
charge device I6, whereby the systemy is main 35 from by means of insulating glass bead or seal
5|. Other suitable formsof coupling means may
tained in oscillation by virtue of the cyclic var
be employed and, of course. positioned at that
iations in the potential impressed between grid
point to obtain the maximum or desired coupling
I9 and cathode I8. Inasmuch' as the grid and
cavities. it may be considered that the anode and
cathode voltages vary substantially in that phase`
relationship with respect to the grid, necessary to
maintain the discharge device I6 and the space
,
Figs. 5 and 6 represent a further modiñcation
of` my invention -which is similar in many re»
spects to that shown in Figs. 1 and 2, and cor
responding elements have been Aassigned like
reference numerals. In the arrangement of Figs.
resonant system as an entirety in oscillation.
If the side walls t and 'I were not shortened by 45 5 and 6, I provide a space resonant oscillator of
use of protuberances «t8 'and 49, that is, if the
the re~entrant type wherein an intermediate ,
member 52, deñning the common boundary be-'
tween the anode-grid and the grid-cathode spaceresonant cavities. does not extend the entire lon
tromagnetic wave traveling essentially in the
transversedirection Within the vicinity of the 50 gitudinal dimension of the respective cavities, so
f that there is afforded a re-entrant coupling path
discharge device I6, due to the fact that the ca.
pacitance loading> eifect thereof tends to lower ’ 53 between the anode-grid cavity I and the grid
cathode cavity 2 thereby constituting a feed-back
the natural resonance frequency within that 're
gion to a frequency for which the width b is less
connection between these. two cavities. When
vthan anali-wave length.' Consequently, the low 55 such a construction is employed. the correspond
transverse dimension b is uniformy throughout the
cavities, resonance is then determined by an elec-_
est order wave Hoi is then below cut-off in the
ing end walls of the respective cavities may com
regions removed from the vicinity` of the dis
prise a single tuning plunger 5t which engages
charge device, that is where the tube capacitance
loading effects have disappeared. Attempts to
the'inner surfaces ofthe metallic deñning mem
` bers 3, t, E Vand 6.
,
In the arrangement of Figs. 5 and 6, thalength
tune- such an arrangement' by plungers far re 60
of the member 52 is preferably chosen so thatA
moved from the discharge device or tocouple the
electromagnetic fields of the cavities by loops or ` the- desired phase relationship between the
lines in regions of the cavities far from"y the
discharge device are not effective under those
conditions.
‘
»
-` `
By -the restriction of the transversedimension,>
or dimensions, of the cavities within the vicinity
of discharge- device I6, the tendency to establish `
a localized wave region, or a -wave ,propagated
¿along the transverse axis withinthe vicinity'of
the discharge device is reducedv 'or substantially
eliminated„and the electromagnetic waves will`
anode-grid and the grid-cathode voltages is
maintained. Forexample, since the grid I9vis
at the common potential,- in order that the anode
>and cathode vary in the proper phase relation
ship, the axial or >longitudinal dimension of the
member 52 should be substantially equal to a
half-wave length of the electromagnetic waves
sustained within ,the respective 1 cavities. Od
` course, actually the `physical length ofthe part
52 is somewhat less than a half-wave length due
to the end effects.
_.
'
be sustained symmetrically throughout the en-v
`In >the arrangement of
7 there is illus- '
. tirelength oi' the respective space resonant cavi- .N trated _a still further modiilcation of my inven
2,404,261
ftion as applied to a space resonant system, such
of said discharge device in order that the elec
tromagnetic wave of said predetermined fre
a double re-entrant feature. That is.- the anode
grid and the grid-cathode cavities are donned by
quency is substantially unaffected by the presence
of said discharge device, and >electrode means
associated~with said section for supplying energy
- a metallic member having parts 55 and 56 which
may be constituted
by a single member having'
_
therein an aperture" through which the dis
to or extracting energy therefrom.
charge device I5 extends. Members 55 and 55
extend axially the longitudinal dimension of the
system, but'do not engage the metallic endynwalls
4. A space resonant oscillator comprising a
section of a dielectric wave guide of the hollow
Dipe type including a conductive defining mem
ber, said section- _being dimensioned to support
defined by plungers 58 andl 59, thereby aifording
coupling paths -GII and- 6I between the` anode
electromagnetic waves of a predetermined fre
quency and having dimensions so that said sec
` grid and the grid-cathode spaceresonant regions.
