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Патент USA US2404262

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July 16, 1946.
Filed sept. 27, 1945
s sheets-'sheet 1
Patented July 16, 1946
Joseph E. Whitfield, Hamilton, ohio
Application September 27, 1943, Serial No. 503,955
14 claims. (ci. `eso-_16)
This invention relates generally to expansible
chamber motors and more particularly to a fluid
pressure actuated servomotor for operating ap
paratus that is rotated in opposite directions to
Fig. 3, is a view in horizontal section of the
servomotor showing the vane in one extreme po
Fig. 4 is a view similar to Fig. 3 showing the
perform a function, such .as operating a revers
vane in a first intermediate positionlr `
ing valve.
This servomotor is adaptable tovmany differ
ent applications but was specifically designed
vane in a second intermediate position.
Fig. 5 is a View similar to Fig. 3 showing the
Fig. 6 is a view similar to Fig. 3 showing the
for operating a reversing valve which controls
vane in the other extreme position.
Fig-'7 is a diagrammatic view of a Diesel engine
the flow of scavenging or supercharglng air pro 10
with reversing control circuit.
duced by a screw blower for a reversible Diesel
engine wherein the blower is driven directly from
Fig. 8 is a vertical sectional View 'of the servo
the shaft of the engine.
motor showing a portion of the vane andhous
The principal object of this invention is' the
provision of a servomotor in which the diminish
ing chamber ahead of the vane is supplied with
a charge >of the motivating fluid under pressure
to retard the vane adjacent the end of its stroke.
Another object is the provision of apparatus
for supplying from the expanding chamber a
charge of the motivating ñuid under pressure to
the diminishing chamber ahead of the vane to
cushion the movement of the vane intermediate
of or adjacent the end of its stroke.
ing with their ports in registration.
Referring to Figs. 1 and 2 of the drawings,
the housing 9 of the servomotor is provided with
a cylindrical chamber II which is' closed at the
top by the removable cover l 2 and 'at the'bottom
by the integral end wall- I3. The cover I2'and
the wall I3 are provided> with axially aligned
bearings I4 in which the servomotor shaft 'I5' is
journaled. The shaft I5 is coaxial with the- cy
lindrical chamber I I and extends above the "cover
I2 lto receive the hand operating arm `I6 forman'
Another object is the provision of apparatus for 25 ually rotating the servomotor shaft.
' ï ‘
supplying a charge of compressed fluid in the
The lower side of the housing 9 and wall ‘I3 is
provided with an annular seat I'I arranged to fit
diminishing chamber of a servomotor and for
the mating seat I8 which defines the upper' open
venting the fluid under pressure in the expanding
ing of the adapter casting I9> which in turn has
chamber to cushion the movement of the vane
a stepped connecting ñt with thereversing‘valve
toward the end of its stroke.
housing 20 which encloses a reversing valve that
Another object is the provision of a vane type
is employed in’ combination with the screw
expansible chamber servomotor'wherein the vane
blower to change the direction of flow of scaveng
functions as a valve at the end of its stroke for
controlling the passage of the motivating fluid
ing air to a Diesel engine when the'latter is re'- ‘
versed. The valve may be seenv in> Patent No.
under pressure.
Another object is the provision of a Diesel en
2,345,780, issued April 4, 1944. 'I‘hel lower end of
the shaft I5 is provided with the coupling mem
gine reversing control circuit which includes a
servomotor that operates a reversing valve and
ber 2l> which is arranged to receive the'r end ‘of
the upper gudgeon 220i the valves”
` ’
then completes the control circuit to start the
The cylindrical chamber II in the servomotór
engine in the opposite direction.
Another object is the provision of a method for
housing is provided with a removable sector or
charging the expanding chamber, charging the
stationary abutment 23 which is fastened 'tothe
diminishing chamber, and discharging the eX
housing by the bolts 24 as shown in Fig. 2. The v
panding chamber in sequence of a servomotor in
outer cylindrical surface of the stationary abut
termediate of its complete operating stroke.
Other objects and advantages will be apparent
ment mates with the cylindrical wall ofthe
from the disclosure shown on the drawings and
in the following description and claims:
lin theY accompanying drawings a practical em
bodiment illustrating the principles of this inven
tion is shown wherein:
Fig. 1 is a small perspectivev view of the servo
Fig. 2 is a View in vertical section of the servo
chamber II and the inner' cylindricaly surface
mates with the surface of the vane 'hub125`as ,
shown in Figs. 3 to 6.
