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Патент USA US2404279

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July 16, 1946.
o, 5, Dow
ULTRA SHORT WAVE SYSTEM
,
2,404,279,
'
’
Filed Aug. 7,‘ 1941'
50
BL OWER
FLU/D COOL/N6‘ DUCT
INVENTOR
ORV/LLE E.- 00w
BY
MW
A‘TTORNEY
Patented July 16, 1946
2,404,279
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,404,279
ULTRA SHORT WAVE SYSTEM
Orville E. Dow, Port J eiferson, N. Y., assignor to
Radio Corporation of America, a corporation of
Delaware
Application August 7, 1941, Serial N 0. 405,737
20 Claims.
(Cl. 315—5)
Z
,
.
This invention relates to ultra short wave ap
resonators and coupling circuits generally equiv
paratus for use particularly with electron dis
charge device circuits.
One of the objects of the present invention is
to provide a simpli?ed and efficient electro
is made to copending applications Serial Nos.
296,045 and 346,106, respectively ?led September
22, 1939, by Fred H. Kroger, and July 18, 1940,
mechanical construction for a cavity resonator,
by‘Orville E. Dow.
whose resonant frequency is readily adjustable,
Surrounding the exterior of the glass envelope
2 in symmetrical fashion, and located interrne~
for use at ultra short waves.
alent to those shown in the drawing, reference
.
'
v
V
diate the two accelerator electrodes v6, there is
Another object of the present invention is to
provide improvements in the method of and 10 provided the high Q, low-loss tank circuit 12 in'
means for applying a magnetic ?eld to the cavity
resonator for focussing the electron beam passing
through the interior of the electron discharge
'
device.
A further object is to provide an improved
coupling circuit for use between the cavity reso
the form of a cavity resonator constituted by a
copper cylinder l3 whose ends are closed by trun-v
cated cones made of sheet copper Hl'and l5.
The dimension of the tank support, as measured‘
from the center of the glass envelope 2 toward‘
the arc of the sector shown in dotted lines at
nator and a useful load, in which adjustments
M’, is approximately one-quarter of the length
in damping and tuning or in tuning alone can be
of the communication wave corresponding to
easily and accurately made.
A further object is to provide a cooling system
for the resonator and associated electron dis
charge device, wherein' the linkage between the
high frequency apparatus and the blower duct is
electrically shielded.
Numerous features of the present invention 25
the resonant frequency. It should be noted that’
the shape of the resonator ‘l2 departs somewhat
from that shown in the copending applications,
supra, mainly in the lengthening of the resonator
at the extreme edges and in the shortening of
the resonator'at the center due mainly to the
provision of the cylindrical element I3. This'de-'
reside in the novel mechanical constructions em
parture in shape of the resonator from ‘a? true
ployed (1) in the coupling circuit, whereby both
are sector does not deleteriously affect the oper
ation of the resonator. In order to vary the:
resonant frequency of the cavity resonator M
the tuning and the damping can be changed in
dependently; (2) in the apparatus employed for
controlling the amount of the magnetomotive 30 to a limited degree, there is provided an adjust-'
able gap [6, one side of'which is formed by a‘
force required for focussing the electron beam;
copper plated iron sleeve l9, movable in Ta mane
(3) in the adjusting means for varying the reso
ner described hereinafter, and the other side of
nant frequency of the resonator by adjusting the
which is formed by an iron pole piece l‘! as a
length of its gap; and (4) in the ?exible metallic
bellows arrangement for simplifying the assem 35 consequence of which there is obtained a varia-v
tion of the capacity between sides l9 and H of
blage of the resonator and the air duct carrying
the gap. Sleeve I9 is made to move in an axial
cooling fluid from the blower to the resonator.
direction and makes sliding contact-‘with beryl
Other objects and features will appear from
lium copper springs l8, which are soldered to
a reading of the following description which is
copper side [5 of the resonator._ Sleeve‘ I9 is
accompanied by a drawing whose single figure
preferably copper ‘plated in order to provide low
illustrates, in section, a preferred form of ultra
loss and a good electrical connection between
short Wave electron discharge circuit embodying
elements l5 and I9.
