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Патент USA US2404281

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July 16, 1946.
w, A, EATON
-- 2,404,281v
FLUID PRESSURE CONTROL MECHANISM
Filed May 27, 1944 '
'
2v Sheets-She‘et .1
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BY
INVENTbR;
wigrrédA.Eal'01z.
ATTORNEYS ‘
July 16, 1946.
w. A. EATON
2,404,281
-
FLUID PRESSURE CONTROL MECHANISM
Filed May 27, 1944
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INVENTORt
BYWglff'édflEydi'O/yl I
ATTORNEYS
Patented July 16, 1946
2,404,281
UNITED STATES’ PATENT OFFICE
2,404,281
FLUID PRESSURE CONTROL MECHANISM
Wilfred A. Eaton, Elyria, Ohio, assignor to Ben
dix-Westinghouse Automotive Air Brake Com
pany, Elyria, Ohio, a corporation of Delaware
Application May 27, 1944, Serial No. 537,709
1
15 Claims. (01. 114-144)
Thisinvention relates to control mechanism,
and more particularly to ?uid pressure operated
mechanism for controlling the operation of a
control surface of a body adapted to move
through a ?uid medium, such as a boat or an
airplane.
2
: position as a result of the operation of the power
actuator.
'
,
A.
A still further object of the invention is to
provide ?uid pressure operated means for effect
ing operation of a rudder of the above type, to
gether with control valve means for controlling
It has previously been proposed to provide
the supply of ?uid pressure to the motor, so con
power means for actuating the control surface of
stituted as to permit the control valve means to
an airplane, for example, but in most cases the
be controlled jointly by the pressure supplied to
mechanism for controlling the supply of power 10 the ?uid motor and by the force resulting from
to the actuator in systems of this type has been
the impact pressure of the slip stream on the
controlled through the medium of a lost motion
surface of the rudder.
> v ,‘
connection between the operator’s control ele-‘
Yet a still further object of’ the invention is to
ment and the surface of the device to be oper
provide, in connection with a manually operable
ated, the result being that this lost motion has 16 rudder, means‘ffor controlling the‘operation of
resulted in an unstable condition, and often
a power actuator for the purpose of- assisting in
times in ?utter or vibration of the control sur
the operation of the rudder, this means being so
face which has been severe enough to render the
constituted as to permit a direct mechanical con
airplane uncontrollable by the operator, and it is
nection between the rudder and the operator's
accordingly an object of the present invention 20 control element without the need for anyv lost
to provide means for effecting power operation
motion connection for the purpose of operating
of such a control surface or rudder so consti
tuted as to overcome these di?iculties.
the control mechanism.
' -;
'
These and other objects and novel features of
Another object of the invention is to provide,
the invention will become more readily apparent
'in connection with a rudder adapted to be oper 25 when taken in connection with the accompany
ated manually by the pilot, means controlled by
ing drawings and in the light of the following
the impact pressure of the slip stream of the
description, but it is to be expressly understood
?uid medium in which the airplane operates for
that the description is not to be taken as limit
varying the degree of power supplied to the actu
ing the invention, reference being had for this
‘
>
ator in accordance with variations in the value 30 purpose to the appended claims.
of the impact pressure.
In the drawings, Fig. 1 illustrates diagram
Yet another object of the invention is to pro
matically, and partially in section, a control sys
vide in connection with a manually operable rud
tem embodying the present invention as incorpo
der, means for effecting power'operation of the
rated in an airplane; and
»
35
rudder. and for varying the degree of power oper
Fig. 2 is a view, partially in section, of the
ation in accordance with the degree of move
control valve mechanism shown in Fig. 1.
ment of the rudder from its normal neutral po
Referring more particularly to Fig. 1, a por
sition.
tion of an airplane 4 is provided with arudder 5
having a shaft 6, the shaft being pivotally mount
Still another object of the invention is to pro
vide in connection with ' a manually operable 40 ed on the airplane 4 by means of suitable brack
ets- Operation of the rudder in either direction
rudder, means responsive to the impact pressure
may be e?ected normally by means of ‘cables 1
of the slip stream for varying the degree of power
and 8 which may be connected to the pilot’s rud
supplied to the rudder actuator in accordance
with the speed of the airplane or boat on which 45 der bar, not shown, and it is understood that the
rudder may be turned through the operation of.