'I‘he inner arcuate surface of the stationary
50 abutment has a running'clearance with Vthe ad
jacent surface of the vane hub 25. In order to
preventA fluid under pressure from leakingfbe
tween‘these surfaces to either, side of thesta
tionary abutment, a sealing shoe 26 is placed in
5 Ul the vertical slot 21 of the abutment yand is urged
Í fr "
may kenter the valve mechanism through theright
port 5I moving the valve 52 to the left permitting
against the cylindrical surface of the hub 25 by
means of the coil springs 2B which are inserted
in the tapped holes that receive the bolts 24,
which holes are aligned with the slot.
The wearing face and the upper and lower
that passes through the right end vof the sta
tionary abutment 23'into the chamber I I in back
ends „of the shoe 26 are grooved asindicated at
30 and small holes 3I connect the face of the
long groove 35 with the/bottom of the slot 21.
der pressure moves the. vane 33 to the position
shown in Fig. 4 Where yit may flow into the re
the air to continue flowing through the port 53 ‘
of the vane 33 as shown in Fig. 3. The fluid un-V
cess 41 and through the port 45'into thecharg
ing connects the `lower end of the groove 30 with 10 ing chamber -44 within the vane.
The fluid under pressure continues to move
the’interior of the reversing valve housing 20.`
the vane in a counterclockwise direction until it
The passage 32 could extend to the atmosphere.
reaches the position shown in Fig. 5 where the
However if compressed air is employed as the
charge of fluid under pressure within the charg- '_
motivating fluid for the servomotor, and the re-î “
ing chamber 44 escapes through the port 45 )and
versing valve controls the flow of air under a
` A passageway 32through the wall I3 of the hous-`
` '
the Yrecess 48 to the chamber II on the leading
‘ side of the vane. At this instant the diminishing
relatively low pressure, any leakage or discharge
of air passed Vto the abutment will flow yto the
chamber in the housing 20 and cannot accumu-~
portion _of the chamber II is substantially equal
in volume to .the charging chamber 44 in the
late on either side of the abutment but seeks'the
20 vane. Thus aportion of the charge of fluid
low pressure area through these passages.
under pressure fills the diminishing portion of
î rThe vane 33 with the abutment 23 occupy sub
the chamber II and retards the“ movement of the
vane'in 'accordance with the differential in pres
sure on each side of the vane less the forceV
stantially one-half the volumeof the chamber I I
and the hub 25 of the vane is splined .on the
shaft I5 as shown in Fig. 2. , The outer arcuate
surface of the hub and vane have a slight run
of inertia of the latter. §
The vane continues to move at a decreasing '
ning clearance `with the abutment andthe walls
of the chamber II which prevents wear between
these surfaces having relative rotary movement.
speed until it engages theleft side of the sta
This .clearance also permits the motivating or en- Y
tiona'ry abutment 23 as shown in Fig. 6. It will
benoted that the port 54 is closed by the valve '
trapped fluid to ñow orvexhaust therebetween
and prevents the motivating fluid from reaching>
theleading' face of the >vane and thus check its
charge of fluid under pressure has been added
movement. ‘ Thus the running clearance, which
52 rso‘the fluid in frontof the moving vaneV is be
even ' though a
Thus the fluid seeks its escape from the Y .
diminishing portion of the chamber II to the
exhausts the fluid under pressure from either side
of the vane,'is 'a defined orifice the size of which 35 low pressure areas by means of rthe grooves 35
and the shoes 26 and 35 of the stationary
determines the rate of discharge. >A sloping or
triangularly shaped radially extending slot., 34
abutment and vane respectively.> These leakage '
>paths act asa choke and thus cushion themove
is provided in the center ofthe vane and is ar
ranged to receive a similarly shaped shoe 35.
