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Патент USA US2404290

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July 16, 1946.
w. s. HOOVER
2,404,290
VARIABLE DIAMETER AND VARIABLE PITCH PROPELLER
Filed March 14, 1941'
6 Sheets-Sheet 1
i
INVENTCR.
v
m s. ?‘vv-ve/e _
BY
Maw
My 16; 1946.
w s. HCQVER
2,4643%
VARIABLE DIAMETER AND VARIABLE ‘.PI‘I'CH PROPELLER
Filed March 14, 1941
~ 6 Sheets-Sheet 2
'
3Ii' /g.
h
E
:E& t
m
f
E
Fa
I
INVENTOR.
m s. W
W‘
' July 16, 1946.
w. s. HOOVER'
2,404,290
VARIABLE DIAMETER AND‘ VARIABLE PITCH PROPELLER
Filed March 14, 1941
Sheets-Sheet 3
INVENTOR._
Warm/1 s, W
BY
W
W274
_ July 16, 1946.
w; s, HOOVER
'
2,404,290
VARIABLE DIAMETER AND VARIABLE PITCH PROPELLIER J
Filed March ‘14, 1941
6 Sheets-Sheet 4
INVENTOR.
m 5. W
BY
I
6W .
m
July 16, v194(5-
I
w. s. HOOVER
2,404,290
VARIABLE DIAMETER AND VARIABLE PITCH PROPELLER
_ Filed March 14, 1941
‘
_e- Sheets-Sheet s
July 16, 1946.
w. s. HOOVER
2,404,290 _
VARIABLE DIAMETER AND VARIABLE PITCH PROPELLER
:Filed March 14, 1941
s Sheets-Sheet 6
Q.
Na ..
INVENTOR. ‘
774% 5. MW
BY
)3. ‘gwmf
2,404,290
Patented July 16, 1946
UNlTE‘D. STATES PATENT OFFICE ~
VARIABLE DIAMETER ANDVARIABLE PITCH
'.
.
‘ ‘PROPELLER
.
>
Walter S. Hoover, Montreal, Quebec,.Canada. '
Application March 174, 19411, S'erial'No; 383,389’
13 Claims. (Cl. 170-460)
9.
Fig. 10 aview in perspective of a manual. con
1
This invention relates to adjustable thrust pro
peller mechanism, and it is among the objects
thereof ‘to provide a variabledia'meter propeller
whereby to vary the thrustarea of the propeller
trol lever ;_ and
-
>
Fig. ILatdiagrammatic View of a governor
controlled. servo mechanism.
valve
With. reference to. Fig. IV of the’ drawings, the
blades,‘and it is a furtherobject» of. the inven
tion to provide, in combination with the variable
structurev therein illustrated- comprises. the front
diameter blades, means for adjusting the pitch
setting of the. blades. Still a further object of
or nose end-of the engine designated by the refer.—~
ence numeral‘ I. having av governor unit Zrespon-g
the invention is‘. the provision of pitch adjusting.’
means for variable diameter propellers. with
sive to the speed. of. the motor mounted thereon,
the crankshaft-'3. of. theeng'ine' terminating in’ a
?ange to‘ which is. connected the propeller‘ hub
unit generally designated by the reference char
acter
The» hub unit is mounted for. self
means for coordinating the pitchadjusting means
and variable diameter adjusting means.
By the use of ‘variable diameter propellers-or va
riable pitch propellers, itis‘possible to obtain con~
stant engine speed. through ?ywei'ght. governor
control because‘ in either case variations of the
propeller thrust result in variations of‘the load on
the motor;
~
If the engine speeds tendrto increase above nor
centering on. a rubber ring 5 and is 'attachedto'
the engineshaft 3' by suitable'b'olts, notshown,
The pitch setting of’ the blades is effected
through. a- master gear 6 that interacts with‘ the
teeth of the end gear 7r which» carries‘ the" blade
retainer. Theblade-rootsd are mounted inthe
mal, increase in. propeller. thrust, by increasing 20 blade retainer- 9- by engagement" of their buttress ‘
threads H], and the‘ blade retainer is- movable
the diameter or totalthrust area, or by increas
about its own axis by interlocking engagement
ing the pitch setting of the. blades, will maintain
of ball bearings‘ H which are disposed. in" angu
the engine speed. constant.