the rudder is mounted.
the cables or by any other suitable means. Thus
A further object of the invention is to provide
on movement. of the cable ‘I to the right, the
in connection With a control system of the above
rudder 5 is rotated in a clockwise direction, move
type, means for automatically limiting the degree
of power supplied to move the rudder, to a value 50 ment of the cable 8 to the right serving to rotate
the rudder in the opposite direction.
-.
such that the restoring moment due to the im
In order to provide for power operation of the
pact pressure of the slip‘ stream on the rudder
rudder, in addition to the type of operation yde-v
tending to turn the rudder to neutral position
scribed in the preceding paragraph, a reservoir
will at all times be greater than the moment
tending to movethe rudder away from neutral 55 9 is mounted on the airplane and supplied with
?uid pressure by a compressor, not ‘shown,
2,404,281
it
, through a conduit I3, the ?uid pressure from
j this reservoir being supplied to a double acting ‘
i ?uid motor H through suitable connections later
to be described, and under the control of a Valve
‘_ mechanism l2, shown more in detail in Fig. 2.
1 In the embodiment shown, the ?uid motor I I is 1
provided with a cylinder 13 having acover plate
l4 provided with a bracket [5 whichis pivotally
‘
1
i
‘
‘
4
chamber 29 and outlet port 45 through the
ported partition 3| and outlet chamber 30. The
upper portion of the mechanism I2 is provided.
withv a, control valve identical in construction
with the lower control valve just described, the
upper control valve including an inlet chamber
46 having inlet port 22,_co_nnected with the sup
ply conduit 24 .shownkin Fig. 1, and an outlet
chamber'48 having an‘ outlet port 43, a, dia
attached to a bracket l6 rigidly mounted on the
phragm chamber 55 connected with the outlet
structure of the rudder 5 in any suitable man-. .10 chamber by means of a restricted passage 5|,
ner, a pivot pin l1 serving to connect the brack- ‘
'an exhaust vchamber 52‘ connected with atmos
ets. The cylinder I3 is provided with a piston l8 .1 ' _ phere by means of an exhaust port 53, a dia
slidably mounted therein, and the piston is con
phragm 54 clamped in the housing and opera
nected to a bracket l9 rigidly. mounted on the
tively connected with a slidably mounted valve
structure of the airplane by means of a ‘connect, 1,5
operating element 55 as shown. The valve oper
ing rod 20 and a pivot pin 2| which serves to con- ‘
nectv the latter to the bracket‘l?; ' Thus when" "
?uid pressure is admitted to the left endhoflthe, 5
cylinder, the motor is-effective to rotate‘ the"
rudder in a counterclockwise direction, and the 20
admission of ?uid pressure to the‘ other sneer
the motor servingto rotate the rudder in the
ating element is provided with a bore 55 con
nected at its upper end with the outlet chamber
48 and its lower end with the exhaust chamber
52 by means of ports-5'1.v An inlet valve 58 '7
normally maintained in closed position by means
of a spring 59, serves to control communication
between the inlet and outlet, chambers, and an
exhaust'valve 60 serves to vcontrol'commu'ni'cm
I2 is provided with inlet ports 22 and 23, andv
between the outlet- chamber andatmos
these ports are supplied with ?uid pressure from 25 tion
phere through the bore 56, the ports Blythe ex
the reservoir 9 through conduits 2'4 and 25 con?
haust chamber 52‘ and the exhaust port 53. The
nected with the'reservoir' through a ?exible hose
valve operating element is normally maintained
26 and a conduit 21.