Energy is fed back'from the anode-grid cavity
to the grid-cathode cavity,- and the axial dimen
sionsof the parts 55 and 55 are chosen in order
that 'the grid-cathode voltage have the desired
tion is tuned substantially to the excitation fre
quency, an electric ldischarge device comprising
a plurality of enclosed electrodes connected to
oppositely disposed walls of said conductive mem
- phase yrelationship to maintain the system in
`
p
l
'
v section to compensate for the capacitance eii'ect
as an »ultrav high frequency oscillator employing
oscillation.
.
ber, an enclosing structure immediately surround
.
ing said electrodes, means for restricting a trans
While I have shown and described my inven 20 verse dimension of said guide to compensate for
tion as applied to partic'ular systems and as ern-'
the capacitance eil'ect of said discharge device in `
` bodying various ~devices diagrammatically shown,
order that the electromagnetic wave ofl said pre
it will be obvious to'those skilled in the art that
changes and modifications may be made without
departing from my invention, andI, therefore,
aim in the appended claims to cover al1 such
changes and modifications as fall within the
true spirit and scope of my invention.
What I claim as new and desire to .secure by
Letters Patent of the United States is:
'
1. A space resonant system comprising a sec- I
tion of a dielectric wave guide of the hollow-pipe
type including conductive defining walls, said
section being dimensioned to support electro
.' determined frequency is substantially unaffected
25
by the presence of said discharge device, and out
put electrode means connected to said section.
5. An ultra high frequency space resonant sys
tem comprising a section of a dielectric wave
guide of the hollow-pipe type defined by longi
tudinal and lateral conductive members, said sec..
30 tion being excited at a predetermined frequency
correlatedV to the dimensions of said section, and
~an electric discharge device including a plurality
of electrodes comprising'an anode, a cathode
and a grid, transverse discs for supporting said
magnetic- waves of predetermined frequency, an 35 members and for providing high frequency ter
electric discharge device comprising a plurality
minals between two of said electrodes and the
of enclosed electrodes> connected to oppositely
conductive members of said section and an en
disposed walls-.of said guide and being positioned
substantially transverse to the longitudinal axis
closing structure for said electrodes, the trans
verse dimension of said section being restricted
of said section and enclosing structure for said 40 within the vicinity of said electric discharge de
electrodes, and means for restricting a transverse
vice in order to compensate for the capacitance
dimension of said guide within`~` the vicinity of
effect of said discharge device.
said -device to compensate for the capacitance
6. A high frequency space resonant system com~ y
eifect of said discharge device in order that the
prising a section of a dielectric wave guide of the
electromagnetic wave of said predetermined fre
hollow-pipe type including a conductive member
quency is substantially unaffected by the presence
of said discharge device.
~
2. A space resonant system comprising a sec
tion of a dielectric wave guide of the hollow-pipe-
type including conductivewalls, said section being
excited at a frequency -greater than the cut-off
frequency and having `dimensions so that said
section'is tuned substantially to the excitation
frequency,> an _electric discharge devicecompris
ing a plurality of enclosed electrodesconnected to
oppositely disposed walls of said section, an en
closing structure for said electrodes, and means
for restricting a transverse dimension of said
guide to compensate for the capacitance effect Aof
said discharge device in order that the wave of
said excitation frequency is substantially un- '
affected by the presence of said discharge device.
3. A space resonant system comprising‘a sec
tion of a dielectric wave -guide of the hollowfpipe
typeinciuding a metallic defining member, said
section being dimensioned to support electro
magnetic waves of apredetermined frequency and
having dimensions‘so that said section is tuned '
substantially to said frequency, an electric dis
, for deiìning a space resonant region, said space
resonant region being excited at a frequency cor
responding to the natural frequency thereof, and
an electric discharge device including an electric
dischargev path provided by a pair of electrodes
`and lan enclosing structure therefor, said dis
charge device being connected transversely across
said guide along the longitudinal axis thereof
within the vicinity of the potential maximum of
the standing electromagnetic wave within said
” region, means for restricting the section of said
electric wave guide within the vicinity of said
discharge device to compensate for the capaci
tance eifect of said electric discharge device.
7. A high frequency space resonant system com- `
prising a pair of space resonant cavities defined
by a pair of sections of a dielectric wave guide and
having a common metallic boundary, an electric
discharge device comprising a plurality of enclosed
electrodes including an anode, a cathode and a
grid and an enclosing structure therefor, said
discharge device being positioned within said
cavities and having the cathode and grid thereof
connected to oppositely disposed transverse points
charge .device comprising a pair of enclosed elec-’ .70 of one of said cavities, and means for restricting
trodes, an enclosing structure immediately sur
' the width of said cavities within the vicinity of
rounding said electrodes and providing externally
said electric discharge device in order to com~
accessible high frequency terminals connected to
pensate
for the capacitance effect thereof.
oppositely disposed points of> said member, means
8. An ultra high frequency space resonant sys
for restricting a transverse dimension of said 75 tem comprising a pair of space resonant cavities
v
Monaci
ii?