'
the principles of the invention. Since the in
For focussing the electron beam there are ‘proé,
vention is primarily concerned with improve
ments in the mechanical construction, the vacu 45 vided a. pair of magnetic lenses'in series relation
constituted by magnetic gaps l6 and 20 formed.
um tube apparatus is merely shown in outline.
respectively, by the spaced iron sleeves l1 and i9
Referring to the drawing in more detail, there
and spaced iron sleevesv l9 and 2|, all of which
is shown an electron discharge device I, com
prising a vacuum tube structure consisting of an
evacuated glass envelope 2' containing therein
a cathode 3, the heater 4, a modulating grid 5,
surround the glass envelope I and are serially
arranged with respect to an iron magnetic path.
This magnetic path includes an iron yoke ‘*2
a. (.1
which is placed adiacent to the sides ofonesector"v
of the tank circuit iii, the complete circuit 01‘
which includes elements l1, l9, 2|, 23, 24,25,
ring-like accelerator electrodes 6, and a collector
electrode 1, the latter containing therein a suit
able suppressor electrode, not shown. This type
of electron discharge device is now well known in 55 26, 22, 27, 28, 29 and ring-like permanent‘ mag;
net 3!]. Although elements 28, 21 and 22 .‘are
the art and is not being claimed per se, the show
ing being given merely to illustrate how it ?ts into
the resonator structure and associated apparatus
constituting the invention. For a more detailed
description of the electron discharge device with
preferably constituted by a single iron yoke about
one-quarter of an inch thick, theyv may, if desired,‘
be formed of separate elements, as shown. The,
ring-like permanent magnet 30 is preferably made
2,404,279
3
of Alnico material and is held in ?xed position
by the iron pole pieces I1 and 29. The magnetic
flux will obviously flow through the path men
tioned above and across the magnetic gaps i8
and 20. The threaded ring or sleeve 3| is made of
brass and is integrally connected to the threaded.
ring 23. Because. ring 3| is made of brass which
has the same magnetic permeability as air, there
is a magnetic gap 20 provided betweenelements
4
duct 31 is provided with a sheet of metal 42 affixed
thereto. Since the blower duct 31 is rigidly fas
tened by means of stud. 38 to the cabinet or panel
of the equipment it is a relatively simple matter
to position the resonator |2 in its desired location
and to ?ex the bellows 40 in such manner that
the aperture in metallic sheet 42 registers with
the aperture 39 in the duct 31. In this way a
single duct 31 provided with several spaced aper
l9 and 2|. In order to adjust the effective 10 tures 39 may serve to supply forced ventilation to
magnetomotive force of the permanent magnet
a plurality of spaced resonators |2 suitably located
30, there are provided a plurality of removable
along the length of the duct opposite the spaced
iron pins 32 suitably spaced, preferably sym
apertures 39.
metrically positioned around the magnet, so as
In order to abstract energy from the cavity
to short-circuit a desired portion of the flux pro 15 resonator |2 there is provided the output coupling
duced by the magnet. These pins 32, it will be
noted, bridge the pole piece I1 and the iron sup
port 29 for the magnet.
coil or loop 45 which can be rotated 90“ by means
of lever 46 to vary the coupling between the res
‘
onator and its output coil support from maximum
Adjustment of the length of gap I3 is accom
to a minimum. The output circuit is electrically
plished by rotation of the shaft 33. By rotating 20 one-half wavelength long at the operating fre
shaft 33 which connects to pinion 34, the ring gear
quency as measured from the ?xed ground point
25 which is threaded to engage 34 will also rotate.