larly spaced, vertical slots H2, or which there are
Also, if. in climbing or due. to change in wind‘
velocity the load. on the engine increases tend. 25 5 around the blade retainer 9: and in: the- com
plementaryslots of theiblade- end gear sleeve la.
ing to reduce the engine speed,,a decrease of the
The ball bearings-are yieldingly mounted in slots
propeller thrust area by reducing the diameter of
iZ-bysprings [2a- Variation in diameteris per
the blades, or by decreasing the pitch setting. will
mitted by the inward and outward motion of the
maintain‘ the speed of the motor constant.
bladerretainer il-inv the blade gear‘sleeve 1w aided * ‘
The present invention, contemplates the use. of
by the-bearing surfaces of the ball bearings l I: l
either or both of these expedients for maintain
The propeller hub- 4‘. is provided with radially
ing constant engine speed. The invention will be
extending. armss l-3i‘having a piston I4‘ on the ex
come more apparent from a consideration of the
tended ends thereof, the piston being" counter
accompanying. drawings constituting a part here
“bored' at t5 to form» an oil. chamber with the
of in which like reference characters designate
transversewall l6~of the blade retainer 9, the pis
like parts andin which:
'
ton» Ill-being spaced from the'base I‘! of the blade
Fig. 1. is a view partially insection andpartially
retainer sit!) form‘ a ?uid chamber. By the rout
in side elevation of a variable diameter propeller
ing of fluid‘ under pressure into the ?uid. cham
unit with means for varying, the pitch setting
of the propeller blades;
'
410 bers above'or' below the piston MI, the'blade re
tainers 9 are subjected to radial displacement‘to
Fig. 2 a front elevational' view thereof;
vary-the'diameter-of the propeller blades.
Fig. 3 a cross-sectional view taken alongthe
-The pressure of the actuating fluid is boosted ‘
line 3-—3, Fig. 1;
Fig. 4 a sectional view taken. along, the line
EL-d, Fig. 1;
Fig. 5 a crossesectional view partially in side
elevation of the propeller unit shown inI‘ig. 1;
Fig. 6 a cross-sectional‘ view partially in side
elevation of a modi?ed‘ form of. variable pitch
propeller mechanism;
Fig. 7 a vertical crossrsectional. view of, a gov
ernor control unit;
'
Figs. 8 and 9 diagrammatic views illustrat
ing the application of- ?uid pressure to they hy
draulic actuator;
-
.
by small plunger'pumps l8 which are- actuated
14-5 by a cam !9- which will be.herein‘after‘explained
in' greater detail;
'
A: check valve 2!!! permits the oil to ?'ow into
the blade displacement system but prevents its
return, thereby maintaining the pressure. The
routing- of the‘ oil‘ from the booster pumps I8: is
controlled by a sleeve or‘ spool valve'li l', the posi
tion of which is determined by the pilot setting
the controls so that the cam that actuates the
valve ‘BI is in proper position. This will also‘beg
hereinafter described in greater detail.
2,404,290
4
Valve 2i is held against the cam :bycoil spring
22, preloaded by the nut 23, which is, designed‘
blades. Fluid from the upper piston chamber is
returned to drain through the duct 30.
The pitch setting mechanism will now be de:
with a two-way check valve 24 that serves to‘
replenish the oil system, the oil entering the
pump system by valve 25 and duct 26.
under pressure is delivered through duct 21 to
the spool valve chamber 28, from which it is
scribed.
_
'
The numeral 53 generally designates the hy
draulic actuator which consists of stationary .
vanes 54 and movable vanes 55 that are angularly
' ' routed through either the duct 29 to the chamber
' beneath the piston or the duct 30 shown in dotted.
displaceable by ?uid pressure routed through the
the outer casing 31 is‘ provided with two pins 33 g
which'it is driven by the engine. The spline B3
governor valve 2 through passages 56 and 5?,
lines leading to the ?uid chamber above the pis-i 10 Fig. v1. The movable. vanes. 55 are provided with
ton. A control rod 3| for the valve 2! is biased‘
a ring. gear 58 that actuates the master gear 6
by a'coil spring 32 against the face of a cam 3.‘!v
through a planetary gear 59. The routing of the
and is provided with a series of threads 3211 which
?uid to the hydraulic actuator will be described
engage the gear teeth 33 on the lug, rod 34. The *
1
in connection with Figs/7 to 9 of the drawings.
