Патент USA US2404279код для вставки
July 16, 1946. o, 5, Dow ULTRA SHORT WAVE SYSTEM , 2,404,279, ' ’ Filed Aug. 7,‘ 1941' 50 BL OWER FLU/D COOL/N6‘ DUCT INVENTOR ORV/LLE E.- 00w BY MW A‘TTORNEY Patented July 16, 1946 2,404,279 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,404,279 ULTRA SHORT WAVE SYSTEM Orville E. Dow, Port J eiferson, N. Y., assignor to Radio Corporation of America, a corporation of Delaware Application August 7, 1941, Serial N 0. 405,737 20 Claims. (Cl. 315—5) Z , . This invention relates to ultra short wave ap resonators and coupling circuits generally equiv paratus for use particularly with electron dis charge device circuits. One of the objects of the present invention is to provide a simpli?ed and efficient electro is made to copending applications Serial Nos. 296,045 and 346,106, respectively ?led September 22, 1939, by Fred H. Kroger, and July 18, 1940, mechanical construction for a cavity resonator, by‘Orville E. Dow. whose resonant frequency is readily adjustable, Surrounding the exterior of the glass envelope 2 in symmetrical fashion, and located interrne~ for use at ultra short waves. alent to those shown in the drawing, reference . ' v V diate the two accelerator electrodes v6, there is Another object of the present invention is to provide improvements in the method of and 10 provided the high Q, low-loss tank circuit 12 in' means for applying a magnetic ?eld to the cavity resonator for focussing the electron beam passing through the interior of the electron discharge ' device. A further object is to provide an improved coupling circuit for use between the cavity reso the form of a cavity resonator constituted by a copper cylinder l3 whose ends are closed by trun-v cated cones made of sheet copper Hl'and l5. The dimension of the tank support, as measured‘ from the center of the glass envelope 2 toward‘ the arc of the sector shown in dotted lines at nator and a useful load, in which adjustments M’, is approximately one-quarter of the length in damping and tuning or in tuning alone can be of the communication wave corresponding to easily and accurately made. A further object is to provide a cooling system for the resonator and associated electron dis charge device, wherein' the linkage between the high frequency apparatus and the blower duct is electrically shielded. Numerous features of the present invention 25 the resonant frequency. It should be noted that’ the shape of the resonator ‘l2 departs somewhat from that shown in the copending applications, supra, mainly in the lengthening of the resonator at the extreme edges and in the shortening of the resonator'at the center due mainly to the provision of the cylindrical element I3. This'de-' reside in the novel mechanical constructions em parture in shape of the resonator from ‘a? true ployed (1) in the coupling circuit, whereby both are sector does not deleteriously affect the oper ation of the resonator. In order to vary the: resonant frequency of the cavity resonator M the tuning and the damping can be changed in dependently; (2) in the apparatus employed for controlling the amount of the magnetomotive 30 to a limited degree, there is provided an adjust-' able gap [6, one side of'which is formed by a‘ force required for focussing the electron beam; copper plated iron sleeve l9, movable in Ta mane (3) in the adjusting means for varying the reso ner described hereinafter, and the other side of nant frequency of the resonator by adjusting the which is formed by an iron pole piece l‘! as a length of its gap; and (4) in the ?exible metallic bellows arrangement for simplifying the assem 35 consequence of which there is obtained a varia-v tion of the capacity between sides l9 and H of blage of the resonator and the air duct carrying the gap. Sleeve I9 is made to move in an axial cooling fluid from the blower to the resonator. direction and makes sliding contact-‘with beryl Other objects and features will appear from lium copper springs l8, which are soldered to a reading of the following description which is copper side [5 of the resonator._ Sleeve‘ I9 is accompanied by a drawing whose single figure preferably copper ‘plated in order to provide low illustrates, in section, a preferred form of ultra loss and a good electrical connection between short Wave electron discharge circuit embodying elements l5 and I9. ' the principles of the invention. Since the in For focussing the electron beam there are ‘proé, vention is primarily concerned with improve ments in the mechanical construction, the vacu 45 vided a. pair of magnetic lenses'in series relation constituted by magnetic gaps l6 and 20 formed. um tube apparatus is merely shown in outline. respectively, by the spaced iron sleeves l1 and i9 Referring to the drawing in more detail, there and spaced iron sleevesv l9 and 2|, all of which is shown an electron discharge device I, com prising a vacuum tube structure consisting of an evacuated glass envelope 2' containing therein a cathode 3, the heater 4, a modulating grid 5, surround the glass envelope I and are serially arranged with respect to an iron magnetic path. This magnetic path includes an iron yoke ‘*2 a. (.1 which is placed adiacent to the sides ofonesector"v of the tank circuit iii, the complete circuit 01‘ which includes elements l1, l9, 2|, 23, 24,25, ring-like accelerator electrodes 6, and a collector electrode 1, the latter containing therein a suit able suppressor electrode, not shown. This type of electron discharge device is now well known in 55 26, 22, 27, 28, 29 and ring-like permanent‘ mag; net 3!]