mentr of the vane toward the end of yits stroke. y
Just before the vane is about to strike the sta
_This shoe'is provided with a plurality _of pock
ets for receiving the. coil springs 35 which'bear
against theb'ottom of the slot 34 and force'one
leg surface of the triangular shaped shoe 35 into
tionary abutment 23 the trailing edge of the vane
uncovers one ofthe ports` 55 or 56, depending on
engagement with the under surface'of the cover
the direction of movement of the vane. ' Thus
the vane acts as a valve in conjunction with
I2 and the otherleg surface into engagement ~
these ports. IThese ports are'in the 'lower >part
withfthe cylindrical -wall of the chamber-,I I.. A
:groove 31 is centered in the wearing faces of the
surfaces of the triangular shoe 35, which groove ~
matches with similarY grooves in“ the upper and
lower surfacesof the vane. The holes 38 through 50
the’ shoe 35 connect the groove 31 with the bot
-tom of the slot 34. The inner end of the groove
31 .in the bottom face of the vane is connected
of .theI chamber II as indicated in Figs. 2 and 8
and do not'mate‘with the ports of the charging y
chamber in thel vane. As shownr Vin Fig/.16 the
fluid under pressure in back of the vane escapes
through the port 55 and travels _through a pipeV
to the port 51 which is‘opened by thesetting of Y
the valve 52 and permits thefluid to flow out
the port 58.V _The port 56 islikewise connected
by a pipe to the port 59, which in Fig;Y 6 is closed
c to the enlarged bore forming an annularcham
ber 40 adjacent the shaft I5. A hole 4I connects. 55 by the valve 52 Yfor performing the same func
tion when the servomotor is operated in the op
the chamber 40 to the axial passageway 42 vin
posite direction.
the lower end of the Vshaft I5 which in ‘turn is
If the servomotoris to be reversed the left hand
connected with the radial passage 43. Any ñuid
port 50 is connected to fluid under -pressure and
flowing to theV center of the vane may leak into
the groove 31 of the shoe and mayY thus. flow` 60 the valve 52 is moved to the right, which admits
air through the port 54 causing the vane to swing
through the passages 4I), 4I, 42and 43 into the
clockwise and follow the- same sequence of events e
chamber of theïvalve housing 20. Twodirect
passageways for the flow of fluid are Yprovided
«just Ydescribed in the other direction.
between the- servomotor chamber I I to the valveA
housing 20.
'I'he vane 33 is hollow having the charging
y i If the fluid .under pressure is continuously ap
plied to the servomotorjwhenY in one position a
vcertainportion will/be continuously discharged
chamberf44 which'is> provided'with ports 45, 46
through the dual passages in the shoes 26 and 35
'to the reversing valve chamber.V However it will
adjacent the ends thereof. These 'ports are in
`be noted that Ythe motivating rfluid is discharged
'the Vupper part '.of the vane andare arranged to
connect the charging chamber with the chamber 70 through the‘port 55 as soon as the latter is opened
-II through recesses'41 and 48 in thecylindrical
Wallïof the chamber II, as shown in Fig’. 8.
Ya slight amount which is prior to theend of the
vane Stroke, and the inertia of the mass, making
> Y The Lservomotor is controlled by the valve
up the vane and the movable parts connected
mechanism 50 secured to the front'of the hous->>
«ing 9. As shown in Figs. 3 `to 6, compressed` air
thereto,ris depended'upon for completing the
Vstroke of the vane. By varying or changing the
positions of the recesses 41 and 48 and the ports
55 and 56 and controlling the pressure of the
through the manual control valve 1l. However
motivating fluid the desired operating charac
the servomotor l0 is provided with an independ
ent. discharge or leakagev path which continuously
teristics of the vane and device it actuates may
be obtained.
exhausts fluid under pressure simultaneously
from either side of the servomotor. When the
piston 15 completes its stroke the selected valve '
One application of the servomotor is shown in
80 admits fluid under pressure through the cor
diagrammatic view, Fig. 7, where the source of
responding> control line to the Aservomotor l0.
fluid pressure is received by the pipe line 62
As shown in Fig. 7 the line 12, which is ener
which in this case is compressed air employed for
starting the Dieselengine. The supply line 62 is 10 gized, with compressed air, is connected to the
port 5I of a servomotor I0. The compressed air
connected to the lower chamber 63 of the relay
having swung the vane counterclockwise,y and
valve 64.
properly positioning the reversing valve for di.