‘ 7 lug 35 of rod 34 engages the sleeve valve 2| by
As shown in Figs. 1 and '7, the governor housing
the slot 36.' The cam arrangement is shown in‘
2 is mounted on the nose of the engine and is
cross-section in Fig. 3 of the drawings in which‘
provided with a’ spline connection 60 through
which are slidable in the slots of a stationary ring 1
is mounted on or integrally formed with a sleeve
4| and engage the slots of the cams l9 and 39.‘ 20 shaft 6! on which is mounted a hub cap 62 car
The entire assembly is held in place bya ring
rying ?yweights 63.
41 which is a part of the nose of the engine, the
The ?yweights are provided
with lever arms 64 that engage the end of a sleeve
valve 65 which is preloaded by a coil spring 66
motor shaft 3'being shown in cross-section. V The
outside casing 42 (Fig. 3), which actuates cams‘
to maintain a neutral position for normal oper
l9 and 39 is controlled by solenoids 43 and 44 25 ating speed of the engine.
i
'
whichinayrbe energized bya remote control such ;
The load of spring 66 may be adjusted ‘by a
as a switch (not shown) in the pilot’s cabin.’
selector mechanism 61 which engages the rack
The movable armatures45 and 45 of the solenoids
teeth of a sleeve 68 for compressing or extending
engage the arm41'of the cam housing 42.
the coil spring 66 as shown in Fig, 7.
. Sinceeach of the blades is provided with a pis
Included with the governor housing 2 is a pump
ton l4, their movements must be coordinated.
housing 69 containing pump gears ‘10 and ‘H
Bearings 48 and 49, Fig.' l, and their casing 59
which deliver ?uid from port 12 to a’ high pressure
allow the blades to move about their own axes.
port 13. A check valve 'M'maintains predeter
Each blade is equipped with a connecting rod 5|
mined pressure of the ?uid which is caused to re
attached to a coordinating ring 52. Consequent- i
circulate if the valve is lifted by the ?uid pres~
ly,.any motion of_ one blade is duplicated in all .
sure. Valve passages 75 and 16 are connected to
of the blades to maintain concentricity of the
the hydraulic actuator, as shown diagrammati
propeller about the aXis of'rotation.
cally in Figs. 8 and 9, and the pressure ?uid from
The operation of the mechanism 'for adjusting
passage 13 is routed to the actuator in accord
the diameter of the ‘blades will now be described. 40 ance with the movement of the governor valve 655
Starting with the minimum diameter of blade,
to either advance or retard the pitch setting.
as'shown'in Fig. 1, when the pilot reaches an
Return ?uid ?ows from passage 1‘! to theene
altitude where an increased blade diameter is
bene?cial, or in other words, where it is desired
i :to‘ increase the area of the thrust of the pro
peller, he adjusts his control in the cabin to en
gine sump or to the storage space. The numeral
69a designates an engine driven pump for circu~
.45 lating lubricating ?uid through the engine, the
pumpbeing connected on one side of the hy-,
draulicactuator 53 to maintain a constant low
toward the left, as indicated by the arrow in Fig.
pressure ?uid on one side of the movable vanes'
3. This causes cam 39 to displace the control
55 which is overcome by the pressure ?uid of
‘ rod 3|, which through its engagement with the 50
booster
pump 69 to effect high ‘pitch setting. A
‘ lug rod 34 causes'lug 35 to displace valve. 2!.
hydraulic
motor driven pump 6% is connected
Cam l9, which is a bevel cam; is subject to axial
to the governor valve passage 73 as shown and
movement by engagement of its inclined slot 38a
is electrically driven for feathering and un
'; with pinsv 38 to contact the pump plunger l8.
ergize solenoid 44 which moves arm 41 of the cam .