. Although elements 28, 21 and 22 .‘are the art and is not being claimed per se, the show ing being given merely to illustrate how it ?ts into the resonator structure and associated apparatus constituting the invention. For a more detailed description of the electron discharge device with preferably constituted by a single iron yoke about one-quarter of an inch thick, theyv may, if desired,‘ be formed of separate elements, as shown. The, ring-like permanent magnet 30 is preferably made 2,404,279 3 of Alnico material and is held in ?xed position by the iron pole pieces I1 and 29. The magnetic flux will obviously flow through the path men tioned above and across the magnetic gaps i8 and 20. The threaded ring or sleeve 3| is made of brass and is integrally connected to the threaded. ring 23. Because. ring 3| is made of brass which has the same magnetic permeability as air, there is a magnetic gap 20 provided betweenelements 4 duct 31 is provided with a sheet of metal 42 affixed thereto. Since the blower duct 31 is rigidly fas tened by means of stud. 38 to the cabinet or panel of the equipment it is a relatively simple matter to position the resonator |2 in its desired location and to ?ex the bellows 40 in such manner that the aperture in metallic sheet 42 registers with the aperture 39 in the duct 31. In this way a single duct 31 provided with several spaced aper l9 and 2|. In order to adjust the effective 10 tures 39 may serve to supply forced ventilation to magnetomotive force of the permanent magnet a plurality of spaced resonators |2 suitably located 30, there are provided a plurality of removable along the length of the duct opposite the spaced iron pins 32 suitably spaced, preferably sym apertures 39. metrically positioned around the magnet, so as In order to abstract energy from the cavity to short-circuit a desired portion of the flux pro 15 resonator |2 there is provided the output coupling duced by the magnet. These pins 32, it will be noted, bridge the pole piece I1 and the iron sup port 29 for the magnet. coil or loop 45 which can be rotated 90“ by means of lever 46 to vary the coupling between the res ‘ onator and its output coil support from maximum Adjustment of the length of gap I3 is accom to a minimum. The output circuit is electrically plished by rotation of the shaft 33. By rotating 20 one-half wavelength long at the operating fre shaft 33 which connects to pinion 34, the ring gear quency as measured from the ?xed ground point 25 which is threaded to engage 34 will also rotate. 41 around the loop 45 along conductor 48 to the Since ring gear 25 is internally threaded, it en plunger disc 49. This output circuit may be a gages the threads on iron disc 24, and it will be band pass coupling circuit and is very generally apparent that movement will be imparted to the 25 the equivalent to that shown in copending appli iron disc 24. The latter is kept from rotating by cation Serial No. 346,106, supra, except for cer means of a pair of pins 36, only one of which is tain re?nements which are described herein shown in the drawing. Movement of the iron after. The coil 45 serves to couple the tank cir disc 24, however, will cause axial movement of the cuit | 2 to a suitable load or utilization circuit integrally connected iron sleeve 23 and brass 30 which may comprise an antenna connected to the sleeve 3|. Since brass sleeve 3| is linked by output line 50. The coupling circuit includes a threads to iron sleeve l9, it will be evident that coaxial line comprising an inner conductor 48 axial movement of 23 and 3|, caused by move and an outer conductor 5|, the inner conductor of ment of disc 24, will also cause axial movement which is electrically connected through a slider of the copper plated iron sleeve I9 and thus pro~ coupling link 52 to a metallic conductor 53 which, duce a change in the width of the gap IS with a in turn, connects with one end of the loop 45. consequent change in the resonant frequency oi The output line 50 is connected electrically to the cavity resonator | 2. One of the pins 38 which another point on the inner conductor 48 by means prevents rotation of the iron disc 24 has the addi of a metallic spring clip 54. The plunger 49 tional function of rotating cylindrical ring gear 40 serves to ‘short circuit the conductors“ and 5| 2| for varying the length of the magnetic gap 20 in order to'change the damping of the coupling between elements I9 and 2|. Ring gear 2| is inter circuit. In order to provide good electrical con nally threaded and rides on the threads of sleeves tact between the plunger 49 and the inner surface 23 and 3|. An adjustment of the gap 23 changes of the conductor 5| of the coaxial line, there is the strength of the magnetic ?eld in the plane of 45 employed a ?exible metallic ribbon or strip of this gap. Since gap I6 is in series with gap 29. sheet metal 55 which has transverse cuts therein the magnetic ?eld in the plane of gap It will also so formed as to produce a multiplicity of resili be changed. The magnitude of the 'magnetic ently bulging contact areas with the circular ?eld at both" gaps can be readjusted by increas areas engaging