Патент USA US2404261код для вставки
July 16, 1946. J. R. wHlNNERY 2,404,261 ULTRA HIGH FREQUENCY SYSTEM Filed oet. 51, 1942' n 2 Sheets-Sheet l inventor: John RWhirmeT‘ y His 'Attorney July 16', 1946. J. R. WHINNERY 2,404,261 ULTRA HIGH FREQUENCY SYSTEM Filed Oct. 51, 1942 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Invent or; do'hn R. Whiïmery, b é‘î Ä y )gw/Attorney Patented July 16, 1946 2,404,261 ' f UNITED >srA'rrss >'izßiraN'r _OFFICE ' UL'rnA man FREQUENCY SYSTEM John R. vWhinnery, Schenectady, N. Y., assigner to General Electric Company, a corporation of New York Application October 31, 1942, Serial No. 464,037 Y 15 Claims. (Cl. 315-39) My invention relates to ultra high frequency ` in connection with high frequency' electric dis systems and more particularly to electric dis - charge devices. charge devices and associated space resonant cavities, orv regions, for the production and uti It is another object of my invention to provide new and improved space resonant regions, or lization of ultra high frequency energy. Energy may be transmitted dielectrically through wave guides of the hollow-pipe type vwhen the frequency at which the guide is excited cavities, employing electric discharge devices. It is a further object of my invention to pro vide new and improved space resonant oscil . lators. is greater than a critical minimum or cut-off fre-4 It is a still further object of my invention to quency, the energy being transmitted through 10 provide new and improved ultra high frequency the dielectric of the medium within the guide and space resonant amplifiers. , conductive or metallic defining members or walls It is a still further object of my invention to of the guide ser-ving to direct the propagation of the electromagnetic wave.» The types of waves which may be transmitted dielectrically through guides of this nature are provide new‘and improved space resonant cavi , ties, or regions, having a'particular conn-guration to facilitate the use therewith of electric dis charge 'devices wherein the space resonant re gions are formed by employing tuned sections of a dielectric wave guide of> the hollow-pipe type y manifold and have been classiñed in the early stages of the development of this art into E and H type waves; At a somewhat later date, the and 'wherein the transverse dimensions of the " terms “transverse magnetic” (TM) and ‘V‘trans 20 section of the wave guide are chosen in order to verse electric” l(TE) have been'used to define the E and H type waves, respectively. In the E type wave, or the transverse magnetic type, the,` electromagnetic waves have both longitudinal and transverse components of electric field, but only a. transverse component of magnetic field. By the use of the word transverse is meant trans compensate for the ,capacitance effect of the elec tric discharge device so that electromagnetic waves may be propagated therethrough or sus tained in a manner substantially unaffected by the presence of the discharge device. verse to the direction of wave propagation system wherein an ultra high frequency triode through the guide. In the H type waves, or the transverse electric type waves, the electromag netic waves have both a longitudinal and a trans verse component of magnetic field, but only a transverse component of electric field. Waves transmitted through guides of this nature have ‘ Itf is a still further Yobject of my invention to provide s. new and improved ultra -high frequency is positioned within a section of a dielectric wave 30 guide and wherein the wave guide is foreshort ened in its width within the ’vicinity of the elec tric discharge device in order that the impedance of the guide is substantially uniform along its longitudinal axis. been identified by the use of the subscripts,- as 35 indicated, En,m and Hmm. 'I'he subscript n indi ‘ ' Brieiiy stated, in the illustrated embodiments .y of my invention I provide ultra high frequency cates the order and the subscript m indicates the space resonant systems comprising a tuned sec mode of propagation. For` example in circular tion of a dielectric wave guide of the hollow-pipe guides, the order of the Waves is determined by type which may be used for various purposes, the manner in which the field intensity varies 40 such as for the production of electromagnetic ~ circumferentially around the axis of the guide, oscillations, or for the amplification of electro magnetic waves of high frequency. The trans verse dimensions of the guide are chosen within the guide. Although hereinafter in the discus the vicinity of the electric discharge device so 45 sion of my invention an H01 type wave in a rec that the guide oifers a substantially uniform im pedance along its longitudinal axis. More spe tangular guide will be referred to, ity is to be ap-~ ciñcally, the transverse dimension or width of preciated that my invention is applicable with .they guide is restricted within the .region of the equal facility to other H type waves as well as electric discharge device to compensate for the E type waves. ' It is an object of my invention to provide new 50 capacitance effect of the device, thereby main taining the desired relationship -between the ef and improved ultra high frequency space 'reso whereas the mode is determined by the manner of its variation with distance from the axis of nant devices. - v It is'another object of my invention