The relay valve is provided with a valve 65 at
recting the scavenging air to the engine when the
tached at one end to the stem 66 `which is pro
vided with a piston head 61 at the other end. 15 latter is set to move `the boat or train ahead,
it is permitted to flow out the port 58 to the pipe
The piston is operated in the chamber 68 and is
lin where it travels to thef chamber 68" of the-re
urged upwardly by the coil spring 69, Thus the
fluid pressure and the spring tend to maintain _ lay valve‘64 where it forces the piston 61'downQ
wardly against the fluid pressure in the cham
the valve 65 closed but the piston 61 is larger
in diameter than the valve, thus requiring a 20 Vber 63 and compressing the spring 69 to open the
valve 65 admitting compressed air to Ythe air
lower differential in pressure to open thevalve.
start header 82.
Assuming that the valve 65 is closed and air
After leaving the servomotor the compressed
under pressure is supplied to the chamber63, this
air in the control line’may be employed to check
air is effective in the control line 10 to the man
or operate other devices about the engine.
ual control valve 1I which when in its neutral
The header 32 is connected to -a series of valves
'position maintains the line 1D closed and ex
83 that admit the compressed air to the cylinders
hausts both control lines 12 and 13 but when
of the Diesel engine in timed sequence by the cam
moved to the position indicated “Ahead” admits
shaft 11. Some of the valves 83 are open regard
compressed air to the line 12 and the line 13
not being charged is connected to the exhaust re 30 less of the position of the engine cam shaft and
the compressed .air enters the cylinders forcing
turn line 14 and when moved to the position in
. the pistons down and causing the engine to turn
dicated “Reverse” admits compressed air to the
over. As the Diesel engine gains speed as an air
line 13 and connects line 12 to exhaust.
motor, it is switched to fuel oil Vand operates as
The lines 12 and 13 are connected to opposite
sides ofthe fluid motor piston 15 which through 35 an internal combustion engine. Thus each re
versing device must properly function before the
the linkage and sector gears 16 shift the valve
. engine can be revolved in the opposite direction.
actuating ycam shaft 11 of the Diesel engine,
I claim:
thereby changing the fuel cams 18 and the start->
1. In a fluid circuit for starting and reversing
ing air distributor 19 for operating theengine in
either the forward or reverse direction.
Thus when the selected control line 12. is er1
ergized the piston 15 moves downwardly, causing
40 a Diesel engine as an air motor the combination
of ailuid pressure supply, a normally closed fluid
actuated master relay valve arranged to connect
the supply to the valve-controlled cylinders of
the cam shaft 11 to move to the right. The lower
Diesel engine to operate the same, a manual con
sector engages a compressible check which in~
sures a complete movement of the cam shaft in 45 trol valve, a fluid motor for shifting a distributor
and valve operating cam shaft reversing gear
either direction.
The connecting rod which supports the piston
mechanism which control the ope-ration of the
Diesel engine, a fluid servomotor for controlling
15 is provided with valves 80 at each end thereof
a blower reversing valve of said engine, a pair of
for permitting the compressed air to continue to
flow through the lines 12 and 13 only after the 50 fluid control lines connecting the associated sides
' of the servomotor, the fluid motor and the man
cam shaft has completed its movement to the
ual control valve thelatter of which selectively
selected position. When the manual control
conects one control line to said supply andthe
valve 1I is moved to a selected> operating position
other to exhaust, and a. third fluid control line
to reverse the engine the discharge line 14 re~
connected to the master relay valve and arranged
leases the pressure inthe opposite control line
to receive fluid under pressure from the selected
through its corresponding valve 8,!) to the servo
control line through the servomotor after the lat
motor I0, the control line 8| and the chamber
ter has functioned, to open the master relay valve
68 of the master relay valve 64 and also continues
and admit fluid under pressure from the supply
to drain the chamber of the piston 15 before fluid
to the valve controlled cylinders lto turn over the
under pressure is admitted to the opposite side
of the second section of the control line. As pre
2. The structure of claim 1 which also includes
viously stated the shoes 26 and 3570i the abut
a valve in each control line leading to the servo
ment and the vane respectively of the servomotor
motor and operated by the fluid .motor to admit
l0 are provided with restricted discharge pas
sages that are constantly open to the atmosphere 65 fluid to the alternate sides of the servomotor only
after the fluid motor has functioned. .