the conductor 5|. In this‘ way ing or decreasing the number of shunts 32 across 50 there is obtained both good electrical contact the magnet 30. Thus, by adjusting gap 29 and at numerous points between the inner surface of shunts 32 the proper magnetic ?eld can be ob the conductor 5| and the plunger 49 and also tained at both gaps. very smooth sliding or wiping action when it is In order to cool the vacuum tube I, there is desired to move the plunger. For a more detailed provided a metallic rectangular blower duct 3'! description of this type of sliding action, refer which has cooling air forced therethrough from ence is made to United States Patent No. 2,280,728. a blower. This blower duct is mounted on one or more suitable metallic studs 38 and communi~ cates by means of aperture 39 and metal bellows 40 with the interior of the cavity resonator | 2 through another aperture 4|. The blower thus produces a forced ventilation which causes air to flow through duct 31, through the bellows 42, through aperture 4| into the interior of resonator granted April 21, 1942, to A. Streib. It should be noted that the free end vof the inner conductor 48 of the output coupling cir cuit forms part of a concentric conductor con denser,one'electrode of which includes a me tallic plug 56 electrically connected to the end of outer conductor 5|. By moving conductor 48 in or out of the plug 56, I am able to vary the l2 and around the envelope of vacuum tube | at 65 capacity'between the end of conductor 48 and the location of the gap H5. The air then ?ows the plug 56 and thus tune the output circuit. around the vacuum tube envelope 2 toward both In order to have movement of plunger 49 result the electron collector end and the grid end. Bel in only a change in‘the damping of the circuit. lows 40 is made of a metallic material to prevent means are provided to vary simultaneously both radiation of radio frequency energy from the 70 the plunger 49 and the'condenser 56, 48. Thus resonator l2. This bellows is rigidly fastened the tuning change which would result in a move to the resonator | 2 at the cylinder I3 and acts ment of plunger 49 is balanced by a change in as a ?exible link to insure a tight connection from condenser 56, 48. For this purpose there is pro the resonator to the duct 31. It should be noted vided an internally threaded cylinder 51 which that theend of the bellows 40 which contacts the 75 threadedly engages a hollowelement 58 on its 2,404,279 ' 5 exterior surface, the latter in turn threadedly said resonatorgap without moving any part of engaging the inner conductor 48 at 59. One end of the hollow element 58 is ?xedly attached to plunger 49 so that movement thereof will move the plunger and change the damping of the said resonator. 3. A hollow resonator having apertures in both sides thereof forming a gap, means for causing‘ an electron stream to traverse said gap, magnetic means adjacent both sides of said resonator and output coupling circuit. In order to prevent ele ment 58 from rotating, there is provided a key Way 60 which cooperates with a pin 6|. By ro having a gap registering with the gapof said ‘ resonator for providing a magnetic lens at said tating cylinder 51, axial movement of the plunger gap, a resilient metallic element attached to one 49 will ensue, and simultaneously therewith, also 10 side of said resonator and contacting said mag axial movement of the conductor 48, with a con netic means at said same side, and movable means sequent change in the capacity of the concentric for varying the width of the gap of said magnetic conductor condenser. However, since the capac means. ity per unit length of the condenser 56, 48 is 4. A hollow resonator having a gap along the greater than of the line 5|, 48, this would result 15 axis thereof, magnetic means having a magnetic in over correction for the tuning. Therefore, gap registering with the gap of said resonator means are provided to rotate 5‘! and 62 together for providing a magnetic lens thereat and also while still leaving them free to move axially with having a magnetic gap externally of said reso respect to each other. The pitch of thread 59 is nator to provide another magnetic lens, means ?ner than the pitch ‘of the thread of 51. Thus, 20 for causing an electron stream to traverse the when 51 and 62 are rotated simultaneously, the gaps of both lenses in succession, and gears axial movement of 48 is less than the axial move threadedly engaging said magnetic means for ment of 49. Thus, for a particular ratio of in varying the width of that magnetic gap register side diameters of 56 and 5| the proper differ ing with the gap of said resonator for varying ential between the thread of 51 and the thread the tuning of said resonator without moving any 59 can be chosen. If the inside diameter of 56 part of said resonator. ' is equals to the inside diameter of 5|, rotation 5. A hollow resonator having apertures in both of 5'! alone will result in the proper compensa sides thereof forming a gap, means for causing tion of tuning when it is desired to change the an electron stream totraverse said gap, spaced damping. If it is desired merely to change the 30 adjustable magnetic elements adjacent said sides tuning of the output coupling circuit without of said resonator and having a magnetic gap reg-v changing the damping, this is done by rotating