41 around the loop 45 along conductor 48 to the
Since ring gear 25 is internally threaded, it en
plunger disc 49. This output circuit may be a
gages the threads on iron disc 24, and it will be
band pass coupling circuit and is very generally
apparent that movement will be imparted to the 25 the equivalent to that shown in copending appli
iron disc 24. The latter is kept from rotating by
cation Serial No. 346,106, supra, except for cer
means of a pair of pins 36, only one of which is
tain re?nements which are described herein
shown in the drawing. Movement of the iron
after. The coil 45 serves to couple the tank cir
disc 24, however, will cause axial movement of the
cuit | 2 to a suitable load or utilization circuit
integrally connected iron sleeve 23 and brass 30 which may comprise an antenna connected to the
sleeve 3|. Since brass sleeve 3| is linked by
output line 50. The coupling circuit includes a
threads to iron sleeve l9, it will be evident that
coaxial line comprising an inner conductor 48
axial movement of 23 and 3|, caused by move
and an outer conductor 5|, the inner conductor of
ment of disc 24, will also cause axial movement
which is electrically connected through a slider
of the copper plated iron sleeve I9 and thus pro~
coupling link 52 to a metallic conductor 53 which,
duce a change in the width of the gap IS with a
in turn, connects with one end of the loop 45.
consequent change in the resonant frequency oi
The output line 50 is connected electrically to
the cavity resonator | 2. One of the pins 38 which
another point on the inner conductor 48 by means
prevents rotation of the iron disc 24 has the addi
of a metallic spring clip 54. The plunger 49
tional function of rotating cylindrical ring gear 40 serves to ‘short circuit the conductors“ and 5|
2| for varying the length of the magnetic gap 20
in order to'change the damping of the coupling
between elements I9 and 2|. Ring gear 2| is inter
circuit. In order to provide good electrical con
nally threaded and rides on the threads of sleeves
tact between the plunger 49 and the inner surface
23 and 3|. An adjustment of the gap 23 changes
of the conductor 5| of the coaxial line, there is
the strength of the magnetic ?eld in the plane of 45 employed a ?exible metallic ribbon or strip of
this gap. Since gap I6 is in series with gap 29.
sheet metal 55 which has transverse cuts therein
the magnetic ?eld in the plane of gap It will also
so formed as to produce a multiplicity of resili
be changed. The magnitude of the 'magnetic
ently bulging contact areas with the circular
?eld at both" gaps can be readjusted by increas
areas engaging the conductor 5|. In this‘ way
ing or decreasing the number of shunts 32 across 50 there is obtained both good electrical contact
the magnet 30. Thus, by adjusting gap 29 and
at numerous points between the inner surface of
shunts 32 the proper magnetic ?eld can be ob
the conductor 5| and the plunger 49 and also
tained at both gaps.
very smooth sliding or wiping action when it is
In order to cool the vacuum tube I, there is
desired to move the plunger. For a more detailed
provided a metallic rectangular blower duct 3'!
description of this type of sliding action, refer
which has cooling air forced therethrough from
ence is made to United States Patent No. 2,280,728.
a blower. This blower duct is mounted on one
or more suitable metallic studs 38 and communi~
cates by means of aperture 39 and metal bellows
40 with the interior of the cavity resonator | 2
through another aperture 4|. The blower thus
produces a forced ventilation which causes air
to flow through duct 31, through the bellows 42,
through aperture 4| into the interior of resonator
granted April 21, 1942, to A. Streib.
It should be noted that the free end vof the
inner conductor 48 of the output coupling cir
cuit forms part of a concentric conductor con
denser,one'electrode of which includes a me
tallic plug 56 electrically connected to the end
of outer conductor 5|. By moving conductor 48
in or out of the plug 56, I am able to vary the
l2 and around the envelope of vacuum tube | at 65 capacity'between the end of conductor 48 and
the location of the gap H5. The air then ?ows
the plug 56 and thus tune the output circuit.
around the vacuum tube envelope 2 toward both
In order to have movement of plunger 49 result
the electron collector end and the grid end. Bel
in only a change in‘the damping of the circuit.
lows 40 is made of a metallic material to prevent
means are provided to vary simultaneously both
radiation of radio frequency energy from the 70 the plunger 49 and the'condenser 56, 48. Thus
resonator l2. This bellows is rigidly fastened
the tuning change which would result in a move
to the resonator | 2 at the cylinder I3 and acts
ment of plunger 49 is balanced by a change in
as a ?exible link to insure a tight connection from
condenser 56, 48. For this purpose there is pro
the resonator to the duct 31. It should be noted
vided an internally threaded cylinder 51 which
that theend of the bellows 40 which contacts the 75 threadedly engages a hollowelement 58 on its
2,404,279 '
5
exterior surface, the latter in turn threadedly
said resonatorgap without moving any part of
engaging the inner conductor 48 at 59. One end
of the hollow element 58 is ?xedly attached to
plunger 49 so that movement thereof will move
the plunger and change the damping of the
said resonator.