to provide, new and improved dielectric wave guides for use 55 i'ective distributed inductance and capacitance of the guide not only at points removed from the position of the discharge device but within the vicinity thereof.l . l - aicaeei c. » . ' . e preciable distance along the guide.' Above the _For a better underst anding of my invention, _i reference may be had tothe following description taken in connection with the accompanying draw critical frequency, the electromagnetic waves are propagated with an attenuation and velocity de termined by the propagation constant of the ings, and its scope will ‘be pointed out in the v‘ appended claims. Figs.'1 and 2 diagrammati'cally l guide. yThe propagation constant h may be ex 5 pressed as follows: illustrate an embodiment of my invention as ap plied to an ultra high frequency space resonant 4 system which may be used either as an ultra high " h'=a+iß (1) where a is the attenuation constant and ß is frequency oscillator, or as an ultra high fre-A quency amplifier. Figs. 3 and 4 represent a fur L10 the phase constant and both are real quantities whose magnitudes depend upon frequency. ,ther modification which is provided with coupling If the frequency is sufficiently large, a is very means interposed betweenj the” anode-grid and c., the grid-cathode space resonantcavities. Figs. 5 , smallv compared to ß and the waves’are propa _'gated'without appreciable attenuation at a'phase c 'and 6 represent a 'further modification` of my in vention as applied to a high frequency space >15 velocity resonant system of the re-entrant type, and Fig. w '7 represents a modification of the arrangement. shown in Figs. 5 and 6 Awherein a 'double _re , . ß which is a function of the transverse dimension Referring now tol Figs. 1 and 2 jointly, 4I have 20 of the guide. vWhen the excitation frequency is ' below the critical frequency, the Equation 1 may there illustrated my invention .as applied to an » still be used but a and ß both become imaginary ultra high frequency space resonant system com with the -result that p determines the attenua prising ’a pair of lspace resonant regions, or cav tion 'and a determines the extent of wave action. ities; I and 2 which are defined by sections of a dielectric wave guide of the hollow-pipe type. 25 Physically, _this means that the transmission of waves through the guide is virtually non-existent These sections/may be defined'by conductive or at frequencies below the cut-ofi’ frequency'. metallic members constructed of ,copper or brass The phase constant ß may be expressed: and, of course, may assume vvarious cross sectional entrant feature‘is employed. ' ' ' configurations. For the purpose of‘illustrating my invention, I -have `chosen to employ dielectric ad wave guides of rectangular cross- section, which i erger-err where‘w is the angular velocity ofthe wave . may be defined by metallic outer "plates or mem propagated through the guide (w='21rf where f is. the frequency of the wave), p is the permeability bers 3 and ll, and having an intermediate coxn` mon metallic member 5 which defines ‘a common of the medium and e is the dielectric constant of metallic boundary between `the two. regions. 35 the medium in consistent units, such as rational Members 3-_-5 are positioned so that the heights m. k.v s. The quantities n and m are the order a 'of regions I and 2 are preferably equal, and the width b may be established by means of lat eral wall members 6 and ‘l which, of course, arer conductively connected to members 3, d and 5. In order tov facilitate the/employment of an electric discharge device, to be described pres and mode of the particular wave being transmit ted through the guide. _ , Furthermore, it can be shown> that the critical io ` frequency fn may be defined as follows: _ 1 E 2 LL 2 lé f" ‘2i/EUG) +(b)] . <3) ently, in the space- resonant system, plates 3, il and 5 are provided, respectively, with apertures, The wave length is of the electromagnetic preferably circular apertures, .8, 9 and IIJ which 45 waves propagated through the guide may be de are substantially coaxial, the axis of which lies fined as: ' substantially perpendicular to the longitudinal axes 0f the cavities I and 2. v As a means for establishing the longitudinal dimensions of the cavities tand 2, and as a means for tuning these cavities with'respect to the electromagnetic waves established therein, I employ a plurality of adjustable end-wall mem " In order to simplify still furtherthe presenta-1 tion of the subject matter relative to a rectangular dielectric wave guide, it will be assumed that- the ` dielectric is- air and that the system is arranged bers which may take the form of plungers II, I2. for the transmission of an Hoi type .wave where 'I3 and It which may be actuated by> any suitable 55 the electric component of the field is perpendicu mechanical expedient, such as rods l5. .It will lar to the base b. With >these assumptions, be observed-thatplungers II and I2 engage the vEquations 2 and 3 become: ` metallic walls of members 3 and 5 which define space resonant cavity II, and that the plungers I3 and I4 engage the walls of metallic members ï" 4 and' 5 which define the space resonant cavity 2. Prior to a further description of the system, .it is believed that at this time it will be helpful to point out certain fundamental aspects of di electric wave guides of the hollow-pipe