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Патент USA US2404298

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Patented July 16, 1946
_l
2,404,298
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,404,298
SAPONACEOUS DETERGENT HAVING IM
PROVED HARD-WATER CHARACTER
ISTICS
Harry H. Kroll, Chicago, 111., and Mark Weis
berg, Providence, R. I., assignors to Alrose
Chemical Company, Cranston, R. I., a corpora
tion of Rhode Island
Application August 10, 1945, Serial No. 610,022
18 Claims. (Cl. 252-117)
2
1
This invention relates to a saponaceous deter
gent in solid form and the method of combining
the constituents therefor, which detergent is ca
pable of softening hard water. This invention
also relates to products moulded in the shape of
conventional bar soap, but which unlike such
soaps can be satisfactorily used in hard'waters
or sea water without signi?cant reduction in de
tergent action, sudsing, and without the forma
tion of undesirable scums and precipitates.
It has previously been proposed to incorporate
water or sea water, and possess superior deter
gent, foaming and rinsing properties in hard
water.
A still further object is to produce soaps which
are homogeneous in structure, dissolve easily and
smoothly, and neither soften unduly, nor crack,
nor fall apart in use.
An additional object is to provide aqueous solu
tions of saponaceous products possessing superior
10 detergent, foaming and rinsing properties in hard
water or sea water.
Other objects and advantages of the invention
such‘ inorganic materials as the ortho-, pyrophos
will be apparent by reference to the following
phates, poly- and hexametaphosphates with the
speci?cation wherein the details and preferred
alkali metal soaps to prevent calcium and mag
nesium ions in hard water from reacting with the 15 embodiments of the invention are described.
According to this invention a carboxylic amide
alkali metal soaps precipitating insoluble soaps.
of the alkylol amines, and a water-soluble organic
But because of the large amount of said phos
nitrogenous base are mixed and heated with a
phates necessary to soften the water such‘ com
water-soluble soap, which soap forms the major
posite hard water soaps are grainy in appearance
20 component of these three, or is equal in amount
and have an undesirable gritty feel.
to the amide, and preferably the former. Thev
It has been proposed to overcome the well
heating should be in the range of 100° C‘. to 190°
known shortcomings of common soap in hard
C. for a time period of about 60 minutes to 10
water and sea water by mixing with it certain
minutes, but preferably in the range of 125°
synthetic detergents or dispersing agents. Lab
oratory tests and actual usage have shown that 25 C.-160° C. for a period of 45-15 minutes. It will
be understood that with the lower temperatures
most of these additions are not entirely satifac
the time is correspondingly longer; hence at 125°
tory. In some cases the color and general ap
C. the time interval will be substantially 45 min
pearance of the composite bar soaps are particu
utes, whereas at 160° C. it will be substantially
larly unattractive. In other cases, the cleansing
properties are not sufficiently superior to those of
common alkali soap to justify the added cost.
15 minutes. Mixing does not have to precede
the heating but may be simultaneous therewith.
It will be understood that mixtures of the amides
or mixtures of water-soluble nitrogenous bases
Very often, in fact. the sudsing properties are seri
ously impaired. Moreover, the synthetic deter
or mixtures of water-soluble soaps can be em
gents may be crystalline and/or contain inor
ganic salts; when incorporated into common bar 35 ployed instead of a single representative of the
three essential components. It will be further
soap, these detergents produce a grainy soap of
understood that this process may be performed
non-uniform structure. Some such combinations
stepwise by heating at 125-190° C. for 45 to 15
are occasionally difficult to dissolve except in hot
minutes a mixture of the carboxylic acid alkylol
water. Other combinations tend to become slimy
Products containing ?lling 40 amide containing some free water soluble organic
nitrogenous base and a small amount of a soap
objectionable surface scums. Over a period of
in which the cation may be an alkali metal, am
time in use these composite bar soaps tend to
monia, or a substituted ammonia compound, and
then incorporating this mix by cold crutching,
crack and disintegrate because of the uneven
rate of solution ofthe ingredients.