istering with the gap of said resonator for pro knurled knob 62 which varies the length of the viding a magnetic lens at said resonator gap and inner conductor 48 within plug 55. The circuit for varying the width of the resonator gap, and 52, 53, 45, 41 will in general be a high impedance 35 movable means for varying the distance between circuit. ‘ ‘ said spaced elements for varying the width-of It should be understood that the various fea said resonator gap without'moving any part of tures of the present invention can be utilized said resonator, said last means including a either alone or combined and that the vacuum threaded element linked to one of said magnetic tube I may be used in an ultra short wave system 40 elements. ‘ either as an oscillator, an ampli?er, frequency 6. An electron discharge device having within converter, or a detector. Such circuits embody an envelope a cathode for projecting a beam of ing the principles of the present invention have electrons and a collector electrode for receiving been used with high eiiiciency at frequencies said beam, three spaced hollow members of mag? above 300 megacycles, particularly around 450 45 netic material adjacent said envelope and sur megacycles, though not limited thereto. The rounding the path of electrons and having po electrical connections necessary to complete the sitions located between said cathode and collector circuits for the vacuum tube have not been shown electrode, two adjacent members of said three because they may follow any of the teachings being adjustable along the length of said beam, set forth in the copending applications supra, 60 said spaced members providing a pair of mag the invention not being limited thereto. netic gaps for focussing said beam, and gears What is claimed is: threadedly engaging two of said members of 1. A hollow resonator having apertures in both magnetic material for varying the distances be sides thereof forming a gap, an electron dis tween any two of said three members. charge device having an envelope extending 55 across said gap, a cathode and a collector elec 7. A hollow. resonator having apertures in both sides thereof forming a gap, means for, causing trode in said envelope at opposite sides of said an electron'stream to traverse said gap, spaced gap for causing an electron stream to traverse adjustable magnetic elements adjacent both sides said gap, spaced adjustable magnetic elements adjacent said sides of said resonator and having 00 of said resonator gap and having a gap register ing‘with the gap of said resonatorw for providing a magnetic gap registering with the gap of said a magnetic lens at said resonator’. gap, a per resonator for providing a magnetic lens at said manent magnet adjacent said magnetic elements, resonator gap and for varying the width of the and magnetic, means shunting said magnet for resonator gap, and movable means forv varying the distance between said spaced elements. 65 varying the eil'ective amount of -magnetomotive force produced by said permanent magnet. ' 2. A hollow resonator having apertures in both 8. A hollow resonator having apertures in both sides thereof forming a gap, means for causing sides "thereof forming 'a gap, means for causing an electron stream to traverse said gap, spaced adjustable magnetic elements adjacent said sides an electron stream to’ traverse said. gap, spaced of said resonator and having a magnetic'gap reg magnetic elements adjacent both sides of said istering with the gap of said resonator for pro resonator gap and having a gap registering with viding a magnetic lens at said resonator gap and the gap of said resonator for proving a magnetic‘ for varying the width of the resonator gap, and lens at said resonator gap, a permanent magnet movable means for varying the distance between adjacent said magnetic elements, and a plurality said spaced elements for varying the width of 75 of removable magnetic pins bridging said magnet 2,404,279 8 7 for sho'rt-circuiting a desired portion of .the flux‘ produced by said magnet. : 9.. A hollow resonator having apertures-in both sides thereof forming a gap, means for causing an electron stream to traverse said gap, spaced magnetic elements adjacent'both sides of said resonator gap and having a gap registering with. the gap of said resonator for providing a magnetic lens at said resonator gap, adjustable means for varying the distance between said magnetic ele 10 said transfer circuit comprising a ‘coaxial line having its inner conductor coupled tov said reso nator by means of a loop entering the resonator through an aperture, said inner conductor being inductively coupled to said resonator in said in terior by virtue of said loop, means for rotating said loop for varying the coupling between the resonator and said transfer circuit, said coaxial line having an opening in the outer conductor eX ternally of said resonator, and a section of an other coaxial line having its inner conductor coupled at one end to the inner conductor of said transfer circuit through said opening and its outer conductor at said same end coupled to the outer net for varying the effective amount‘ of magneto motive force produced by said permanent magnet. 