type, with particular attention to rectangular guides. vAs ' stated above, there is a critical minimum or cut off frequency for each mode in a dielectric guide, (5) (6) where c is the velocity of îlight. A concept of total impedance useful in> match ing wave'guidessuggests that the ‘impedance ofl the guide remain substantially constant along its longitudinal dimension, and it will of course be _ which is determined by the mode,‘the dielectric observed that there must be a fixed or predeter constant of the medium within the guidé throughv °_ mined relationshipor ratio between the height a which the electromagnetic waves are~propagated,` and the base b.fThis~ concept may be put into equation'form as follows: and the transverse dimensions of the guide, Be low this minimum or cut-off frequency the elec- _ tromagnetic waves are rapidly attenuated and theenerg'y thereof is not transmitted an ap .2,404,961 where Z represents the impedance; a is the per of the discharge device and for maintaining the electrodes in spaced relation, there is provided It the guide impedance is constant, the wave cylindrical vitreous insulators 33 and 34 imme will be propagated or sustained uniformly and to diately surrounding the' anode |1 and cathode I8 maintain this impedance constant for changes in 5 and which are sealed to members 20, 2| and part guide dimensions or changes in-guide character- , 24. vAnmie i1 is electrically insulated from the istiœ, one must have at any meability of air, and c is the velocity of light. . length the following relationship: particular. wave ì metallic or conductive structure of the space reso nant cavities, and particularly from plate 3, so far as direct current potentials are concerned, (8) 10 by means of an insulator 35, so that a suitable potential may be applied across the anode I 1 and Returning now to Figs. 1 and 2, the longitudinal cathode I3 through conductors 36 and 31. The and transverse dimensions a and b of the space anode is eliectively connected to the top of cavityI resonant cavities | and 2 are chosen so that the 3 for high frequency currents by the electrostatic cavities are tuned or substantially resonant to an electromagnetic wave of a predetermined fre 15 coupling between plates 3 and 2li. Where it is desired to impress a unidirectional quency. For example, the dimension b should be biasing potential on the grid I8. I may employ a chosen to have a value which is somewhat greater circuit 38 connected to conductor 31 or cathode than a free-space half-wave length. or multiples I8 through contact pin 3|, and to the interme thereof, of the electromagnetic wave sustained within cavity I or 2. Furthermore, by the ad 20 diate plate member 5. For example, this bias ing means may comprise a high resistance grid justment of plungers |I--|4, the cavities may be lead connected'in circuit 38. -adjusted to have longitudinal dimensions equal %)\,= constant Il k multiples thereof, so that standing electromag Energy may be extracted from the anode-grid space resonant cavity _I by suitable electrode That is, upon adjustment of plungers ||-|4 the standing potential and current curves of the elec stituting an extension of an inner conductor 48 ~ -of. a coaxial or concentric transmission line com rent node occurs at a point midway between the ends of the cavities. the voltage and current ciable longitudinal dimension, thereby permit to a half-wave length, measured in terms of xg, or netic waves are established within these cavities. 25 means which may take the form of a loop 38 con prising the inner conductor 40 and an outer tubu tromagnetic waves assume positions fixed in lar'conductor 4|, the latter of which is conduc space butv undergoing sinusoidal time variations. More particularly, voltage nodes of the potential 30 tively connected 'to outer member 3 and is ar ranged to~ slide along the outer surface thereof. curves occur at the end of the cavities, and a curPlate 3 is provided with an opening 42 of appre ting .adjustment of the position of loop 39 to ` I position within the apertures B, 8 and I0 an 35 that optimum position wherein maximum energy may be extracted from the space resonant region electric discharge device |8of the type disclosed . I. Any suitable mechanical -arrangement may and claimed in copending patent application Se standing waves belngin time quadrature. be provided for adjusting loop 39, and such an rial No. 436,633 of James E. Beggs, filed March arrangement is diagrammatically illustrated as 28, 1942, and which is assigned to the assignee of the present application. This discharge device is 40 constituting a plate 43 welded or soldered to the ' outer surface of member 3 and which positions peculiarly adapted for the utilization of ultra high and guides the flanged part of outer conductor 4 I. frequency energy and comprises a plurality of Where the arrangement illustrated in Figs. 1 . enclosed electrodes including a cylindrical anode and 2 is employed as an amplifier, the input ex I1, a cylindrical cathode I8 and a grid I8 main tained in spaced relation between the anode and 45 citation for the grid-cathode space resonant cav ity 2 may be provided by means of input electrode the cathode. Anode |1 and grid I8 are supported means 44 constituting an outer tubular conductor by metallic discs 20 and 2|, the latter of which 45 and an inner conductor 46 terminated in -a is conductively