45 without further heating, into a large amount of
It is an object of our invention to produce bar
water-soluble soap, so that the latter component
soaps consisting primarily of ordinary soaps, but
becomes the major component or equal in amount
to the amide, preferably the former.
containing other constituents, combined in such
proportions and processed in such a manner that
The products so prepared exhibit remarkable
the resulting product has none of the disadvan 50 detergent, wetting out, and emulsifying proper~
tages hereinbefore described.
ties. It has been found that mixing any two of
Another object of this invention is to make
the three constituents and omitting the third,
then treating the mixture according to the pro
soaps which have the smooth, uniform appear
ance, feel and general attractiveness of common
cedures described in detail below, produces infe
soap but unlike it form no precipitates in hard 55 rior products as compared with that product
after short use.
agents which do not disperse like starch, produce
2,404,298
3
4
which contains the three essential constituents
heat treated together, namely: the carboxylic
acid alkylol amide, the water soluble nitrogenous
organic base, and the soap.
It has also been found that the thorough ad
mixture of these three essential ingredients with
out heating to form a homogeneous mixture, re
seed oil, sesame oil, palm oil, olive oil, corn oil,
cottonseed oil, tallow, lard, soybean oil, peanut
oil, castor oil, teaseed oil, or marine oils such as
seal oils, whale oil, shark oil, ?sh oils, or par
tially or completely hydrogenated animal and
hard‘ water, precipitating insoluble calcium and
vegetable oils such as those mentioned; hydroxy
acids such as dihydroxy stearic acid, alpha hy
droxy stearic acid, and the like; fatty and similar
acids derived from various waxes such as beeswax,
is obtained by the alternate stepwise procedure
consisting of heating the carboxylicv acid amide
aralkyl and aromatic acids, Twitchell fatty acids,
naphthoic acid, and the like.
sults‘in a product which is unsuitable for use in
magnesium soaps, and having no detergency. 10 spermaceti, and montan wax. As suggested, one
may also employ higher molecular weight car
If this same mixture is heated for 30 to 45 min
boxylic acids derived by oxidation and other
utes at 125° C., a product is obtained which dis
methods from para?in wax, petroleum, and sim
perses readily and shows excellent detergent
ilar hydrocarbons; resin acids such as hydro
properties in 0.25% solution in water containing
200 P. P. M. calcium chloride. A similar product 15 genated naphthoic, naphthenic, and abietic acid,
Among the water soluble organic bases are the
with the water soluble nitrogenous base and a
mono, di, tri-alkylolamines, wherein the alkylol
small amount of soap for 30 to 45 minutes at 125°
C., then cold mixing with a larger amount of 20 group is methylol, ethylol, or the like, or the al
kyl alkylolamines wherein the alkylol group has
soap,‘ so that the soap is now the major com-‘
the same signi?cance, and the alkyl group is
ponent. It should be noted that no change in the
methyl, ethyl, or the like, or can be substituted
composition of the heat treated products as com
alkyl groups as in mono-, di-, tri-glycerol amines,
pared with the cold mixture could be detected
by such chemical and physico-chemical measure 25 hydroxyalkyl alkylene polyamines where the al
kyl group has this same signi?cance, and the al
ments, such as total acid, index of refraction, hy
kylene group is methylene, ethylene, or the like.
drogen ion concentration; but the surface active
Speci?c compounds of this type which have been
properties of the heat treated compositions are
found useful are the mono-, di-, tri-ethanola
considerably enhanced. This result is unexpected
mines, 2.amino 2.methyl 1:3 propanediol, morph
from‘ previous knowledge in the art, in that no
oline, Nethyl diethanolamine,‘ N.methyldietha
chemical change is involved and that the new
nolamine, and 2-ethano1 pyridine.
detergent-active product is the result of a physi
The water soluble soaps are not restricted as
cal transformation. As indicated in the Harry
to cation, to sodium and potassium, but embrace
H. Kroll application Serial No. 489,674, ?led June
also ammonium, substituted ammonium and
4, 1943, these results can be best explained by the
other basic nitrogenous derivatives. The soaps
modern theories of viscous liquids.