' defined by two/adjacent sections of a dielectric ' 1 -form impedance
to electromagnetic waves of a "
wave guide ci the hollow-pipe type including con- '
ductive _cuter defining members ` and having' a
predetermined frequency along vthe longitudinal
axes, outputelectrode means lconnected tothe
commonmetallic boundary, said members being
provided with alined apertures qthe axis of whichA
is substantially perpendicular to the longitudinal
. said discharge device, and means> for ltuning at
cavity associatedwith the anode-grid circuit‘of ,
least one. of said cavities.
axis of said cavities, an electric discharge device - -
f
g
.
11. An ultra high frequency space resonant
positioned within said apertures and comprising a
plurality of enclosed electrodes including an
. amplifier comprising a pair of space resonant>
‘ cavities deilned by two adjacent sections of al
bers and said grid and said cathode being. con
nected respectively tol the >common metallic
bers being provided -With concentric apertures
the ams of which is substantially perpendicular
boundary and the other outer member, means for
to the longitudinal axis of -said cavities, an elec
anode, a cathode> and a grid and an enclosing -io dielectric wave guide’of the hollow-pipe type in
cluding conductive' outer vdeñning members and
-‘ structure for said electrodes, said anode being
having' a common metallic boundary, said mem-l
electrically insulated fromone of the outer mem
tric discharge device positioned Within said aper
tures and comprising a plurality of electrodes
cathode, and means for restricting 'the width of
including an anode, a cathode and a grid and
said cavities within the vicinity of said electric
an enclosing structure immediately surrounding
discharge device in order to compensate for _the
capacitance edect thereof so that said cavities 20 said electrodes and adording‘ ,externally accessi
ble high frequency terminals thereto, said anode
adord a substantially uniform impedance to elec
applying a potential across said anode and said
' tromagnetic waves of a predetermined frequency v
Y being electrically insulated-from one of said outer
wave guide of the hollow-pipe type including con
ductive outer defining members and having a
common metallic boundary, said members being
members and said -grid and said cathode being
connected respectively to the common metallic
`boundary and the other outer member, means for
applying -a'potential across said anode and said
cathode, means for restricting the width ofl said
cavities within the vicinityI of said electric dis
charge device in order to compensate for' the
pendicularly to the longitudinal a lof said cav
ities, an electric discharge device positioned with- «
adord a substantially uniform impedance to elec
tromagnetic waves of a predetermined frequency
the outer members and said grid and said cathode '
ities deiined by two adjacent _sections of a dielec- »
along the longitudinal axes.
.
-
9. An ultra high frequency space resonant oscil
lator comprising a pair oi' space resonant cavities
defined by two adjacent sections of a dielectric `
provided with apertures alined substantially per 80 capacitance efi’ect- thereof whereby said cavities
along the 4longitudinal axes, input electrode
in said apertures and comprising a plurality of
means associated with the cavity connected ,to
enclosed electrodes including an anode, acathode
and a grid and an enclosing structure immediate 35 said grid and said cathode, and output electrode
means associated with the'othercavity.; .
.
ly surrounding said electrodes and having ex
_. 12. An ultra high frequency space' resonant
ternally accessible high frequency terminals, said
_system comprising a pairïof space resonant cav
anode`being electrically insulated from one of
being connected respectively to the common me
tallic boundary and the other outer member,
means for applying a potential across said anode
and cathode, means for restricting the width of
said cavities within the vicinity of said electric
discharge device in order to compensate for the
tric wave guide of the hollow-pipe type'including
outer defining members vand having throughout
an appreciable longitudinal length thereof a `
. common `metallic boundary, of the re-entrant
type whereby energy may be> transferred between
capacitance edect thereof wherebyA said cavities
said cavities, an electric „discharge device posi
`tioned within apertures of said outer members
adord a substantially >uniform impedance to elec
tromagnetic waves of a predetermined frequency
and'said common metallic> boundary and com
prising a plln‘ality of enclosed electrodes includ
ing an anode, a cathode and a grid and an en
along the longitudinal axes, and output electrode
means connected to the cavity associated with 50 closing structurer surrounding said electrodes,
said anode being electrically insulated from one
the anode-‘grid circuit of said discharge device.