‘ Oil at high pressure is forced through the valve .55 feathering the blade if the engine driven pump 69
and 69a fail as when the engine stops. The elec
20 and through 'duct 21 into the. annular duct 28.
trically driven pump 69b is connected in an elec
' 3 From this duct it is'distributed through duct 30 ‘
‘ to the upper piston chamber, and the ?uid pres- '
sure exerted forces the blade retainer l0 radially
trical power circuit having terminal contacts '19
and 80, Fig. 10, cooperating with control lever 78.
The governor valve 65 can be operated inde
60 pendently of the action of the ?yweights 63
through the selector mechanism 61 which is ace
Oil in the ?uid chamber below the piston drains
tuated by a control lever 18, Fig. 10, operating
1 out through duct 29 and annular chamber 29a
‘ outward carrying the blades with it, thereby in
‘ creasing the diameter of the blades.
between the stops 19, 19a, 80, 80a, the control
‘ to the reservoir through drain 29b.
range of lever 18 through the range designated B
When decreased blade diameter is desired, 65 being
the normal control range for’ constant
solenoid 44 is energized to move arm 41 to the
‘ right in the direction of the arrow.
The pump
} cam I9 is thereby moved through neutral and
i into contact with the pumps l8. Valve 39 is
1 forced forward causing valve 2| to move in the 70
reverse ~ direction.
High ‘pressure
oil
enters
speed, range A the feathering control range, and
range C the unfeathering range.
In thisrnanner the hydraulic actuator can be
operated independently of the engine speed.
In Fig. 5, the design of the variable diameter
mechanism and the pitch setting mechanism are
modi?ed to be coordinated by the governor valve
mechanism 2 with electric contacts such as the
is the pistons, thereby forcing theyblade retainer l0
contacts I23 and I24, Fig. 11 that energize the
; radially inward to decrease the diameter of the. 76 solenoids 43 and 44, to effect the proper setting
‘_ through ducts 21 and the annular duct 28 and
then through duct 29 to the ?uid chamber below
2540432901
5;
a
-
of the cam mechanism. In Fig; the 2 end gears
Toff‘ the blade ferrules coact with a: master-‘gear;
BIIithat' islocked 'to-the: actuator housi'n'gt? which
revolves'withvthe'irotor 832-. The housing 82'is‘p‘ro4
vided With- an end: bearingl‘ 8min! the .hub1 ‘housing. 5
and the ball‘racesi?lv The coordinating; ring 853i
is connected to the-actuator-‘housing{521byrbolts
86a; and4‘has-* arms _ 85!} which» engage the rings 88
frictionisplihévconsisting: of- balls I 01‘ in slotsd 02’;
which are angularly disposedaround thebladej‘
root-953? The ‘stack bearings Hi0 are retained by
nuts “Wand £104? in their‘ proper position on- the
spider '96}. 'The'b1ade- pitch is adjusted" through
the gear sleeve lill?'fh'aving endI gears 1063' that
interact with theteeth» of‘ the master gear I01
of "the; torque unit I081," WYilCli-ll'l turn is: operated
byftlie! lubricating fluid? of the‘iengine as: it- is
tion. of ‘ housing» 82‘- to; coordinate radial"move-~ 10 routed through: the governor valve 2 to ducts 56
and 57.
r‘
v
ment’ of; the blades» in accordance with- theinove~
J The‘ sleevejge'ar S3'Kis1rotatediby- aL gear I09‘
ment of-‘the=hydraul'ic actuator 83.
.
thati'is-rpowered' through ai'holl‘ow sleeve l-I'D‘by
The pressure fluid is self ‘- containedv in the space
aLt‘orquaunit" M I1 which is actuated- by- the ap
of thehub unit and‘is supplied through the valve
plication .‘of- pressure ?uidi through" glands ll‘ld
15
passage-24 to‘ the valve‘ 21 from which it is dea
ofijthe5bladeretainers~alto-be actuated by rota~
livered'through the valve passage'25 to the booster
pump- I8‘; Thehigh pressurei?'uid is then deliv
and‘tiliti 6 controlled‘ by; a» manually-operated; valve
(not show-n01.