'
,
,
in the position shown by means" of a spring 6|,
Referring now to Fig. 2jof the drawings, the
valve mechanism I2‘ is provided with a casing st and it will be clear that on upward movement of
the element, the upper end _of the bore 55 will
28 provided with identical ?uid pressure con;
?rst engage the surface’of the exhaust-valve to
trol 7 valves in the upper and lower ‘portions
opposite direction.’ The control valve mechanism
thereof. Referring ?rst ' to the lower ‘control
valve, the casing 28 is provided with an inlet
chamber 29 separated from an ‘outlet chamber
30 by means of a ported partition 3|, the cham
ber 29 being provided with inlet port 23 which‘
receives ?uid pressure from the conduit ~25,v and
communication between chambers 29 and, 353
prevent
communication‘ between the
outlet ,
chamber and atmosphere, and that/further up-.,
ward movementuof the element will’ openvv the
inlet valve to permit ?uid pressure to ?ow from
the inlet chamber to the outlet chamber. Oper
ation-of the valve operating elements 36 and 55
is accomplished by means of a lever 62‘ pivotally
through the ported partition 3| is normally pre-_
vented by means of an inlet valve 32‘ maintained
in the position shown by means of a spring 33
mounted on a portion of the casing 28 by means
The casing directly above the‘ outlet chamberis
means of‘a ?exible conduit 66, and the‘ outlet
port 45 of the lower control valve being'con
nected to the left end of the cylinder by means
of a ?exible conduit-61. The lever 62 is‘adapted
for operationby means of aspair of ?exible'dia
phragms 68 and 69 positioned substantially ?ush Y
of a pivot pin53, and having a round or ball
shaped portion 64 formed on the‘ right end
adapted to engage the inner ends of both the
interposed betweenthe' upper surface of the‘ par:
valve operating elements when the latter are
tition and the lower surface of an exhaust valve 1 maintained
in the positions shown, by their reé
upwardly
'
34 mounted on a stem 35 ‘extending’
I
r
spective return springs.
,from the inlet valve. A valve operating ele
Referring again to Fig. 1', the valve mechanism ~
ment 36 is 'slidably mounted in the casing as‘
!2 is generally mounted on the structure'of‘the
shown and normally maintained in thefposi'tion
5 by means of suitable vbrackets ‘65, the
shown by means of a spring 3'! interposed be: I, .. rudder
outlet port 49 of the upper control valve being
tween the upper surface of the partition and i connected to the right end of the cylinder l3 by
the lower end ofv the’ valve operating‘element.
provided with a diaphragm chamber’ 33 con-1
nected
strictedfp'assage
with the 39,
outlet
and chamber
a ?exible throughv
diaphragm
a _re-'
‘40,, '
suitably clamped in the casing and connectedat
its center withithe valve operating element’ as
shown, forms inconnection with, the casing, an
exhaust chamber 4|.
The latter chamber _ is
connected with atmosphere by'_ means of’ a pas-‘
sage 42 and in order to: normally'permit ,com‘—_
munication, between the outlet chamber and ate
mosphere, the valve operating element 36 is pro
vided‘with‘ a bore 43 connected with the exhaust .l
chamberthrougnports 44 and having its, lower
end normally spaced from the upper surface of
the exhaust valve 34. The outlet chamber30 is
provided with anpoutlet port 45, and itwill be
understood that on downward movement ‘of, the
valve operating’ element 36, the lower end ofpth‘e
bore 43, will engage the exhaust valve 34 to pre-,_
ventco »”unication'between the ‘outlet chamber
30, and 1 atmosphere; further downward, 7 move
ment'of ‘the element serving to openthe inlet
valve 32 to permit communication between inlet
with the upper and lower surfaces ofv the rudder ,
5, these diaphragms being clampedv to suitable
casing members 10 and ‘H mounted as shown'
on the structure of the rudder. The diaphragms
are connected with a rod 12 slidably mounted in
the members ‘19' and 1|,the rod being operatively
connected with the left‘end'of the lever 62, by
means of ?anges 13 and 14 ‘which are adapted
to engage a forked end portion 15 formedion
the left end of the lever, downward movement
of the rod thus serving to rotate the lever in a
counterclockwise direction about the pivot pin
63 in order to move the valve operating element
55 upward, and movement of the rod in the other
direction serving to impart clockwise rotation
to the lever and downward movement to the
valveoperating element 36, The casing mem