connected to the intermediate loop 41 whichv projects into the space resonant plate member 5 through resilient fingers or an annular metallic collar 22. Cathode I8 is sup 50 region 2. It will be understood that other forms of electrode means, such vas probes or the equiv ported by a cylindrical member 23 having a flatl aient, may be employed for this purpose. disc part 24 substantially parallel to disc 2|. In order to maintain Ithe impedance of the Members 2I and 23 provide externally accessible guide constant along its length and particularly high frequency terminals for grid I9 and cathode i 8. Cathode |8 is provided with a flanged part 25 55 to arrange cavities i ‘and 2 so that the cavities. oiïer substantially no discontinuity due to the substantially parallel to the lower surface of part presence of the discharge device I6, I provide 24 and is spaced therefrom by means of an insu- _ means within the respective cavities for restrict lator 26 so that the cathode is electrically insu-' ing the transverse dimension b within the vicin- ` lated therefrom, so far as direct current poten tials are concerned, but effectively connected 60 ity of the discharge device, thereby compensat lng for the capacitance effect of the discharge thereto with reference to high frequency cur device in order that the waves Within the respec rent, by virtue of the electrostatic coupling be tween the parallel surfaces. Cathode I8 is also - tive cavities are substantially unaiîected by the presence of the discharge device. More partic provided with a coiled heating element 21 to which current may be supplied through suitable 65 ularly, the transverse dimension within 'the vicin ity of the electric discharge device I6 is fore conductors terminated in contact pins 28 and 29. ` Unidirectional potential may be applied to the cathode I8 through other conductors terminated Contact pins 28-3I . in contact pins 33 and 3|. are supported by a base 32 which encloses a me tallic header (not shown) and in which the var ious conductors for the cathode heating element and the cathode are sealed. - shortened so that the guide at this point is sub stantially resonant to the electromagnetic waves . which it is desired to sustain. In other words, 70 inasmuch as the electric discharge device |18 oiiers anappreciable capacitance by virtue of its configuration and presence, the dimension b is foreshortened so that the resultant or eii‘ective distributed capitance and the capacitance of the To complete the enclosure for the electrodes 75. discharge device i8 resonate with the distributed amasar y . _ 7; - , - - . . ' inductance of this portion of-the Vguide or cavities'. ties. Furthermore.' tuning and coupling may Alie , One way in which this desired symmetry oi.' the _ ~ obtained with facility. longitudinal impedance` of the respective cavitiesv The arrangement of Fig. u1 maylalso be em may be obtained is by restricting thetransverse , ployedas an amplifier or ultra high> frequency dimension b and by providing the lateral wall’v voltages or- ‘currents, in which case the input members 6 and 7 with appropriately enlarged , electrode means, and particularly loop tl, is ener . ing a curvature and a conñgura/tion so that no gized. through the concentric transmission line . tt, establishing vwithin the grid-cathode space abrupt discontinuityy is encountered4 as the wave resonant region 2 an electromagnetic oscillation. wall members t and 1. Where the protuberances'l to modulate the electron beam transmitted be wall thicknesses or protuberances wand 49 hav-> progresses along the' longitudinal axis. For ex 10 In this case, of course, the cavity 2 being tuned ample, the protuberances t8 and Il@ may be l, to the -i’requency of the input excitation sustains a standing. electromagnetic wave and, by virtue ' formed integral with the lateral wall members 6‘ of, the fact' that theelectric. discharge device it and 1,' or may be constituted separately and in serted in the proper position. Of course, it is " is positioned within the vicinity‘of the ps1-,enum required that these protuberances t8 and 49 be 15 maximum of this standing wave, the grid and the cathode undergo cyclic variations of potential conductiveand be conductively connected to the are constructed separately, these parts. may be t’ tween `anode Il and cathode i8, consequently welded or soldered to the lateral wall members 6 . eiïecting energization ofthe anode-grid cavity 20 I and» maintaining this cavity in oscillation. Upon the application of a suitable potential,V ` ‘ Energyl is vextracted from the anode-grid cavity such as a unidirectional potential, to the anode I1 and cathode I8, the space resonant system shown in Figs. l and 2 are initiated in operation. Each of the cavities I and 2 is tuned or resonant '3l by loop 39 and the associated concentric the boundary member 5 are common to the two . eiîlï'ect.