‘
r
'
The threads H2 of the bladeretainer and of
the sleeve‘ gear esi'are ground to receive ball
ered through passage 21-‘ to‘ the; high pressure
port 28 of the valve/2i’ from1 which his routed
through: glands t?'and
to the fluid'chambers 20' bearings ll3'iandi‘the'helix angle ofv the'bearing
above crbelo'w the piston M“ as directed by the
position of valve 2! by cam 39; Fig. 3; When‘ the
high’ pressure ?uid is connected to the gland 313
for displacing the blade’ retainer 9‘ radially out
ward’ to increase the diameter of the-propeller,
it is simultaneously connected to then gland 5%
of the pitch’ setting actuator to effect pitch- ad'
justment of’ the'blade, and? when the valve 2-1 is
threads H 27 is such that; the centrifugal force“ of
theblades tendsto ‘turn’ the’ blades’ to high pitch,
thereby balancing~out the centrifugal twisting
moment, tending towards low-pitch.- This reduces
theforce required to’ change the blade-angle:
It will? be noted that by operation‘ of the pitch
setting‘ actuator 1%; the blade sdis rotated for
pitch setting as. determined'aby the hydraulic
moved to deliver the high- pressure-fluid through
gland ‘29' to displace vtheiiblade- retainer S‘radi'all'y
governor velvet‘, and by operation of the?uid
pressure unit Ml}, gear It?! and’ gear sleeve 98
inwardly,‘ glands 30 and-53 are-connected‘t'o-drain
are-rotated; which causes the blade 55‘ to move
and the hydraulic- pitch ‘ adjusting mechanism is
displaced to‘its normal position by the centrifugal
thrust on the blade.
‘In this manner both the
propeller‘ diameter and" pitch adjustment are co
ordinated‘ through the governor control valve ‘2,
hereinafter'described in connection with Fig; 3.1
of the drawings.
The- design of Fig. 5 would‘ be operative to
radially inwardor out, as'the case maybe;
‘ In’ Fig. 11, the governor‘valve' B5- is shown co
ordinated' with the‘ solenoid-actuated cam mech
anism of Fig. 3~through"a'servomotor H5. The
servomotor consists of‘ a. cylinder connected by
conduit Ht‘to the fluid pressure system of the
governor valve?i‘: for the delivery of. ?uid under
pressure to actuate piston i II in response to vari
simultaneously adjust the diameter and‘pitch- of
the propeller through‘ the coordinating mech
anism Bl andv 8-8» connected- to the‘ bracket 8%
which is; rotatable With the hydraulic‘ actuator
ations-‘in speed aseifectingj the‘ operation‘ of the
irrespective of the manner of application of the
meral l*l'9:.
pressure ?uid.
Thus, for‘ example; if“ the‘ fluid -
?ywei'ght' 63 on‘ the‘ valve 65'.
Piston I‘l'l'actu
atesc an ‘electrical contact H8‘ connected to‘ a
source'of electrical energy, designated by the, nu
'
The solenoidsv 43‘ and 4'4 of‘Fig. 3‘ are. shown
electrically connected in the‘ circuit l2!) andby
wereapplied only to'the fluid" chambers of' the
conductors l2! and‘ I22 to electrical‘contactsi‘lm
piston l4 radial movement of‘ the blade retainer
and IE4. If the piston- H‘! which is maintained
9 would: effect rotation’ of the pitch adjusting
in a‘ neutral. position by coil‘ spring. I25 effects
mechanism independently of any“ application of
pressure‘ fluid to the latter, and‘ similarlyg'ir the 50 contact ofthe terminal H3‘ with. terminal I23";
the solenoid 455' will be energized; and if terminal
pressure fluid were‘ applied only to the'rpitch- ad
H8 contacts solenoid I24‘, solenoidv 44 will be
justing actuator-to rotate its housing 8-2L thedi:
energized to control thecam mechanisms in re
ameter of‘ the propellenwould simultaneously-be
sponse to the engine speed. To prevent abrupt
adjusted through the coordinatinglinkage 8?: in
dependently'of any'pressure' ?uid application" to 55 adjustments by contact of. the movable terminal
I i'8“with the terminals I23 and 124;.the latter
the ?uid chambers above‘ or below~ the‘ piston‘ it‘.
are mounted on a reciprocating’ rod I26 having
However, by the application: of t-h-epres'siue ?uid
a. roller I21 riding on cam I28. The cam is actu
to both‘ the diameter an'dpitchv adjusting actua
ated by gear wheels 5'29‘ and [30,‘ the latter being
tors a more e?icient and balanced adjustment of
these'parts is obtained.