bers ‘I0 and ‘H are provided with vent holes'16 '
2,404,281
and 11 leading to the interior of the rudder, and
it‘will be understoodthat the interior of the‘rud
der is normally subjected to static pressure of
the ?uid medium in which the airplane or boat
is operating, through suitable vent holes, not
shown, in the surface of the rudder, it being well
6
combined with the vacuum e?'ect von the upper
diaphragm 68 when the ‘rudder is so turned, exerts
a force tending to move the ‘rod 12 upward in
order to rotate the lever v(52in a clockwise ‘direc
tion to move the valve operating element 36 down
ward, thus operating the lower control valve to
known that rudders of this type are normally not
supply ?uid pressure to the left end of the motor
of air-tight construction. Thus on downward
through the ?exible conduit 61 whereupon the
movement of the rod 12, the upper control valve
motor tends to move‘to the 'left with respect to
of the mechanism I2 is operated to supply ?uid 10 the rod 29 in order to impart counterclockwise
pressure from the reservoir 9 to the right end
rotation to the rudder. During this operation of
of the motor I3 through conduit 66, operation
the lower control valve, the pressure in the left
of the rod in the other direction serving to oper
end of the ?uid motor and in the outlet chamber
ate the lower control valve of the mechanism
30 in the control valve will increase, and since
l2 to supply ?uid pressure to the left end of the 15 this pressure is conducted to the diaphragm
motor through the ?exible conduit 61.
chamber 38 through the restricted passage 39,
‘When the airplane or boat is moving to the
the diaphragm of the control valve is subjected
right in a straight path with the rudder 5 posi
‘ to the pressure in the ?uid motor, and the upward
tioned as shown relative to the airplane or boat,
force ‘resulting from this pressure eventually
it will be understood that under normal atmos 20 reaches a value su?icient to balance the force
pheric conditions, for example, the upper and
exerted on the valve operating element in a
lower surfaces of the rudder will be subjected to
downward direction by the operation of the dia
the same impact pressure from the slip stream.
phragms 68 and 69 and the lever 62, whereupon
When the operator moves the cable 1 to the right
the valve operating element 36 is moved upward
to impart clockwise rotation to the rudder, the
su?iciently to permit closing of the inlet valve 32
angle of the upper surface of the rudder re1a~
under the action of the inlet valve spring ‘33,
tive to the force of the slip stream will be changed,
whereupon the valves are ' in lapped position,
with the result that the impact pressure of the
and a pressure is maintained in the left end
slip stream on the surface of the diaphragm 68
of the motor which is substantially proportional
will be increased, with a resultant tendency to 30 to the combined pressures acting on the dia—
force the rod 12 downward'to rotate the lever 52!
phragms 58 and ‘69. Thus it will be apparent that
in a counterclockwise direction, whereupon the
the degree of ?uid pressure supplied to the motor
valve operating element 55 is moved upward to
by the control valve mechanism l2, as will be well
close the exhaust valve and open the intake valve
understood ‘by those skilled in the art relative to
of the upper control valve in the mechanism l2
self-lapping valve construction, is at all times
in order to supply ?uid pressure to the right end
substantially proportional to the slip stream
of the ?uid motor from the reservoir through
forces acting on the diaphragms 88 and 69. In
conduit 21, conduit 26, conduit 24, inlet chamber
this connection, it is desirable that the amount
46, outlet'chamber 48 and ?exible conduit 66,
of power supplied to the ?uid motor be so con
and since the piston rod 20 is attached to the 40 trolled that the turning moment exerted by the
structure of the airplane by means of the pivot
?uid motor on the rudder shall never be sufficient
pin 2| and the body of the cylinder I2 is attached
to prevent the rotation of the rudder to neutral
to the bracket IE on the rudder structure by means
position in response to the action ‘of the impact
of the pivot pin H, the cylinder tends to move to
pressure of the ?uid medium on the surface of the
the right with respect to the piston rod 20 in
rudder, as otherwise it would be necessary for the
order to impart clockwise rotation to the rudder.