of the last three cation types may, strictly speak
The amines from which the carboxylic acid
ing, be designated addition compounds, since no
amides are derived are the alkylol amines. There
water is formed in the formation thereof. It is
is a ‘wide choice of such amines: among these
are mono-, and diethanolamine, mono- and di 40 preferred to have two types of soaps because
propanolamine, mono- and di-glycerol amines,
the conventional alkali metal soap possesses poor
mono and di-isopropanol amines, amino ethyl
foaming qualities. By addition of soaps made
ethanol amine, di-hydroxyethyl ethylene diamine, '
from triethanol amine and the fatty acids of be
2.amino 2.methyl 1:3 propanediol, 2.hydroxy 1:3
tween twelve and fourteen carbon atoms such
diaminopropane. Any suitable combination of
as lauric acid, the coconut fatty acids, or the palm
one or more of these amines may also be used. 45 kernel fatty acids, a saponaceous detergent pos
The preferred amides are those whose acyl radi
sessing excellent foaming properties in hard wa
cals contain 12 to 14 carbon atoms such as N,
ter is obtained.
N.di-hydroxyethyl lauramide and N.hydroxy
The addition to these products of dispersing
ethyl coconut fatty acid amides.
agents such as glycol laurate or glyceryl stearate
50
However, the carboxylic acid nucleus of the
does not essentially change the qualities of the
amide, and of the soap as well, should contain
soap although they may improve the dispersing
at least 8 but not over 30 carbon atoms. These
properties and the physical appearance of the
will be designated "higher molecular weight car
soap. They are not capable of producing good
boxy, acids,” and when derived from fats and
hard water soaps without the presence of the car
oils, “higher fatty acids.” They are the deter
boxylic acid amide and the organic nitrogenous
gent forming acids, i. e. those acids which com
base.
bine ‘with alkalis to produce soap or soap like
The condensation product of the alkylolamine
bodies. The detergent forming acids include nat
and higher molecular Weight carboxylic acids,
urally occurring fatty acids, resin acids such as
as the naturally occurring fatty acids, pref
abietic acid, naturally occurring petroleum acids 60 such
erably
has a ratio of 1 mol alkylol amine to 1 mol
such:as the naphthenic acids and carboxy acids
of
fatty
acids. The nitrogenous base may vary
produced by the oxidation of petroleum. As will
from 0.1 to ‘L0 mols and yet give a satisfactory
be subsequently indicated, there are other acids
hard water bar soap.
which have'somewhat similar characteristics and
Satisfactory hard water saponaceous products
are derived from somewhat different sources and 65
have been made from components with the fol
are different in structure, but can be included in
the broad generic term previously indicated.
Among sources of such acids may be mentioned
lowing range of percent concentration in the
composition:
straight chain and branched chain, saturated and
unsaturated, aliphatic, alicyclic, hydroaromatic, 70
Minimum Maximum
and aralkyl carboxylic' acids, including caprylic,
stearic, palmitic, myristic, oleic, ricinoleic, lino
leic lauric, undecylenic acids; mixed higher fatty
acids derived from animal or vegetable sources:
for example, coconut oil, palm kernel oil, rape 75
Sodium soap _____________ - _
40
80
Fatty acid alkylol amide _ _ __
Water soluble alkylolamine
__
Triethanolamine soap _______________ --
20
5
1
40
20
20
2,404,298
'6
5
(c) and (d) are heated at 150° C. for 20
Suitable ?llers, assistants, or addition agents
such as starch, dextrin, abrasive agents, alkali,
metaphosphates, glycols, glycerine, fatty acid es
ters of glycols orglycerine or other alcohols, fat
minutes. This is blended in with (b) and (a)
as in Example 2, then compressed in a mold to
form a smooth surfaced soap. It has very good
washing and emulsifying properties in hard wa
ter.
ty alcohols, fatty‘amides, etc., may be incorpo
rated into the soap to improve its physical char
acteristics for special uses, or modify its physical
Example 5
appearance or feel.