> transmission line. >The ampliiìcation of the in put signal is obtained by virtue of the ampliñ as cation edect due to the electric discharge device I6 which couples the respective cavities. to the desired frequencyl and energy is supplied Figs. 3 and 4 show a further embodiment of to an external utilization circuit from the anode my inventlon.simi1ar in many respects to that grid cavity through loop 39 and the concentric shown in Figs. l and 2, and corresponding ele transmission line comprising conductors dll and di. In the arrangement of Figs. 1 andv2, when 30 ments have been assigned like reference n`u merals. ÀIn the arrangement of Figs. 3 and 4, used as an oscillator, the coupling between the there is provided separate lcoupling means, such anode-grid cavity I and the grid-cathode cavity as a, probe 50,. supported by the intermediate 2 is obtained principally by virtue of the inter metallic member 5, but spaced electrically there electrode capacitance effects of the electric dis charge device I6, whereby the systemy is main 35 from by means of insulating glass bead or seal 5|. Other suitable formsof coupling means may tained in oscillation by virtue of the cyclic var be employed and, of course. positioned at that iations in the potential impressed between grid point to obtain the maximum or desired coupling I9 and cathode I8. Inasmuch' as the grid and cavities. it may be considered that the anode and cathode voltages vary substantially in that phase` relationship with respect to the grid, necessary to maintain the discharge device I6 and the space , Figs. 5 and 6 represent a further modiñcation of` my invention -which is similar in many re» spects to that shown in Figs. 1 and 2, and cor responding elements have been Aassigned like reference numerals. In the arrangement of Figs. resonant system as an entirety in oscillation. If the side walls t and 'I were not shortened by 45 5 and 6, I provide a space resonant oscillator of use of protuberances «t8 'and 49, that is, if the the re~entrant type wherein an intermediate , member 52, deñning the common boundary be-' tween the anode-grid and the grid-cathode spaceresonant cavities. does not extend the entire lon tromagnetic wave traveling essentially in the transversedirection Within the vicinity of the 50 gitudinal dimension of the respective cavities, so f that there is afforded a re-entrant coupling path discharge device I6, due to the fact that the ca. pacitance loading> eifect thereof tends to lower ’ 53 between the anode-grid cavity I and the grid cathode cavity 2 thereby constituting a feed-back the natural resonance frequency within that 're gion to a frequency for which the width b is less connection between these. two cavities. When vthan anali-wave length.' Consequently, the low 55 such a construction is employed. the correspond transverse dimension b is uniformy throughout the cavities, resonance is then determined by an elec-_ est order wave Hoi is then below cut-off in the ing end walls of the respective cavities may com regions removed from the vicinity` of the dis prise a single tuning plunger 5t which engages charge device, that is where the tube capacitance loading effects have disappeared. Attempts to the'inner surfaces ofthe metallic deñning mem ` bers 3, t, E Vand 6. , In the arrangement of Figs. 5 and 6, thalength tune- such an arrangement' by plungers far re 60 of the member 52 is preferably chosen so thatA moved from the discharge device or tocouple the electromagnetic fields of the cavities by loops or ` the- desired phase relationship between the lines in regions of the cavities far from"y the discharge device are not effective under those conditions. ‘ » -` ` By -the restriction of the transversedimension,> or dimensions, of the cavities within the vicinity of discharge- device I6, the tendency to establish ` a localized wave region, or a -wave ,propagated ¿along the transverse axis withinthe vicinity'of the discharge device is reducedv 'or substantially eliminated„and the electromagnetic waves will` anode-grid and the grid-cathode voltages is maintained. Forexample, since the grid I9vis at the common potential,- in order that the anode >and cathode vary in the proper phase relation ship, the axial or >longitudinal dimension of the member 52 should be substantially equal to a half-wave length of the electromagnetic waves sustained within ,the respective 1 cavities. Od ` course, actually the `physical length ofthe part 52 is somewhat less than a half-wave length due to the end effects. _. ' be sustained symmetrically throughout the en-v `In >the arrangement of 7 there is illus- ' . tirelength oi' the respective space resonant cavi- .N trated _a still further modiilcation of my inven 2,404,261 ftion as applied to a space resonant system, such of said discharge device in order that the elec tromagnetic wave of said predetermined fre a double re-entrant feature. That is.- the anode grid and the grid-cathode cavities are donned by quency is substantially unaffected by the presence of said discharge device, and >electrode means associated~with said section for supplying energy - a metallic member having parts 55 and 56 which may be constituted by a single member having' _ therein an aperture" through which the dis to or extracting energy therefrom. charge device I5 extends. Members 55 and 55 extend axially the longitudinal dimension of the system, but'do not engage the metallic endynwalls 4. A space resonant oscillator comprising a section of a dielectric wave guide of the hollow Dipe type including a conductive defining mem ber, said section- _being dimensioned to support defined by plungers 58 andl 59, thereby aifording coupling paths -GII and- 6I between the` anode electromagnetic waves of a predetermined fre quency and having dimensions so that said sec ` grid and the grid-cathode spaceresonant regions. Energy is fed back'from the anode-grid cavity to the