operator to exert ‘manual effort to return the
Although the diaphragm 54 is shown as being of
rudder to neutral position. By virtue of the con
comparatively large size in the valve mechanism
struction herein described, however, the parts
12 in the interest of clarity, it will'be under
may be so designed that the pressure supplied to
stood that in view of the fact that the pressures 50 the ?uid motor, and therefore the power developed
acting to operate the ?uid motor are relativeh7
thereby, is at all times proportional vto the'impact
high compared with the impact pressures acting
pressure on the surface of the rudder, and insu?i
on the diaphragms 6B and 69, the diaphragms
cient to prevent the return of the rudder to
in the control valve mechanism [2 are prefer
neutral position by the action of the slip stream
ably so proportioned as to have a much smaller 55 when the control cables 1 and 8 are released by
area than the diaphragms 68 and 69 which are
the operator. In addition to the foregoing, it is I.
subjected to the relatively low impact pressure
well-known that the force required to operate‘ a
of the slip stream. In this manner, the rela
rudder of this type increases materially in accord
tively low impact pressure is effective to operate
ance with increases in the speed of the airplane,
the valves in order to maintain a relatively high 60 and also increases materially as the angle of
pressure in the ?uid motor. When the ‘rudder
movement of the rudder from neutral position in
is turned in a clockwise direction, as stated above,
creases. The system described herein is particu
it will also be understood that the action of the
larly advantageous in this respect, since - the
slip stream tends to form a partial vacuum adja
system can be so designed as to govern the power
cent the lower surface of the rudder, and that 65 supplied to the ?uid motor in accordance with
since the diaphragm 69 is subjected to this par
the angle of turn as well as in accordance with
tial vacuum, an additional force is applied to the
the speed of movement of the airplane or boat
rod 12 tending to move it downward in order to
in the surrounding ?uid medium, this being ac
operate the valve mechanism to supply ?uid pres“
complished in such a manner that the power sup-‘
sure to the right end of the motor. In like man 70 plied to the motor to turn the rudder away from
ner, movement of the vcontrol cable 8 to the right
neutral position never exceeds or equals that
results in counterclockwise rotation of the rudder ' necessary to maintain the rudder out of neutral
5, as a result of which the impact pressure on
position against the impact pressure of the slip
the lower surface of the rudder increases in the
stream. Thus when the rudder is turned from
vicinity of and on the diaphragm 69, and this,
neutral position by the pilot, the power actuator
2,404,281
‘der andto the. power supplied to theactua'tor' for
controlling the supply of power to said actuator.
exerts suf?cient; assistance to permit operation
of the rudder without excessive manual effort,
and the construction herein described also insures
returning vof the rudder to neutral position on
release of the manual control means by the pilot.
While the pressure responsive members or dia
phragms 68 and 69, which are responsive to the
2. In a control mechanism for controlling the
direction of movement in a ?uid medium'of" a
body having a rudder movablymounte'd thereon
and means for moving the rudder, additional
means for effecting power operation of saidrud
der including a power actuator for moving the
impact pressure of‘ the slip stream, have been
rudder, and means responsivejointly to the dif
shown as positioned in the upper and lower sur
facesof the rudder 5, it will be understood that l0 ference in impact pressures of the ?uid medium
onopposite sides of the rudder and to the'power
they may not be so positioned, but may be located
supplied to the actuator ‘for controlling the supply
in any desired position in order to control the
of ?uid pressure to said actuator.
operation of the valve mechanism l2, vprovided
that they are so positioned as to be moved by the
cables 1 and 8 when the rudder is moved in order
to vary the impact pressure acting on the pres
sure responsive members in accordance with the
angle of turn and degree of movement of the
rudder from neutral position. In like manner,
the control valve mechanism l2 may be arranged 20
on the structure of the airplane 4 rather than on
‘ ‘
- i -
3. In a control mechanism for controlling the
clirectionlof movement in- a ?uid'medium of a
body having a rudder movably mounted thereon
and means for moving the rudder, additional
means for effecting power operation of saidrudi
der including a power’ actuator for moving the
rudder, and means including a member subjected
to the power supplied to the actuator and a pres
sure responsive element positioned adjacent the
the moving rudder’ if desired, and various other
surface of the rudder and subjected to the impact
arrangements of the parts may be resorted to
pressure of the ?uid medium for varying the de-,
without departing from the spirit of the inven
25 gree of power supplied to‘said actuator substan
tion.
tially in accordance with variations in‘ the degree
Thus in the invention disclosed herein there
of said impact pressure.