10. An ultra high frequency space resonant os
of the outer members and said grid vand said
cathode being connected respectively to the >com
cillator comprising a pair of space resonant cavi
mon metallic boundary and the other outer mem
ties deñned by two adjacent sections of a- dielec
tric wave guide of the hollow-pipe type including
ber, means for lapplying a potential across said
conductive outer defining members and having a
anode and said cathode, means for restricting
the width of said cavities within the vicinity of
common‘ metallic boundary, said members being
provided with substantially concentric apertures.
said electric discharge device> _in order to compen
alined perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of
sate for the capacitance effect thereof so that
said cavities, an electric discharge device 'posi
saidl cavities afford a substantially uniform im
tioned within said apertures and comprising a
pedance to electromagnetic waves of a predeter
plurality of enclosed electrodes including an
`mined frequency along the longitudinal ‘axes
anode, a cathode and a grid andan enclosing
thereohmeans for tuning at least one of said
structure immediately surrounding said elec
cavities, and» means for extracting energy from '
trodes and having externally accessible high fre 66 the anode-grid cavity associated with said dis
quency terminals, said anode being electrically
charge device.
insulated from one of the outer members and- said
13. An ultra high, frequency space resonant
grid and said cathode being connected respec
system comprising an electric discharge device
tively to the common metallic boundary and the
including a plurality of enclosed electrodes com
other outer member, means for applying a po 70 prising an anode, a 'cathode and a grid and an
tential across said anode and cathode, means for
enclosing structure'l surrounding said electrodes
restricting the width of said cavities within the
and providing externally accessible high fre
vicinity of said electric discharge device in order
quency‘terminals thereto, a pair yoi’ space reso-p
to compensate for the capacitance eil'ect thereof
nant cavities .defined by two adjacent sections of
vwhereby said cavities adord a substantiallyuni- 'it a dielectric wave guide of the hollow-pipe typt*v
2,404,261
14
including outer defining members and an inter
mediate member, said intermediate member be
ing connected to said grid through the associated
terminal but not extending the entire axial
said ñrst mentioned members being restricted
within the vicinity of said electric discharge de
vice in _order to compensate for the capacitance
length of said cavity thereby providing a re-en
trant path for the transfer of energy from the
stantially uniform impedance to electromagnetic
Waves of a predetermined frequency along the
longitudinal axes of the cavities, and output elec
anode-grid to the grid-cathode circuit of said
effects thereof so that said cavities aiîord a sub
discharge device, means for restricting the width
trode means associated with at least one of said
of said cavities within the vicinity of said electric
cavities.
discharge device in order to compensate for the 10, 15. A space resonant system comprising a pair
capacitance eiïect thereof so that said cavities af
of space resonant. cavities deñned by two adja
ford a. substantially uniform impedance to elec
cent sections of a dielectric wave guide of the
tromagnetic waves of a predetermined frequency
hollow-pipe type including outer defining mem
along the longitudinal axes, and electrode means
bers and having throughout an appreciable
associated with one of said cavities.
15 length thereof an intermediate boundary of the
14. An ultra high frequency space resonant
reentrant type, said intermediate boundary being
system comprising an electric discharge device
provided with an' aperture, an electric discharge
including a plurality of enclosed electrodes in
device positioned within said aperture and com
cluding an anode, a cathode and a grid and an
prising a plurality of enclosed electrodes includ
enclosing structure surrounding said electrodes, 20 ing an anode, a cathode and a grid, said grid be
a pair of space resonant cavities defined by two
adjacent sections having a dielectric wave guide
ing connected to said intermediate boundary and
said anode and cathode being connected for high
of the hollow-pipe type including conductive de
frequency currents to respective points on said
deñning members, tuning means for said cavi
outer members located substantially along the
ties comprising adjustable conductive end mem 25 axis of said aperture which is perpendicular to
bers, a conductive member intermediate the first
the longitudinal axis of said cavities, means for
mentioned members and connected to said grid
restricting the transverse dimensions of said cav
and extending in one direction to- engage an end
ities in the'vicinity of said electric discharge de
wall and extending towards but not engaging the
vice to compensate for the capacitance effect
other end wall thereby constituting a re-entrant 30 thereof, and means for applying a difference of coupling path between the anode-grid and the
potential across said anode' and said cathode.
grid-cathode circuits of said discharge device,
JOHN R.. WHINNERY.
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