grid-cathode cavity,- and the axial dimen sionsof the parts 55 and 55 are chosen in order that 'the grid-cathode voltage have the desired tion is tuned substantially to the excitation fre quency, an electric ldischarge device comprising a plurality of enclosed electrodes connected to oppositely disposed walls of said conductive mem - phase yrelationship to maintain the system in ` p l ' v section to compensate for the capacitance eii'ect as an »ultrav high frequency oscillator employing oscillation. . ber, an enclosing structure immediately surround . ing said electrodes, means for restricting a trans While I have shown and described my inven 20 verse dimension of said guide to compensate for tion as applied to partic'ular systems and as ern-' the capacitance eil'ect of said discharge device in ` ` bodying various ~devices diagrammatically shown, order that the electromagnetic wave ofl said pre it will be obvious to'those skilled in the art that changes and modifications may be made without departing from my invention, andI, therefore, aim in the appended claims to cover al1 such changes and modifications as fall within the true spirit and scope of my invention. What I claim as new and desire to .secure by Letters Patent of the United States is: ' 1. A space resonant system comprising a sec- I tion of a dielectric wave guide of the hollow-pipe type including conductive defining walls, said section being dimensioned to support electro .' determined frequency is substantially unaffected 25 by the presence of said discharge device, and out put electrode means connected to said section. 5. An ultra high frequency space resonant sys tem comprising a section of a dielectric wave guide of the hollow-pipe type defined by longi tudinal and lateral conductive members, said sec.. 30 tion being excited at a predetermined frequency correlatedV to the dimensions of said section, and ~an electric discharge device including a plurality of electrodes comprising'an anode, a cathode and a grid, transverse discs for supporting said magnetic- waves of predetermined frequency, an 35 members and for providing high frequency ter electric discharge device comprising a plurality minals between two of said electrodes and the of enclosed electrodes> connected to oppositely conductive members of said section and an en disposed walls-.of said guide and being positioned substantially transverse to the longitudinal axis closing structure for said electrodes, the trans verse dimension of said section being restricted of said section and enclosing structure for said 40 within the vicinity of said electric discharge de electrodes, and means for restricting a transverse vice in order to compensate for the capacitance dimension of said guide within`~` the vicinity of effect of said discharge device. said -device to compensate for the capacitance 6. A high frequency space resonant system com~ y eifect of said discharge device in order that the prising a section of a dielectric wave guide of the electromagnetic wave of said predetermined fre hollow-pipe type including a conductive member quency is substantially unaffected by the presence of said discharge device. ~ 2. A space resonant system comprising a sec tion of a dielectric wave guide of the hollow-pipe- type including conductivewalls, said section being excited at a frequency -greater than the cut-off frequency and having `dimensions so that said section'is tuned substantially to the excitation frequency,> an _electric discharge devicecompris ing a plurality of enclosed electrodesconnected to oppositely disposed walls of said section, an en closing structure for said electrodes, and means for restricting a transverse dimension of said guide to compensate for the capacitance effect Aof said discharge device in order that the wave of said excitation frequency is substantially un- ' affected by the presence of said discharge device. 3. A space resonant system comprising‘a sec tion of a dielectric wave -guide of the hollowfpipe typeinciuding a metallic defining member, said section being dimensioned to support electro magnetic waves of apredetermined frequency and having dimensions‘so that said section is tuned ' substantially to said frequency, an electric dis , for deiìning a space resonant region, said space resonant region being excited at a frequency cor responding to the natural frequency thereof, and an electric discharge device including an electric dischargev path provided by a pair of electrodes `and lan enclosing structure therefor, said dis charge device being connected transversely across said guide along the longitudinal axis thereof within the vicinity of the potential maximum of the standing electromagnetic wave within said ” region, means for restricting the section of said electric wave guide within the vicinity of said discharge device to compensate for the capaci tance eifect of said electric discharge device. 