or to the chamber of the housing 20; Thus after
3. The structure of claim 1 >wherein the control
the selected control line is closed by the move
valve exhausts the .control line circuitV when
ment of the piston 15 the entrappedl air in front
neither control is connected to the supply.
of the moving vane in the servomotor I0» escapes
4. In a fluid. circuit for starting and reversing
past the shoes 26 and 35 and passes directly to a 70
a-_Diesel engine equipped with a‘ direct drive air
low pressure discharge, thus preventing the vane
blower. the combination of a fluid pressure-supply,
from being blocked from movement. Initial
a normally closed master relay valve arranged to .
movement of the piston 15» closes -the valve 80
connect the supply tovalve-controlled cylinders
and- thus blocks further discharge of the sec
ond- .section of the nonselected control, line
of. the Diesel engine to: Startthe'same, a manual
control valve,~a iiuid motori for shifting a dis
connected thereto, a doubleaction fluid motor,
tributor and valve operating cam shaft reversing
gear mechanism which4 control'the operation of
the Dieself engine in either direction, a ñuid ser-1
a double action ñuid servomotor, a single action
fluid .moton a pair of fluidV control lines in two
sections connecting the Vassociated vsides of the
manual control valve, the double action fluid mo
vomotor for actuating a blower reversing valve
ofthe engine, a pair of `iìuid control lines in two .
sections connecting the associated sides of the
manual control valve, the ñuid motor and the
servomotor inthe order named, the manual con
trol valve arranged to selectively connect the first l
s'ection'ofr one control'line to exhaust and the
other tov said supplyrto energize the ñuíd motor
and the'servomotor, means operatedl by the fluid »
motor Y'at the end of its energized movement to
tor and the double action fluid servo-motorl in
the order named- a third control line connecting
the single action fluid motor with the double ac'«Y .
tion fluid servomotor, the manual control valve
being arrangedto 'selectively connect the source
of iluid'underV pressure with one of said pair .of
control lines, and means to prevent the operation
of themotors in the sequencea'named Yjuntilij the
precedingmotor has functioned.
tor,„and a third Vcontrol line. connected tothe'
?8. The structure of claim '7Í characterized?n
that. lsaid means includes a fvalve4 in >the second
section of each control line operatedby the dou
master relay valve and energized by the servo
ble action fluid motor as the latter- completes its
motor after the'latter has-functioned, to open
the master relay valve to admit fluid under’pres- .
9. The structure of claim 7 characterizedin
that said means includes a -valve for directing
:connect theisecon-dsection to theñrst section of
the selected control line to energize the servomo- .
ï sure from the supply tothe valve controlled cyl'-V
inders to turn over the engine.
ter completes its stroke.-
inders of the Diesel engine to start the same, a
manual control valve, a ñuid motor for shifting
f ` v
10. The structure of claimv '7 characterized in
that said means includes a valve actuated by. the
ñuid flowing through'the selected control line for
directing the fluid ilow to the third control line.
ll.. They structure _of claim 7 characterized in
normally and arranged lwhen opened to connect
the fluid pressure supply to valve-controlled cyl
a distributor and valve operating cam shaft re
the flow of huid to the third> control line from
the double action fluid servomotor when the lat
5.*In a iluid circuit for starting and reversing
‘a Diesel engine equippedV with a direct drive air
Vblower the _combination of ay fluid pressure sup
ply, a differential master valve biased to close>
versing mechanism which control the operation
that said> means includes a valve actuated'byïthe
iluid flowing throughl the selected control line for
directing the fluid flow. to vthethird controlline
of the Diesel engine in either direction, a fluid
from the doubleaction fluid servomotor whenthe
servomotor for actuating .a blower reversing valve
of the engine, a pair of- ñuid control lines> in two 35
latter completes its stroke.