The following examples will further illustrate
this'invention, but the invention is notrestricted 10
Components
to these examples:
’ (a) Sodium soap (commercial) _________________________ __
80
(b) Triethanolamine laurate soap ...................... ..
8
Example 1
‘Components \
_Percent
(a) Sodium soap (commercial) ____ ___ ____ .7 _____________ __
55
(b; N,N—dihydroxyethyl coconut acid amide ........... __
30%
(c
Dietlianolamine __________ _.-‘_____'____ _. _____________ __
Percent
(c) N-N,-di(hydroxyethyl) coconut fatty acid amide ____ _.
7%
(d) Dietha'nolamine coconut fatty acid soap ____________ ..
(e) Diethanolamine ____________________________________ __
1
3%
(c), (d) and (e) are heated at 125° C. for 45
minutes. This is blended in with (b) and (a)
as in’ Example 2, then compressed in a mold to
form a smooth surfaced soap. It has excellent
14%
The three components areheated together at 20 detergent and emulsifying properties in hard wa
125° C. For 45 minutes. On cooling, the prod
ter.
Example 6
uct is compressed in a mold to form a white
smooth surfaced soap. It has remarkably good
detergent and ‘emulsifying properties in hard
Components
Per cent
water. It was found that a 0.2% solution of
this composition in water of 250 P. P.‘ M. cal
(a) Sodium soap (commercial) _________________________ __
cium chloride hardness would remove 95% of
neously.
The drawing represents as a graph the con
centration of the composition required to remove
80
(b) Triethanolamine laurate soap _______ ._
7%
(d) Monoethanol ammonium laurate ____________ __
_
(e) Monoethanolamine.__..';_.__; _____________________ _.
1
1%
(c) N,N-d1 (hydroxyethyl) coconut fatty
a standard soil _from wool almost instanta
9
30
v
(c), (d) and (e) are heated at 140° C. for 25
95% of the standard soil from ‘wool in water of
increasing hardness. It should be noted that a
minutes. This is blended with (b) and (a) and
0.5% solution of‘the composite soap retains ex
cellent detergent properties in water containing
bar is smooth surfaced. It has very good emul
sifying and detergent action in hard water.
Example 7
made into bar soap as in Example 2.
more than 1000 P. P. M. calcium chloride.
Example 2
Components
This soap
Components
Percent‘
Per cent
40
(a) Sodium soap (commercial) _________________________ __
(b) Tnethanolamine laurate soap ______________________ _.
(a) Sodium soap (commercial) _________________________ __
(b) 'I‘riethanolamine lauratesoap ____ __
(c)
N-hydroxy ethyl lauramide. . _ __ _
(d) N-hydroxy ethyl ammonium laur
(c) N,N-d1 (hydroxyethyl) coconut fatty acid amide..."
_
(d) Sodium palmitate __________________________________ ._
e _______________ __
(e) Diethanolamine ____________________________________ ._
__
am-louqg
(e) Monoethanolamine ________________________________ __
45
(c), (d) and (e) are heated at 150° C. for 20
minutes, cooled to substantially 100° C. and ~(b)
melted into same. This molten mixtureis thor
oughly dispersed in (a) and thenthis resulting
-c), (d) and (e)v are heated at 150° C. for 20
minutes. This is blended with (b) and (a) and
made into _bar soap as in Example 2.. This soap
bar is smooth surfaced. It has excellent deter
1 gent, emulsifying, and lime resistant action in
mixture compressed in a mold to form a smooth 60 hard water.
bar soap, which has excellent detergent and
emulsifying, properties in hard water.
Example 3
Components
(a) Sodium soap (commercial) ____ _.
Components
Percent
___
Example 8
80 ‘
(b) Triethanolamine laurate soap. _.