15 conductor of said transfer circuit, slidable means within the coaxial line of said’ transfer circuit ' 10. A hollow resonator having apertures in for adjusting the effective length of a portion of both sides thereof forming a gap, an electron said transfer circuit, and a tuning capacitor discharge device having an envelope extending ments. without moving any part of said reso nator, a permanent magnet adjacent said mag netic elements, and means in shunt to said ‘mag across one end of said transfer circuit, said ca— across said gap, and means for cooling said de vice comprising a ?exible hollow metallic ‘link 20 pacitor being variable by movement of the inner conductor of the coaxial line of said transfer ,amxed at one end to and communicating with circuit. ’ : the interior of said resonator, a metallic sheet 15. Apparatus in accordance with claim 14, a?ixed to. the other end of said link, said sheet wherein means are provided mechanically link having an aperture, an air duct having an aper ture therein, and a blower connected to said air 25 ing the drive mechanism of said slidable means with the drive mechanism of said variable con duct, the apertures of said metallic sheet and said denser. > duct registering with the aperture of said ?exi 16. The-combination with a hollow resonator, ble link, whereby air from said blower is forced of a band pass coupling circuit including'ax'ro into the interior of said resonator and flows around the envelope of said device at the location 30 tatable loop located in the interior of said rose nator and a- coaxial line connected to said loop, of said gap. a short-circuiting bridge across said c'oaxial‘line, 11. An electrondischarge device having within the length of said coupling circuit as measured anenvelope a cathode for projecting a beam of from said bridge along ‘said line and over: the electrons and an electron collector, a hollow space resonator having a gap surrounding a portion of 35 length of said loop to the remote'end of said loop being electrically one-half wavelength at the said envelope at a location between said cathode mean operating frequency. ' , ~ andcollector, said resonator also having a ?uid 17. A hollow resonator having apertures-win inlet port remote from said gap and leading di both sides thereof forming a gap, means for rectly into said resonator, and means connected to said port for forcing cooling ?uid directly into 40 causing an electron stream to traverse said gap; spaced magnetic elements adjacent both sides of said resonator through said port. said gap and having a gap registering with the gap of- said resonator for providing a magnetic lens at said gap, a permanent magnet connected to said magnetic elements, and a removable mag 12. An electrondischarge device having a cav ity resonator in circuit therewith, an energy transfer circuit coupled to said cavity resonator, said transfer circuit comprising a coaxial line having its inner conductor coupled to said reso nator by means of a loop entering-‘the resonator. netic pin bridging said magnet for short-circuit» ing a desired portion of the flux produced by said through an aperture, said inner conductor being 18. A hollow resonator, means including a inductively coupled to said resonator in said in; terior by virtue of said loop, means forrotating 50 cathode on one side of said resonator for project ing an electron stream through the interior of said loop for varying the coupling between the said resonator, spaced magnetic elements sur resonator and said transfer circuit, said coaxial rounding a portion of the path of travel of said line having an opening in the outer conductor stream and forming a gap, a vpermanentmagnet externally of said resonator, and a section of an magnet. other coaxial line having its inner conductor -_ - -‘ w ' - 55 connected to said magnetic elements, and a re movable magnetic pin bridging said magnet for coupled at onev end to the-inner conductor of short-circuiting a desired portion of the flux pro said transfer circuit through said opening and duced by said magnet. . ' r > its outer conductor at'said same end coupled to 19; The combination with a hollow resonator the outer conductor of said transfer circuit, and slidable, means within the coaxial line of said (S0 of_ an energy coupling ‘circuit comprising a- ro tatable loop located in theinterior ofsaid reso~ transfer circuit for adjusting the effective length nator and a stationary coaxial-line connected to of the inner conductor of said transfer circuit as said loop, and adjustable means connected to measured from said slidable means to the junc the conductors of said lineforvarying an elec tion point of the inner conductors of said coaxial trical characteristic of said line; lines. ' , a _ . . 13. The combination with a hollow resonator of a coupling circuit comprising a rotatable loop located in the interior of said resonator and. con~ ductors forming acoaxial line connected to said loop, and tuning and damping means linked to the'conductors of said line. 1 _14.7 An electron discharge ,device having a cav it'y ' resonator in circuit therewith, an energy transfer circuit coupled to said cavity resonator, 19 . I 1 20. The combination with a hollow resonator, of an energy coupling circuit comprising a ro tatable loop located in the interior of said res'oL nator and a coaxial line-connected to ‘said loop, and tuning means in circuit ‘with said line for varying the capacity across‘ the conductoi's‘oi said line. ' 1 ' Y" r ' ‘Y ORVILLE ‘ E; 3 :-"