,
‘
Still‘ another modi?cation of ' the- design in
which the variable diameter and'pitch setting
60 mounted on the end. of ashaft I31 that is geared
through a gear wheel] i32..to a rack I33 attached
to thegovernorvalve.
’
g
mechanisms are‘ coordinated is shown in-‘Fi'g; 6.
If thegovernor valve
is subjected.v to» fluctu
The hydraulic propeller unit comprises a hub »
ations by movement of the governor weights. 63'
?t‘rthat is mounted on an engine‘shaft' 91' which 65 becauseof variationsof- the engine-speed, the'rod
has a two-way oil gland designated by>numerals
92 and 93. The hub 90. is of the split design. The
blade root is designated‘byr'the- numeral 95; The
spider eeis splined on shaft ii‘l‘to“ rotate there'
126:. will be similarly; subjected: to ?uctuating
movements: with: the result that contacts: 1 23 and
524; will be subject to slight‘ reciprocato-rymove
mentlwithout‘necessarily engaging contact I I8; ,
with‘ as shown at-Sl; The‘ outward and‘inward 70
It. requires but avery littleim'ovement" of? the
radial movement of the blade 95*is accomplished
'valveto'open the‘por't to the ?uid'pressure line
by’ rotation of‘ the" gear sleeve ?tfwhich has' an
end gear 59; the’ sleeve‘ gear 93* being‘ mounted
H6 of the servomotor so that ?uctuating move"
ments' of the’ contacts i213 and‘ 124 are ‘not
95I on“ its own axisJ is- prevented by > an\ anti‘ 75 enough to‘ prevent contact‘ of’ the‘ terminal-' I I8
on a stack bearing I90.
Rotation: of ‘the:v blade
‘2,404,290, '
7 r
V
V'when' the servo piston is‘ subjected to the ?uid‘
‘pressure of the system.
.
.
pressure means for varying the pitch of the pro; '
_
respective ?uid pressure means.
-
hub structure, a plurality of , propeller blades
10 mounted for radial and angular movement in said’ '
a
It is evident from the foregoing description of
the invention that the propeller thrust may be
varied by either increasing the diameter of the
blades or by adjusting the pitch setting or both. 15
, ‘The advantages of this type of propeller appear
toadapt it especially’ to motors of from 4,000 to’
~
W111 probably wish to
'
_
independently control the diameter of the blades
entirely separate from the constant speed con
trol vby contractingvthem to minimum diameter
to deliver maximum horsepower. The blades
maybe set at their maximum diameter with a
~
4. In a. variable thrust propeller‘mechanism, a v V
to have both functioning simultaneously in re
6,000 horsepower.
‘ In the take-off the pilot
_
peller blades, and means responsive to thepro
peller speed for simultaneously energizing/the }
The mechanism shown in Fig. 11 coordinates
the diameter increasing movement ofthe blades
with the pitch adjusting actuator if it is desired
sponse ‘to speed variations of the engine.
8
ing the diameter of the propeller blades, ?uid
av check valve I36, permitting recirculation of the
~
l
said hub structure, ?uid pressure means for vary
' The numeral I35 diagrammatically illustrates
the source of pressure ?uid such as a pump with
?uid atpredetermined pressures.
V
mounted for ‘radial and angular movement in
20
hub structure, hydraulic actuating means ‘for
varying the pitch of the propeller‘blades, ?uid
pressure means for varying the diameter of the
propeller blades, cam mechanism controlling the
application of the respective ?uid pressure means,
a governor valve controlling the application of
fluid to said hydraulic actuator, and means re
sponsive to movement of the, governor valve for
controlling said cam mechanism.
r
5. In a variable diameter propeller unit, a hub
having a plurality of radial arms with pistonsat
the ends thereof, blade retainer sleeves'mounted
for axial movement in said hub having cylinders
for receiving the pistons of the hub, ?uid pressure
relatively’ ?at pitch, and after levelling off they 25 means including ?ow glands extendingthrough
may be contracted for cruising only, on' the con
said radial arms and pistons for actuating said
stant speed pitch-setting unit, and perhaps after - cylinders, valve means controlling the applica
climbing to 30,000 feet it would again be desirable
tion of said ?uid pressure means above and below
7
to use the maximum diameter blade, together
7 with the constant speed pitch control, not ad
variced to its position for a maximum pitch angle.