.__
(c) N—l1ydroxyethyl coconut fat y acid amides
.
(d) N,N-di (hydroxyethyl) ammonium laurate _________ ._
8
6%
l
(e) Diethanolamine ____________________________________ __
4%
7 Per cent
65
00
(0) Sodium soap (commercial) _________________________ -.
80
(b) Triethanolamine laurate soap ...................... _-
‘ 8
(c) N ,N-di (hydroxyethyl) coconut fatty acid amide_-___
7%
(d) Potassium laurate __________________________________ __
(e) Diethanolamine ____________________________________ __
1%
3%
(c), (d) and (e) are heated ‘at 150° C". for 20
minutes. This is blended with (b) and (a) to
form a smooth surfaced bar soap as in Example 2.
(c), (d) and.(e) are heated at 150° C. ‘for 20
minutes. This is blended in with-(b) and (a) as
It has ‘exceptionally good detergent, emulsifying,
in Example 2, then compressed in a mold to form
and lime resistant properties in hard water.
65
a smooth surfaced soap. It .has remarkablygood
Example 9
detergent and emusifying properties in hard wa
terExample 4
Components
Components
Ea) Sodium soap (commercial) ___________________________ ..
b) Triethanolamine laurate soap ______________________ _.
(a) Sodium soap (commercial) ......................... ..
8%
6%
(d) T?cf‘“
5
80
7%
(c) Coconut fatty acid amide of 2 amino 2 methyl 1,3 di
80
(b)c) N-hydroxyethyll'auramide
Triethanolaminelaurate soap.
.................. ..lnminn
Per vcent
Percent
hydroxy propane .......... ._‘
75
6%
(d) Diethanol ammonium laurate___
l
. (e) Diethanolamine _______________ __
5
2,404,298
7
our invention shall be limited to these composi
tions in the form of bar soap alone. These com
positions may also be ?aked or put into other
physical forms or shapes. Also a phase of this
(c), (d) and (e) are heated at 150° C. for 20
minutes. This is blended with (b) and (a) to
form a smooth surfaced bar soap as in Example 2.
This soap has very good detergent,.emulsifying,
and lime resistant properties in hard water.
Example 10
Components
Per cent
(a) Sodium soap (_commercial) ......... ..
_.
..
.__
(b) Triethanolamme laurate soap...
.-
__
_--
invention involves the preparation of paste, gel
or liquid soaps therefrom of various concentra
tions by merely adding or dissolving in water,
soft or hard. Such liquid soaps ?nd use as liquid
hand soap or textile soap.
10
While this invention has been described herein
80
with reference to particular embodiments and
8%
(0) Coconut fatty acid amide of trishydroxymothyl
amino methane __________________________________ -_
8
(d) Diethanolamine coconut fatty acid soap ____________ --
1
e) Diefhnnnlnminp
speci?c examples thereof, we do not intend that
our invention shall be limited to such embodi
ments and examples except as hereinafter de
2%
15 ?ned in the appended claims.
(c), (d) and (e) are heated together at 150° C.
for 20 minutes. This is blended inlwith (b) and
(a) as in Example 2, then compressed in a mold
to form a smooth surfaced soap.
What we claim as new is:
1. A detergent having improved hard water
characteristics comprising a water-soluble or
ganic amine, an amide of an alkylol amine and a
This has very
valuable detergent, emulsifying, and lime re
sistant properties in hard Water.
Example 11
Components
Per cent
(0) Sodium soap (commercial) _________________________ __
(h) Triethanolamine lam-ate soap: _______________ __
__
40
24
(1:) Coconut fatty acid amide of diethanolamine"
22%
(d) Diethanolaniine coconut fatty acid soap.-.
»(e) Diethanolamine ____________________________
20 higher molecular Weight carboxy acid, and a
Water-soluble soap, in the ranges 5-20%, 20-40%
and 40-80% respectively, said percentages being
based on. the amount of these said three com
ponents, which detergent has the form of a bar
25 or cake with a smooth uniform appearance and
the smooth feel of bar soap and which is produced
by heating the aforesaid components at substan
tially 125°-16'0° C. for a period of substantially
3
__
10%
30
(c), (d) and (e) are heated at .125" c. for 45
minutes. This is blended in with (b) and (a) as
in Example 2, then compressed to form a smooth
45-15 minutes.