3. A hollow resonator having apertures in both
sides thereof forming a gap, means for causing‘
an electron stream to traverse said gap, magnetic
means adjacent both sides of said resonator and
output coupling circuit. In order to prevent ele
ment 58 from rotating, there is provided a key
Way 60 which cooperates with a pin 6|. By ro
having a gap registering with the gapof said ‘
resonator for providing a magnetic lens at said
tating cylinder 51, axial movement of the plunger
gap, a resilient metallic element attached to one
49 will ensue, and simultaneously therewith, also 10 side of said resonator and contacting said mag
axial movement of the conductor 48, with a con
netic means at said same side, and movable means
sequent change in the capacity of the concentric
for varying the width of the gap of said magnetic
conductor condenser. However, since the capac
means.
ity per unit length of the condenser 56, 48 is
4. A hollow resonator having a gap along the
greater than of the line 5|, 48, this would result 15 axis thereof, magnetic means having a magnetic
in over correction for the tuning. Therefore,
gap registering with the gap of said resonator
means are provided to rotate 5‘! and 62 together
for providing a magnetic lens thereat and also
while still leaving them free to move axially with
having a magnetic gap externally of said reso
respect to each other. The pitch of thread 59 is
nator to provide another magnetic lens, means
?ner than the pitch ‘of the thread of 51. Thus, 20 for causing an electron stream to traverse the
when 51 and 62 are rotated simultaneously, the
gaps of both lenses in succession, and gears
axial movement of 48 is less than the axial move
threadedly engaging said magnetic means for
ment of 49. Thus, for a particular ratio of in
varying the width of that magnetic gap register
side diameters of 56 and 5| the proper differ
ing with the gap of said resonator for varying
ential between the thread of 51 and the thread
the tuning of said resonator without moving any
59 can be chosen. If the inside diameter of 56
part of said resonator.
'
is equals to the inside diameter of 5|, rotation
5. A hollow resonator having apertures in both
of 5'! alone will result in the proper compensa
sides thereof forming a gap, means for causing
tion of tuning when it is desired to change the
an electron stream totraverse said gap, spaced
damping. If it is desired merely to change the 30 adjustable magnetic elements adjacent said sides
tuning of the output coupling circuit without
of said resonator and having a magnetic gap reg-v
changing the damping, this is done by rotating
istering with the gap of said resonator for pro
knurled knob 62 which varies the length of the
viding a magnetic lens at said resonator gap and
inner conductor 48 within plug 55. The circuit
for varying the width of the resonator gap, and
52, 53, 45, 41 will in general be a high impedance 35 movable means for varying the distance between
circuit.
‘
‘
said spaced elements for varying the width-of
It should be understood that the various fea
said resonator gap without'moving any part of
tures of the present invention can be utilized
said
resonator, said last means including a
either alone or combined and that the vacuum
threaded element linked to one of said magnetic
tube I may be used in an ultra short wave system 40 elements.