In taking off to. get the maximum horsepower,
it would bedesirable to take off load by drawing
in- the diameter of the blades, and on the take
said piston to selectively displace the blade re- 30
tainersleeves relative to said pistons, and con-.v
necting rods secured'to the blade retainer sleeve ‘
and to a coordinating ring whereby the move
ment of the blade retainer sleeves is coordinated.
6. A variable diameter propeller unit compris
,off and climb the'constant speed pitch-setting 35 ing a hub having radial arms with piston heads
mechanism would permit the blades to deliver
and having integrally formed sleeve portions co
maximum horsepower. When at sea level at at- ; extensive with said arms, blade retainer sleeves ‘
mospheric pressure, the pitch of the propeller
disposed between said hub retaining sleeves and
operating at constant speed would be rather ?at
piston elements’having cylinders coacting with
withv a minimum diameter blade, and as the 40 the pistons of the hub, ?uid pressure means in
higher levels of 10,000 to 20,000 feet are reached,
the constant speed pitch would be nearing its,
maximum’ increased pitch‘ setting. .The’ pilot
would then make use of a greater diameter blade.
As the diameter is increased, the pitch control
would ?atten out again so that the useful range
of pitch adjustment for constant speed would
again be available.
,
It is evidentfrom the foregoing description of
the invention that various modi?cations may be
made in the details of construction without de
parting from the principles herein set forth.
I claim:
1. In a propeller mechanism, a hub structure,
a plurality of propeller blades mounted for radial
and angular movement in said hub, an actuator
for moving the blades radially of the hub to vary
the propeller diameter, an actuator for subject
ing the blades to angular movement about their
longitudinal axis independently of said blade
moving’means, and'control means for coordinat
ing said actuators to be simultaneously operable.
2.’ In a variable thrust propeller mechanism, a
cluding flow glands extending through said ra—
dial arms and pistons for actuating said cylin
ders, valve means directing the application of
said ?uidpressure means above or below the
piston elements to correspondingly displace the
blade retainer sleeves, cam mechanism ‘control
ling the movement of said valve and control
means for actuating said cam mechanism.
'7. A variable diameter propeller hub unit com
prising a hub having radial arms terminating in
piston heads and having integrally formed sleeves
coextensive with said arms and piston heads,
blade retainer sleeves disposed between saidhub
sleeve and pistons and having cylinders coacting
with said hub pistons, ?uid ?ow passages for
directing fluid under pressure above‘ and below
said pistons, plunger pumps for delivering ?uid
under pressure, a valve controlling the direction
of flow of the ?uid above and below the pistons,
cam mechanism for actuating said plunger
pumps and valve, and control means for setting
‘the cams in the path of movement of the pump _
plungers and valve actuating members, connect
hub structure, a plurality of propeller blades
ing rods for said blade retainer sleeves and a co
mounted for radial and. angular movement in ts ordinating ring joined to said connecting rods
said'hub structure, an actuator for varying the
whereby the movement of all of the blades is co
diameter of the propeller blades, a second actu
ordinated.
‘
ator operable independently of said ?rst-named
8. In’ combination, a variable diameter and var- '
actuator for varying the pitch of said blades, con
iable pitch propeller mechanism comprising a hub
trol means to selectively energize said actuators
structure having radial sleeves and radial arms
including means for coordinating the movements
with pistons disposed in said sleeves, blade re
of said actuators in their thrust adjusting func-,
tainer sleeves having cylinders coacting with said
tion.
pistons, ferrules engaging said blade retainer
3. In a variable thrust propeller mechanism,
sleeves having end gears, an/actuator including» a
a hub ‘structure, a plurality of propeller blades‘ ., master gear coacting with the end gears to sub
2,404,290
9
10
the outer periphery thereof, blade retainer sleeves ’
ject the blade retainer sleeves to angular move
ment, ?uid pressure means including ?ow glands
extending through said radial arms and pistons,
having axially extending internal grooves disposed
around said gear sleeve whereby upon rotation
of the gear sleeve the blade retainer sleeves are
subjected to axial movement, an external gear
a valve for directing ?uid above and below the
pistons to subject the blade retainer sleeves to
movement radially oi the hub, and control means
for setting said valve to selectively increase or
decrease the diameter of the blades.