»
2. A detergent having improved hard water
characteristics comprising a water-soluble basic
organic nitrogen compound, an amide of an al
kylol amine and a higher molecular weight car
soap. It has excellent detergent and emulsify
boxy acid, and a water-soluble soap, in the ranges
35
ing properties in hard water.
5-20%, 20-40% and 40-80% respectively, said per
centages being based on the amount of these said
‘
Example 12
three components, which detergent has the form
Components
Per cent
((1) Sodium soap (commercial) _________________________ __
93
(b) Triethanolarnine laurate soap‘ _________ .__-_
3
(0) Coconut fatty acid amide of dietliauolamm
(d) Diethanolamine coconut fatty acid soap____
2%
%
(e) Diethanolamine ____________________________________ ..
1
of a bar or cake with a‘ smooth uniform appear
40 ance and the smooth feel of bar soap and which
is produced by heating the aforesaid essential
components at 100°-190° C’. for a period of 60-10
minutes.
3. A detergent having improved hard water
45 characteristics comprising a water-soluble or
(c), (d) and (e) are heated at 125° C. for 45
minutes. This is blended with (b) and (a) as in
Example 2, then compressed to form a smooth
ganic amine, an amide of an alkylol amine and a
higher fatty acid, an alkali metal- and an alkylol
amine soap of fatty acids of 12-14 carbon atoms,
in the ranges of 5-20%, 20-40% and 40-80% re
soap. It has good detergent and emulsifying
60 spectively, said percentages being based on the
properties in hard water.
amount of said three components, which deter
Example 13
gent has the form of a bar or cake with a smooth
uniform appearance and the smooth feel of bar
Components
Per cent
soap, and which is produced by heating the afore
55 said components at substantially 125°-160° C. for
(a) Sodium soap (commercial) .___
89
a period of substantially 45-15 minutes.
(b) N-hydroxyethyl coconut acid
6%
(c) Diethanolamine _______________________ __
__
4%
4. A detergent having improved hard water.
characteristics comprising a water-soluble basic
organic nitrogen compound, a neutral amide
The three components are heated together at
150° C. for 20 minutes, then compressed in a mold 00 formed from substantially 1 mol. of an alkylol
amine and 1 mol. of higher molecular weight car
to form a smooth surfaced soap. It has good de
boxy acid, and a water-soluble soap, in the ranges
tergent and emulsifying properties in hard water.
5-20%, 20-40% and 40-80% respectively, said per
Example 14
centages being based on the amount of these said
65 three components, which detergent has the form
Components
(a) Sodium soap (commercial) ____ .._ .... -r ............. _.
Per cent
55
(b) N,N-dihydroxyethyl coconut acid amid
30%
(c) Diethanolamine ____________________________________ __
d) Glycol lam-Mn
12%
2
of a bar or cake with a smooth uniform appear
ance and the smooth feel of bar soap and which
is produced by heating the aforesaid components
at substantially 125°-160° C. for-a period of sub
70 stantially 45-15 minutes.
5. A detergent having improved hard Water
The four components are heated together at
characteristics comprising a water-soluble basic
organic nitrogen compound, a neutral amide
150° C. for 20 minutes, then compressed in a mold
formed from substantially 1 mol. of an alkylol
to form a smooth bar soap.