‘
either as an oscillator, an ampli?er, frequency
6. An electron discharge device having within
converter, or a detector. Such circuits embody
an envelope a cathode for projecting a beam of
ing the principles of the present invention have
electrons and a collector electrode for receiving
been used with high eiiiciency at frequencies
said
beam, three spaced hollow members of mag?
above 300 megacycles, particularly around 450 45 netic material adjacent said envelope and sur
megacycles, though not limited thereto. The
rounding the path of electrons and having po
electrical connections necessary to complete the
sitions
located between said cathode and collector
circuits for the vacuum tube have not been shown
electrode,
two adjacent members of said three
because they may follow any of the teachings
being adjustable along the length of said beam,
set forth in the copending applications supra, 60 said spaced members providing a pair of mag
the invention not being limited thereto.
netic gaps for focussing said beam, and gears
What is claimed is:
threadedly engaging two of said members of
1. A hollow resonator having apertures in both
magnetic material for varying the distances be
sides thereof forming a gap, an electron dis
tween any two of said three members.
charge device having an envelope extending 55
across said gap, a cathode and a collector elec
7. A hollow. resonator having apertures in both
sides thereof forming a gap, means for, causing
trode in said envelope at opposite sides of said
an electron'stream to traverse said gap, spaced
gap for causing an electron stream to traverse
adjustable magnetic elements adjacent both sides
said gap, spaced adjustable magnetic elements
adjacent said sides of said resonator and having 00 of said resonator gap and having a gap register
ing‘with the gap of said resonatorw for providing
a magnetic gap registering with the gap of said
a magnetic lens at said resonator’. gap, a per
resonator for providing a magnetic lens at said
manent magnet adjacent said magnetic elements,
resonator gap and for varying the width of the
and magnetic, means shunting said magnet for
resonator gap, and movable means forv varying
the distance between said spaced elements.
65 varying the eil'ective amount of -magnetomotive
force produced by said permanent magnet. '
2. A hollow resonator having apertures in both
8. A hollow resonator having apertures in both
sides thereof forming a gap, means for causing
sides "thereof forming 'a gap, means for causing
an electron stream to traverse said gap, spaced
adjustable magnetic elements adjacent said sides
an electron stream to’ traverse said. gap, spaced
of said resonator and having a magnetic'gap reg
magnetic elements adjacent both sides of said
istering with the gap of said resonator for pro
resonator gap and having a gap registering with
viding a magnetic lens at said resonator gap and
the gap of said resonator for proving a magnetic‘
for varying the width of the resonator gap, and
lens at said resonator gap, a permanent magnet
movable means for varying the distance between
adjacent said magnetic elements, and a plurality
said spaced elements for varying the width of 75 of removable magnetic pins bridging said magnet
2,404,279
8
7
for sho'rt-circuiting a desired portion of .the flux‘
produced by said magnet.
:
9.. A hollow resonator having apertures-in both
sides thereof forming a gap, means for causing
an electron stream to traverse said gap, spaced
magnetic elements adjacent'both sides of said
resonator gap and having a gap registering with.
the gap of said resonator for providing a magnetic
lens at said resonator gap, adjustable means for
varying the distance between said magnetic ele 10
said transfer circuit comprising a ‘coaxial line
having its inner conductor coupled tov said reso
nator by means of a loop entering the resonator
through an aperture, said inner conductor being
inductively coupled to said resonator in said in
terior by virtue of said loop, means for rotating
said loop for varying the coupling between the
resonator and said transfer circuit, said coaxial
line having an opening in the outer conductor eX
ternally of said resonator, and a section of an
other coaxial line having its inner conductor
coupled at one end to the inner conductor of said
transfer circuit through said opening and its outer
conductor at said same end coupled to the outer
net for varying the effective amount‘ of magneto
motive force produced by said permanent magnet. 15 conductor of said transfer circuit, slidable means
within the coaxial line of said’ transfer circuit
' 10. A hollow resonator having apertures in
for adjusting the effective length of a portion of
both sides thereof forming a gap, an electron
said transfer circuit, and a tuning capacitor
discharge device having an envelope extending
ments. without moving any part of said reso
nator, a permanent magnet adjacent said mag
netic elements, and means in shunt to said ‘mag
across one end of said transfer circuit, said ca—
across said gap, and means for cooling said de
vice comprising a ?exible hollow metallic ‘link 20 pacitor being variable by movement of the inner
conductor of the coaxial line of said transfer
,amxed at one end to and communicating with
circuit.