7. A high frequency space resonant system com- ` prising a pair of space resonant cavities defined by a pair of sections of a dielectric wave guide and having a common metallic boundary, an electric discharge device comprising a plurality of enclosed electrodes including an anode, a cathode and a grid and an enclosing structure therefor, said discharge device being positioned within said cavities and having the cathode and grid thereof connected to oppositely disposed transverse points charge .device comprising a pair of enclosed elec-’ .70 of one of said cavities, and means for restricting trodes, an enclosing structure immediately sur ' the width of said cavities within the vicinity of rounding said electrodes and providing externally said electric discharge device in order to com~ accessible high frequency terminals connected to pensate for the capacitance effect thereof. oppositely disposed points of> said member, means 8. An ultra high frequency space resonant sys for restricting a transverse dimension of said 75 tem comprising a pair of space resonant cavities v Monaci ii? ' defined by two/adjacent sections of a dielectric ' 1 -form impedance to electromagnetic waves of a " wave guide ci the hollow-pipe type including con- ' ductive _cuter defining members ` and having' a predetermined frequency along vthe longitudinal axes, outputelectrode means lconnected tothe commonmetallic boundary, said members being provided with alined apertures qthe axis of whichA is substantially perpendicular to the longitudinal . said discharge device, and means> for ltuning at cavity associatedwith the anode-grid circuit‘of , least one. of said cavities. axis of said cavities, an electric discharge device - - f g . 11. An ultra high frequency space resonant positioned within said apertures and comprising a plurality of enclosed electrodes including an . amplifier comprising a pair of space resonant> ‘ cavities deilned by two adjacent sections of al bers and said grid and said cathode being. con nected respectively tol the >common metallic bers being provided -With concentric apertures the ams of which is substantially perpendicular boundary and the other outer member, means for to the longitudinal axis of -said cavities, an elec anode, a cathode> and a grid and an enclosing -io dielectric wave guide’of the hollow-pipe type in cluding conductive' outer vdeñning members and -‘ structure for said electrodes, said anode being having' a common metallic boundary, said mem-l electrically insulated fromone of the outer mem tric discharge device positioned Within said aper tures and comprising a plurality of electrodes cathode, and means for restricting 'the width of including an anode, a cathode and a grid and said cavities within the vicinity of said electric an enclosing structure immediately surrounding discharge device in order to compensate for _the capacitance edect thereof so that said cavities 20 said electrodes and adording‘ ,externally accessi ble high frequency terminals thereto, said anode adord a substantially uniform impedance to elec applying a potential across said anode and said ' tromagnetic waves of a predetermined frequency v Y being electrically insulated-from one of said outer wave guide of the hollow-pipe type including con ductive outer defining members and having a common metallic boundary, said members being members and said -grid and said cathode being connected respectively to the common metallic `boundary and the other outer member, means for applying -a'potential across said anode and said cathode, means for restricting the width ofl said cavities within the vicinityI of said electric dis charge device in order to compensate for' the pendicularly to the longitudinal a lof said cav ities, an electric discharge device positioned with- « adord a substantially uniform impedance to elec tromagnetic waves of a predetermined frequency the outer members and said grid and said cathode ' ities deiined by two adjacent _sections of a dielec- » along the longitudinal axes. . - 9. An ultra high frequency space resonant oscil lator comprising a pair oi' space resonant cavities defined by two adjacent sections of a dielectric ` provided with apertures alined substantially per 80 capacitance efi’ect- thereof whereby said cavities along the 4longitudinal axes, input electrode in said apertures and comprising a plurality of means associated with the cavity connected ,to enclosed electrodes including an anode, acathode and a grid and an enclosing structure immediate 35 said grid and said cathode, and output electrode means associated with the'othercavity.; . . ly surrounding said electrodes and having ex _. 12. An ultra high frequency space' resonant ternally accessible high frequency terminals, said _system comprising a pairïof space resonant cav anode`being electrically insulated from one of being connected respectively to the common me tallic boundary and the other outer member, means for applying a potential across said anode and cathode, means for restricting the width of said cavities within the vicinity of said electric discharge device in order to compensate for the tric wave guide of the hollow-pipe type'including outer defining members vand having throughout an appreciable longitudinal length thereof a ` . common `metallic boundary, of the re-entrant type whereby energy may be> transferred between capacitance edect thereof wherebyA said cavities said cavities, an electric „discharge device posi `tioned within apertures of said outer members adord a substantially >uniform impedance to elec tromagnetic waves of a predetermined frequency and'said common metallic> boundary and com prising a plln‘ality of enclosed electrodes includ ing an anode, a cathode and a grid and an en along the longitudinal axes, and output electrode means connected to the cavity associated with 50 closing structurer surrounding said electrodes, said anode being electrically insulated from one the anode-‘grid circuit of said discharge device. 