It should be noted that we do not intend that 75 amine and 1 mol. of higher molecular weight car
2,404,298
10
boxy acid, an alkali metal- and an alkylolamine
soap of fatty acids of 12-14 carbon atoms, in the
ranges of 55-20%, 20-40% and 40-80% respectively,
said percentages being based on the amount of
said three components, which detergent has the
soap, and which is produced by heating the afore
said components at substantially 125°-160° C. for
form of a bar or cake with a smooth uniform ap
pearance and the smooth feel of bar soap and
amine, a neutral amide formed from substantially
1 mol. of an alkylol amine and 1 mol. of fatty acid
of 12-14 carbon atoms and a water-soluble soap
of fatty acid of 12-14 carbon atoms, in the ranges
a period of substantially 45-15 minutes.
11. A detergent having improved hard water
characteristics comprising a water-soluble alkylol
which is produced by heating the aforesaid com
ponents at substantially 125°-160° C. for a period
10 5-20%, 20-40% and 40-80% respectively, said
of substantially 45-15 minutes.
percentages being based on the amount of these
6. A detergent having improved hard water
said three components, which detergent has the
characteristics comprising a water-soluble or
ganic amine, a neutral amide formed from sub
stantially 1 mol. of an alkylol amine and 1 mol.
ofhigher molecular weight carboxy acid, an al
kali metal- and an alkylolamine soap of fatty
acids of 12-14 carbon atoms, in the ranges of
5-20%, 20-40% and 40-80% respectively, said per
form of a bar or cake with a smooth appearance
and the smooth feel of bar soap and which is pro
duced by heating the aforesaid essential com
ponents at substantially 125°-160° C. for a period
of substantially 45-15 minutes.
'
12. A detergent having improved hard water
characteristics comprising a water-soluble alkylol
centages being based on the amount of said three
components, which detergent has the form of a 20 amine, a neutral amide formed from substantially
1 mol. of an alkylol amine and 1 mol. of fatty
bar or cake with a smooth uniform appearance
acid of 12-14 carbon atoms an alkali- and an
and the smooth feel of bar soap and which is pro
alkylolamine soap of fatty acid of 12-14 carbon
duced by heating the aforesaid components at
atoms, in the ranges of 5-20%, 20-40% and
substantially 125°-160° C. for a period of substan
25 40—80% respectively, said percentages being based
tially 45-15 minutes,
on the amount of said three components, which
7. A detergent having improved hard water
detergent has the form of a bar or cake with a
characteristics comprising a water-soluble basic
smooth appearance and the smooth feel of bar
organic nitrogen compound, an amide of an al
soap, and which is produced by heating the afore
kylol amine and a fatty acid of 12-14 carbon
atoms and a water-soluble soap of a fatty acid of 30 said components at substantially 125°-160° C. for
a period of substantially 45-15 minutes.
12-14 carbon atoms, in the ranges 51-20%, 20-40%
13. A detergent having improved hard water
and 40-80% respectively, said percentages being
characteristics comprising a. water-soluble alkylol
based on the amount of these said three com
amine, a neutral amide formed from substantially
ponents, which detergent has the form of a bar or
cake with a smooth appearance and the smooth 35 1 mol. of an alkylol amine and 1 mol. of fatty
acid of 12-14 carbon atoms an alkali- and an al
feel of bar soap and which is produced by heating
kylolamine soap of fatty acid of 12-14 carbon
the aforesaid essential components at 100°-190°
atoms, the soaps being present in at least sub
C. for a period of 60-10 minutes.
,
stantially two-thirds the amount of the other
8. A detergent having improved hard water
characteristics comprising a water-soluble basic 40 two essential components the amount of amide
being greater than the amount of amine, which
organic nitrogen compound, an amide of an al
detergent has the form of a bar or cake with a
kylol amine and a fatty acid of 12-14 carbon
smooth appearance and the smooth feel of bar
atoms and a water-soluble soap of a fatty acid of
soap, and which is produced by heating the afore
12-14 carbon atoms, in the ranges 5-20%, 20-40%
said components at substantially 125°-160° C. for
and 40-80% respectively, said percentages being
a period of substantially 45-15 minutes.
based on the amount of these said three compon
14. A detergent having improved hard water
ents, which detergent has the form of a bar or
cake with a smooth appearance and the smooth
characteristics comprising a water-soluble or
feel of bar soap and which is produced by heat
ganic amine, an amide of an alkylol amine and a
ing the aforesaid essential components at sub
stantially 125°-160° C. for a period of substantially
45-15 minutes.