'
~
has been provided in connection with a man
4. In a control mechanism'for controlling the
ually controlled rudder having direct and. sub
direction of movement in a fluid medium of a
stantially non-yielding connections with the
pilot's control element, means for automatically 30 ‘body having a rudder movably mounted thereon
and means for moving the rudder, additional
supplying su?icient power to turn the rudder in
means for effecting power operation of said rude
order to assist the pilot, the degree of power
der including a power actuator for moving said
rudder, and means for controlling the supply of
' but not necessarily in direct ratio to, the angle '
of turn of the rudder, and the speed of move 35 power to said actuator including a power con
trolling element, a member subjected to the im
ment of the vehicle through a ?uid medium.
pact pressure of the ?uid medium on the surface
No lost motion between the pilot’s control ele
of the rudder for moving the element in one
ment and the rudder is required in order to op
supplied being controlled in accordance with,
direction to supply'power to the actuator, and
crate the ‘valve mechanism for the power actu
ator, and the pilot is thus provided with an
e?icient and direct control of the rudder at all
times, and is also able to evaluate through‘ a
sense of feel any sudden changes in the atmos
means including a member responsive to the
power supplied to said actuator for opposing
movement of‘ said element by the ?rst named
member with a ‘force proportional to the degree of
power supplied to said actuator.
phere or ?uid medium conditions adjacent the '
surface of the rudder.
Although the control 45
system heretofore described has been illustrated v
~
v5. In a control mechanism for controlling the
direction of movement in a ?uid medium of -a
body having a rudder movably mounted thereon
as applied to the rudder of an airplane or boat,
and means for moving-the rudder, additional
it will be understood that the same principles
may be applied to the control of anytype of con 50 means for eiTecting power operation of said rud
der including a fluid motor for moving the rud
trol surface operating in. a ?uid medium, such
der, and means for controlling the supply of ?uid
as the-ailerons or elevator of an airplane.
pressure to'said motor including a valve, an elee
Whilethe invention has been illustrated and
ment responsive to the impact pressure of the‘.
described herein with considerable particularity,
?uid medium acting on the surface of the rud
it is to be expressly understood that the same
der for operating said valve, and a member re- ,
65
is not limited to the form shown but may re- .
sponsive to the pressure of ?uid in the actuator
ceive a variety of mechanical expressions as will
for opposing operation of said valve by said ele
readily appear to thoseskilled in the art. It is
also to be understood that while ?uid pressure
6. In a control mechanism ‘for controlling’ the
operated means has‘ been shown and. described
for effecting power operation of the rudder or 60 direction of movement in a ?uid medium of a body
having a‘ rudder movably mounted thereon and
other device, the invention is not limited to this
means for moving the ruddenadditional means
'form of power application, but may be readily
for effecting power operation of said rudder in
adapted to the control of any desired power me
cluding a fluid motor’ for moving the rudder, and
dium. Reference will, therefore, be had to the
ment.
'
I
‘
appended claims for a de?nition of the limits of 65
. I valve mechanism for controlling the supply of
'
the
invention.
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'
What is claimed is:
71. In a control mechanism for controlling the
direction of movement in a?uid medium of a
body having a rudder movably mounted thereon
and means for’ moving the rudder, additional
means for effecting power operation of said rud
der including a power actuator for moving the
rudder, and means responsive jointly to the im
pact pressure of the ?uid medium on the rud
w
?uid pressure to the motor including a'valve, a
valve operating element, means responsive to the
impact pressure of the fluid‘ medium adjacent the
surface of the rudder for moving said element in
one direction, and means responsive to the pres
sure of ?uid in the motor for moving theelement
in the other direction.