9. In combination, a variable pitch and var
sleeve having an'gularly spaced slots’ in a1ign~
ment with complementary slots of the blade re~
tainer sleeve and, having ball races disposed in‘
said slots to permit relative axial movement of
iable diameter propeller mechanism con1pris~ 10 said blade retainer sleeve and gear sleeve, a hy~
draulic actuator having a master gear for en
ing a hub structure, piston elements mount~
gaging the teeth of said external gear sleeve and '
ed on said hub structure, blade retainer .
a hydraulic actuator having a master gear for
sleeves having cylinders coacting with said pis
engaging the teeth of said internal gear sleeve,
tons, blade ferrules having end gears disposed
and means for energizing said actuators where
around said blade retainer sleeves having angu
by the blade retainer sleeves are subjected to an
larly spaced slots in alignment with complemerh
I gular movement to vary their pitch setting and to
tary slots of said blade retainer sleeve, ball bear~
movement radially of the hub to vary the blade
ings disposed in said slots to permit relativeiy
axial movement of said blade retainer sleeves
112. In a variable thrust propeller mechanism,
and ferrules, a master gear coacting with the
a hub structure, propeller blades mounted there
end gears of said ferrules;'a hydraulic actuator
diameter.
including an hydraulic actuator, ?uid pressure
means for changing the diameter of. said blades,
pump mechanism for delivering ?uid under pres
ergizing said hydraulic actuator in response to
a variation. in the engine speed to vary the pitch
setting of the propeller blades, and fluid pressure
sure to said diameter changing means, valve
means controlling the flow of ?uid pressure from
said, pump mechanism, cam mechanism for ac
means including a valve and cam control mech-
anism for directing ?uid under pressure above or
below the hub pistons to subject the blade re
hub.
,
tuating said pump and valve, and governor con
30 trol means operative in response to the speed
10. In combination, a variable diameter and
variable pitch propeller mechanism comprising
a hub having a plurality of blade retainer sleeves
mounted for radial movement therein, blade fer~
rules
enveloping
said
blade
retainer
'
infpitch adjusting mechanism for said blades
for said master gear, a governor control for en
tainer sleeves to radial movement relative to the
‘
sleeves ‘
mounted to be rotatable therewith and hired
against radial movement, said ferrules having
of the propeller for controlling said cam mech
anism to regulate the pitch adjusting mechanism
and for routing pressure ?uid to said hydraulic
actuator.
13. In a variable thrust propeller mechanism,
a hub structure having blades mounted therein,
' a hydraulic actuator for varying the thrust of
said blades, pump mechanism and valve means
for delivering fluid pressure to said actuator, said
pump and valve mechanism being mounted in
the hub, cam mechanism for actuating said pump
in response to rotary movement of the hub, means
for regulating said cam mechanism ‘to regulate
multaneously actuating the blade ferrules to sub
ject the blade retainer sleeves to angular movee 45 the pump and valve mechanism comprising sole
noids for actuating said cam, an electrical power
ment whereby to simultaneously adjust the blade
circuit for energizing said solenoids including a
diameter and pitch setting of the blades.
movable contact, a servo motor for operating said
11. In combination, a variable diameter and
contact and a governor control mechanism for '
variable pitch propeller mechanism comprising a
hub structure including a spider, the arms of, 50 energizing said servo motor.
WALTER S. HOOVER.
which are provided with stack bearings for jour
nalling a gear sleeve having helical grooves on
end gears, a master gear engaging said end gears,
an actuator for said master gear, coordinating
mechanism connecting said actuator and blade ‘
retainer sleeves, means for subjecting the blade
retainer sleeves to radial movement and for si
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