12. In a fluid circuit the- combination cfa
' sections connecting the associated sides of the
source of fluid kunder pressure, arvdischarge, a
manual control valve, the fluid motor and the
servomotor in the order named, a third control
line connecting the servomotor to the differential
manual control valve, connected with thesupply
and'with the.f discharge, Aa double action’fluid mo
tor, a double action fluidservomotor.having‘ran
masterV valve, theY manual control valve arranged 40 independent restricted outlet constantly openfto
discharge, a` single actionfluid motor, a’pairl of
to selectivelyconnect the ñrst section of one of
,control lines in two sections vconnecting thel as
sociated sides' of the manualfcontrolïvalve, the
double action ñuid motor and the double action
fluid servomotor in the order named, said manual
control valve arranged to selectively. connect one
control line to the iluid source andthe other to
discharge or both control _lines to discharge, a
. said pairs _of >control lines to the fluid pressure
i supply and the alternate control line to exhaust,
means actuated by the completed movement of
the ñuid motor to energize the fluid servomotor
through the second section of the selected con
Y trol hline, and means actuated bythe completed
4movement of the fluid servomotor through the
valve in each control line operated by thedouble
third control lineto energize the differential mas
ter valve and open the latter to admit fluid to the
,action iluid motor for controlling the ñow of fluid
to the double action ñuid servomotor, a third con
trol line connecting the servomotor >with the sin
gle action fluid motor, and'means to direct the
fluid to the third control line to operate the Asingle
valve controlled cylinders of the Diesel engine to
Ísta'rt the same.
6. In a fluid circuit the combination of a source
of fluid under pressure, a manual control‘valve
~ connected thereto, a double action iluid motorga
doubleraction fluid servomotor, a singleiaction
fluid motor, a pair of fluid control lines connect
ing the associated sides of the manual control
-valve andthe double action fluid motor, a second
pair offluid control lines Vconnecting the associ
action fluid motor from aV selected one ,ofthe
pair of control lines after the double action fluid
servomotor has completed itsV stroke;
13. In a fluid circuit for starting and vreversing
a Diesel engine as an air motor which consists
in aìsupply of air under pressure,l a discharge,
ated sides of the double action fluid motor and 60 a manual controlvalve connected with .the sup
ply and with the discharge, a double action air
the double action fluid servomotona third control
Lline connecting the double action fluid servomo
Y motor for 'shifting a distributor and cam shaft
tor with the single action ñuid motor, the man
reversing mechanism which control the operation
ual control valve being arranged to connect the
of the engine, a double action air servomotor'for
source of fluid under'pressure with a selected con 65 actuating a blower reversing valve of said engine,
trol line to operate the double action ñuid mo
a single actionair motor arranged to operateÍa
' to'r, means operated by the double action iluid
valve which connects the supply to valve-con’
motor `as it completes its stroke to operate the
double acting iiuid servomotor through a selected
same as anï air motor, a pair of control lines con
'control line of the second pair, and means op
trolled cylinders of the engine to operate .the
‘erated by the vdouble action fluid servomotor as
it'completes its stroke toV operate the single act
ingV fluid motor through‘the third controlline.V
„7., AInl a fluid circuit the'combination of a source
.oftiluid ‘under pressure,` a manual control valve
necting theassociated sides of the manual con
trol valve, the double action motor and the dou-Y
ble action servomotor, Vsaid manual control valve
arranged to selectively connect'one control vline
-to the supplyand the other todischarg'e 'or both
control linesA to discharge, a' valve inA eachV control
line operated by the double action motor for con
trolling the ñow of air to the servomotor, a third
control line connecting the servomotor with the
single action motonand means to prevent the
operation of the motors in the sequence named
until the preceding motor has functioned.
14. In a fluid circuit for starting and reversing
cylinders of the engine to operate the same Aas an
air motor, a pair of control lines connecting the
associated sides of the manual control valve, the
double action motor and the double action servo- i
motor, said manual control valve arranged to .
selectively connect one control line to the supply
and the other to ydischarge or both control lines
to discharge, a valve in each control line oper
a Diesel engine as an air motor which consists
ated by the double action motor for controlling
in a supply of air under pressure, a discharge,
a manual control valve connected with the supply 10 the flow of air to the servomotor, a third control
line connecting the -servomotor With the single
and with the discharge, a double action air motor
action motor, and means to direct the air to the
for shifting a distributor and cam shaft reversing
third control line from a selected one of the pair
mechanism which control the operation of the en
of control lines after the servomotcr has com
gine, a double action air servomotor for actuating
pleted its stroke to operate the single action
a. blower reversing valve of said engine, a single
action air motor arranged to operate a v-alve
which connects the supply to valve-controlled
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