~
7. In a control mechanism for controlling the
direction of movement in'a ?uid medium of a
body having a rudder movably mounted thereon
3,404,331
and‘ means for moving'the rudder, additional
eluding a pressure responsive element movable
means for effeqtine; power operation of said rud
1161! including. a fluid, motor for- moving. the red.
der, valve mechanism for controlling the supply
of ?uid pressure to the motor including a valve, Ur
a valve operating element, means responsive to
the pressure in the motor for moving the element
in one direction, and means including a ?exible
pressure responsive element forming a part of
the rudder surface for moving the element in the
opposite
directmn-
_
j
.
.
jected
duringmanualjoperation
tolthe impact pressure
of of
thethe.rudder
?uid in said
1O
tor,,and:' means‘for limiting‘ the pressure of ?uid
supplied to said motor by'the operation of said
body having a, manually operable rudder mov
and‘, movablein opposite directions from neutral
valves including means responsive to the pres
15
sures supplied to the motor- by said valves ior
opposing‘operation of the valves by‘ the pressure
responsive elements with forces. proportional to
thedegree of pressure supplied to said actuator.
20
the direction of movement in a fluid medium of
position ‘to steer the body, means for effecting
power operation of said rudder including a power
actuator for moving the rudder in either direction
from ‘neutral position, and means for controlling
the supply-Toi- power to said actuator including a
power controlling device,’ pressure responsive
opposite direction for operating said second
named valve tosupply ?uid pressureto the mo,
~
8'. In a control mechanism’ for controlling the
direction of movement in a ?uid medium of a
ably mounted thereon having a neutral position
with the rudder and subjected to the impact pres
sure of the fluid medium during manual opera
tion of; the rudder in one direction for operating
said one valve to supply ?uid pressure to the m0
tor,‘ means including a second pressure respo'ne
sive element movable with the rudderv and sub
11.' In a control mechanism for controlling
a-body having a manually Operable rudder mov- V
ably mounted thereon having a neutral position
means movable with the rudder and subjected to
and movable in opposite directions from neutral
the impact pressure of the ?uid medium during
position'to. steer the body, means for e?ecting
manual operation of the rudder in one direction
pdwer operation of said rudder including av doue
for operating said device to supply power to said ‘ ble. acting- ?uid motor for moving the rudder in
actuator to e?ect power operation of the rudder
either direction from neutral vposition, and
in said one direction, and pressure responsive
means for controlling the supply of ?uid pres
means subjected to the impact pressure of the
sure to said motor including a valve for supp-lying
?uid medium during manual operation of the
30 ?uid pressure to the motor to operate the latter
rudder in the opposite direction for operating said
and rudder in one direction and a valve for sup
device to supply power to the actuator to effect
plying ?uid pressure to the motor to operate the
power operation of the rudder in said opposite
latter and rudder in the opposite direction, means
direction.
including a pressure responsive element movable
9. In a control mechanism for controlling the ,
with the rudder and subjected to the impact pres
direction of movement in a ?uid medium of a body
sure of the ?uid medium during manual opera
having a manually operable rudder movably
tion of the rudder in one direction for operating
mounted thereon having a neutral position and
said one valve to supply ?uid pressure to the mo
movable in opposite directions from neutral po
tor, means including a second pressure responsive
sition to steer the body, means for effecting power
element movable with the rudder and sub-j ected, to
operation of said rudder including a double act
the impact pressure of the ?uid medium during
ing ?uid motor for moving the rudder in either
manual operation of the rudder in said opposite
direction from neutral position, and means for
direction for operating said second named valve
controlling the supply of ?uid pressure to said
to supply ?uid pressure to the motor, and means
motor including a valve for sup plying ?uid pres 45 for limiting the pressure of ?uid supplied to said
ure to the motor to operate the latter and rud
motor by the operation of said valves including
der in one direction and a valve for supplying
a pair of pressure responsive members each sub‘
?uid pressure to the motor to operate the latter
jected to the pressure of ?uid delivered to the
and rudder in the opposite direction, means in
motor by the operation of one of said valves, the
cluding a pressure responsive element movable 50 areas of said members being lessthan the areas
with the rudder and subjected to the impact pres
of the corresponding pressure responsive ele
sure of the ?uid medium during manual opera
ments and so proportioned with respect thereto
tion of the rudder in one direction for operating
that the pressure of ?uid supplied to said motor
said one valve to supply ?uid pressure to .the mo
is so limited that the moment tending to move
tor, and means including a pressure responsive 55, the rudder from neutral position in either direc
element movable with the rudder and subjected to
tion due to the operation of the motor is at all
the impact pressure of the fluid medium during
times less than the restoring moment on the
manual operation of the rudder in said opposite
rudder due to the impact pressure of the ?uid me
direction for operating said second named valve
dium acting thereon.