’
:
the interior of said resonator, a metallic sheet
15. Apparatus in accordance with claim 14,
a?ixed to. the other end of said link, said sheet
wherein means are provided mechanically link
having an aperture, an air duct having an aper
ture therein, and a blower connected to said air 25 ing the drive mechanism of said slidable means
with the drive mechanism of said variable con
duct, the apertures of said metallic sheet and said
denser.
>
duct registering with the aperture of said ?exi
16. The-combination with a hollow resonator,
ble link, whereby air from said blower is forced
of a band pass coupling circuit including'ax'ro
into the interior of said resonator and flows
around the envelope of said device at the location 30 tatable loop located in the interior of said rose
nator and a- coaxial line connected to said loop,
of said gap.
a short-circuiting bridge across said c'oaxial‘line,
11. An electrondischarge device having within
the length of said coupling circuit as measured
anenvelope a cathode for projecting a beam of
from said bridge along ‘said line and over: the
electrons and an electron collector, a hollow space
resonator having a gap surrounding a portion of 35 length of said loop to the remote'end of said loop
being electrically one-half wavelength at the
said envelope at a location between said cathode
mean operating frequency.
'
,
~
andcollector, said resonator also having a ?uid
17. A hollow resonator having apertures-win
inlet port remote from said gap and leading di
both sides thereof forming a gap, means for
rectly into said resonator, and means connected
to said port for forcing cooling ?uid directly into 40 causing an electron stream to traverse said gap;
spaced magnetic elements adjacent both sides of
said resonator through said port.
said gap and having a gap registering with the
gap of- said resonator for providing a magnetic
lens at said gap, a permanent magnet connected
to said magnetic elements, and a removable mag
12. An electrondischarge device having a cav
ity resonator in circuit therewith, an energy
transfer circuit coupled to said cavity resonator,
said transfer circuit comprising a coaxial line
having its inner conductor coupled to said reso
nator by means of a loop entering-‘the resonator.
netic pin bridging said magnet for short-circuit»
ing a desired portion of the flux produced by said
through an aperture, said inner conductor being
18. A hollow resonator, means including a
inductively coupled to said resonator in said in;
terior by virtue of said loop, means forrotating 50 cathode on one side of said resonator for project
ing an electron stream through the interior of
said loop for varying the coupling between the
said resonator, spaced magnetic elements sur
resonator and said transfer circuit, said coaxial
rounding a portion of the path of travel of said
line having an opening in the outer conductor
stream and forming a gap, a vpermanentmagnet
externally of said resonator, and a section of an
magnet.
other coaxial line having its inner conductor
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55 connected to said magnetic elements, and a re
movable magnetic pin bridging said magnet for
coupled at onev end to the-inner conductor of
short-circuiting a desired portion of the flux pro
said transfer circuit through said opening and
duced by said magnet.
.
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its outer conductor at'said same end coupled to
19; The combination with a hollow resonator
the outer conductor of said transfer circuit, and
slidable, means within the coaxial line of said (S0 of_ an energy coupling ‘circuit comprising a- ro
tatable loop located in theinterior ofsaid reso~
transfer circuit for adjusting the effective length
nator and a stationary coaxial-line connected to
of the inner conductor of said transfer circuit as
said loop, and adjustable means connected to
measured from said slidable means to the junc
the conductors of said lineforvarying an elec
tion point of the inner conductors of said coaxial
trical characteristic of said line;
lines.
'
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a
_
.
.
13. The combination with a hollow resonator
of a coupling circuit comprising a rotatable loop
located in the interior of said resonator and. con~
ductors forming acoaxial line connected to said
loop, and tuning and damping means linked to
the'conductors of said line.
1
_14.7 An electron discharge ,device having a cav
it'y ' resonator in circuit therewith, an energy
transfer circuit coupled to said cavity resonator,
19
.
I
1
20. The combination with a hollow resonator,
of an energy coupling circuit comprising a ro
tatable loop located in the interior of said res'oL
nator and a coaxial line-connected to ‘said loop,
and tuning means in circuit ‘with said line for
varying the capacity across‘ the conductoi's‘oi
said line.
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