10. An ultra high frequency space resonant os of the outer members and said grid vand said cathode being connected respectively to the >com cillator comprising a pair of space resonant cavi mon metallic boundary and the other outer mem ties deñned by two adjacent sections of a- dielec tric wave guide of the hollow-pipe type including ber, means for lapplying a potential across said conductive outer defining members and having a anode and said cathode, means for restricting the width of said cavities within the vicinity of common‘ metallic boundary, said members being provided with substantially concentric apertures. said electric discharge device> _in order to compen alined perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of sate for the capacitance effect thereof so that said cavities, an electric discharge device 'posi saidl cavities afford a substantially uniform im tioned within said apertures and comprising a pedance to electromagnetic waves of a predeter plurality of enclosed electrodes including an `mined frequency along the longitudinal ‘axes anode, a cathode and a grid andan enclosing thereohmeans for tuning at least one of said structure immediately surrounding said elec cavities, and» means for extracting energy from ' trodes and having externally accessible high fre 66 the anode-grid cavity associated with said dis quency terminals, said anode being electrically charge device. insulated from one of the outer members and- said 13. An ultra high, frequency space resonant grid and said cathode being connected respec system comprising an electric discharge device tively to the common metallic boundary and the including a plurality of enclosed electrodes com other outer member, means for applying a po 70 prising an anode, a 'cathode and a grid and an tential across said anode and cathode, means for enclosing structure'l surrounding said electrodes restricting the width of said cavities within the and providing externally accessible high fre vicinity of said electric discharge device in order quency‘terminals thereto, a pair yoi’ space reso-p to compensate for the capacitance eil'ect thereof nant cavities .defined by two adjacent sections of vwhereby said cavities adord a substantiallyuni- 'it a dielectric wave guide of the hollow-pipe typt*v 2,404,261 14 including outer defining members and an inter mediate member, said intermediate member be ing connected to said grid through the associated terminal but not extending the entire axial said ñrst mentioned members being restricted within the vicinity of said electric discharge de vice in _order to compensate for the capacitance length of said cavity thereby providing a re-en trant path for the transfer of energy from the stantially uniform impedance to electromagnetic Waves of a predetermined frequency along the longitudinal axes of the cavities, and output elec anode-grid to the grid-cathode circuit of said effects thereof so that said cavities aiîord a sub discharge device, means for restricting the width trode means associated with at least one of said of said cavities within the vicinity of said electric cavities. discharge device in order to compensate for the 10, 15. A space resonant system comprising a pair capacitance eiïect thereof so that said cavities af of space resonant. cavities deñned by two adja ford a. substantially uniform impedance to elec cent sections of a dielectric wave guide of the tromagnetic waves of a predetermined frequency hollow-pipe type including outer defining mem along the longitudinal axes, and electrode means bers and having throughout an appreciable associated with one of said cavities. 15 length thereof an intermediate boundary of the 14. An ultra high frequency space resonant reentrant type, said intermediate boundary being system comprising an electric discharge device provided with an' aperture, an electric discharge including a plurality of enclosed electrodes in device positioned within said aperture and com cluding an anode, a cathode and a grid and an prising a plurality of enclosed electrodes includ enclosing structure surrounding said electrodes, 20 ing an anode, a cathode and a grid, said grid be a pair of space resonant cavities defined by two adjacent sections having a dielectric wave guide ing connected to said intermediate boundary and said anode and cathode being connected for high of the hollow-pipe type including conductive de frequency currents to respective points on said deñning members, tuning means for said cavi outer members located substantially along the ties comprising adjustable conductive end mem 25 axis of said aperture which is perpendicular to bers, a conductive member intermediate the first the longitudinal axis of said cavities, means for mentioned members and connected to said grid restricting the transverse dimensions of said cav and extending in one direction to- engage an end ities in the'vicinity of said electric discharge de wall and extending towards but not engaging the vice to compensate for the capacitance effect other end wall thereby constituting a re-entrant 30 thereof, and means for applying a difference of coupling path between the anode-grid and the potential across said anode' and said cathode. grid-cathode circuits of said discharge device, JOHN R.. WHINNERY.