9. A detergent having improved hard water
characteristics comprising a water-soluble alkylol
amine, an amide of an alkylol amine and fatty
acid of 12-14 carbon atoms and a water-soluble
soap of a fatty acid of 12-14 carbon atoms, in the
ranges 5-20%, 20-40% and 40-80% respectively,
said percentages being based on the amount of
these said three components, which detergent has
the form of a bar or cake with a smooth appear
ance and the smooth feel of bar soap and which
higher fatty acid, an alkali- and an alkylolamine
soap of fatty acids of 12-14 carbon atoms, in the
ranges of 5-20%, 20-40% and 40-80% respective
ly, said percentages being based on the amount of
said three components, which detergent has the
form of a bar or cake with a smooth appearance
and the smooth feel of bar soap, and which is
produced by heating the aforesaid components at
substantially 100°-190° C. for a period‘of 60-10
minutes.
15. A detergent having improved hard water
characteristics comprising a water-soluble alkylol
amine, a neutral amide formed from substan
is produced by heating the aforesaid essential
tially 1 mol. of an alkylol amine and 1 mol. of
components at substantially 125°-160° C. for a
fatty
acid of 12-14 carbon atoms and two water
65
period of substantially 45-15 minutes.
soluble soaps, one of which is a sodium soap and
10. A detergent having improved hard water
one of which is an alkylolamine soap of 12-14
characteristics comprising a water-soluble alkylol
carbon
atoms, the sodium soaps being present in
amine, an amide of an alkylol amine and a fatty
at least substantially 80% of the total amount of
acid of 12-14 carbon atoms an alkali metal- and
an alkylolamine soap of fatty acids of 12-14 car 70 these said three components, the amount of
amide being greater than the amount of the said
bon atoms, in the ranges of 23-20%, 20-40% and
alkylol amine, which detergent has the form of
40-80% respectively, said percentages being based
a bar or cake with a smooth appearance and the
on the amount of said three components, which
detergent has the form of a bar or cake with a
smooth feel of bar soap, and which is produced
smooth appearance and the smooth feel of bar
by heating the aforesaid components at substan
2,404,298
tially 125°-160° C. for a period of substantially
molecular weight carboxy, acid, and 40-80% of
45-15 minutes.‘
water-soluble soaps, said percentage being based
,
16. A detergent having improved hard water
characteristics comprising 5-20% of a water
soluble basic organic nitrogen compound, 20-40%
of an amide of an alkylol amine and a higher
on the amount of these said three components,
which detergent is produced by heating the ?rst
two components with less than the ?nal per
centage of soap at substantially 125°-160° C. for a
period of substantially 45-15 minutes, then mix
ing without substantially added heat with the
balance of the soap.
on the amount of these said three components,
18. A detergent having improved hard water
which detergent has the form of a bar or cake 10
characteristics comprising 23-20% of a water-sol
with‘a smooth uniform appearance of bar soap
uble basic organic nitrogen compound, 20-40%
and which is produced by heating the ?rst two
of an amide of an alkylol amine and a higher
components with less than the ?nal percentage
of soap at substantially 125°-160° C. for a period
molecular weight carboxy acid, and 40-80% of
of substantially 45-15 minutes, then mixing with 15 water-soluble soaps, said percentage being based
on the amount of these said three components,
out substantially added heat with the balance of
which detergent is produced by heating the
the soap.
17.1 A detergent having improved hard water
aforesaid components at substantially 100°-190°
C. for a ‘period of 60-10 minutes.
characteristics, comprising 5-20% of a water
soluble basic organic nitrogen compound, 20-40% 20
HARRY H. KROLL.
MARK WEISBERG.
of an amide of an alkylol amine and a higher
molecular weight carboxy acid, and 40-80% of
water-soluble soaps, said percentage :being based
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