to supply ?uid pressure to the motor.
60
12. The combination with a body adapted to
10. In a control mechanism for controlling the
move through a ?uid medium having a rudder
direction of movement in a fluid medium of a
movably mounted thereon and means for moving
body having a manually operable rudder mov
the rudder to steer the body, of additional means
ably mounted thereon having a neutral position
for effecting power operation of the rudder in
and movable in opposite directions from neutral 65 cluding a, power actuator for moving the rudder,
position to steer the body, means for effecting
means including a pressure responsive element
power operation of said rudder including a double
movable by the ?rst named means and subjected
acting ?uid motor for moving the rudder in either
to the impact pressure of the ?uid medium for
direction from neutral position, and means for
controlling the supply of power to said actuator,
controlling the supply of ?uid pressure to said 70 and means responsive to the'power supplied to
motor including a valve for supplying ?uid pres
said actuator for opposing the force exerted on
sure to the motor to operate the latter and rud
said element by said impact pressure with a force
der in one direction and'a valve for supplying
proportional to the degree of power supplied to
fluid pressure to the motor to operate the latter
said actuator.
and rudder in the opposite direction, means in 75
13, The combination with a body adapted to
2’,” ‘64,5851
M
,
,
motor for opposing operation of saidvalve by
11"
movefthrough a; ?uid medium having a rudder
said element,‘whereby the pressure of ?uid sup
plied to the motor by the operation of the valve
is substantially proportional to the impact pres
movably mounted thereon and manually oper
able means for moving the rudder to steer the
bodyhof means ior effecting power operation of
the rudder including agpower actuator for mov
ing the rudder, a pressure responsive element movev
ablewith the rudder andsubjected to the impact
pressure of the ?uid‘medium, and means con
trelied jointly by said element and by the power
supplied to said actuator for supplying power to
the actuator and for varying the degree of power
supplied thereto substantially in proportion to
sure.
15. The combination with a body/ adapted to
move through a ?uid medium having a rudder
pivotally mounted thereon having a neutral posi
tion, and manually operable means for ‘moving
10 said rudder from neutral position to steer the
body, of means for effecting power operation of
the rudder with a force substantially‘proportional
to, the angle of turn of the rudder from neutral
variations in the degree of force exerted on said
élementby the action'of said impact pressure._ ‘
i114. The combination with a body adapted to
move through a ?uid medium having a rudder
movably mounted thereon and manually oper
position including a‘?uidv motor for movingv the
15
rudder, valve mechanism for controlling the sup
ply of' ?uid pressure to the motor including a
valve; a valve operating element, and a member
responsive to the pressure ofv ?uid in the motor
able means for moving the rudder to steer the
for moving the element in one direction, and
bodyLOf means for effecting power operation of
including a-pressure responsive member
the‘rudder including a ?uid motor for moving 20 means
movable with the rudder and subjected to the
the latter, a pressure responsive element movable
impact pressure of the ?uid medium for moving
with the rudder and subjected to the impact pres
the valve operating element in the opposite di
sure of the ?uid medium, means including a valve
operated by said'element for supplying ?uid pres
‘
WILFRED A. EATON.
sure to the motor, and means including a member 25
rection.z
responsive to the pressure of ?uid supplied to the
'
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