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Патент USA US2404301

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Juiy 16,1946.
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E H_ LAND
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2,404,301
RANGE FINDER
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Filed Mafch 2, 1945
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IN
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Patented July 16, 1946
2,404,301
_ UNITED STATES PATENT f. oF'FIcaff,
RANGE FINDER
Edwin H. Land, Cambridge, Mass” assignor to
Polaroid Corporation, Cambridge, Mass, a cor
poration of Delaware
Application March 2, 1943, Serial No. 477,707
10 Claims. (01. 88-—-2.6)
1
2
This invention relates ‘to a new and improved
range ?nder and reticles therefor.
It is one object of the invention to provide a
stantially. in front of the instrument. Associ
ated with mirrors I2v is a pair of transparent mir- I
range ?nder comprising means for impressing
rors I5 each of which is adapted to receive light.
from one of mirrors I2 and to re?ect it towards
optical indicia upon the ?eld of view at a prede
one of eyepieces‘l?.
termined apparent distance from the instrument
and thereby determining the distance of objects
in said ?eld from the observer.
,
,
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p
j
,
An observer employing this ran’g'er?n'der will;
look simultaneously through both of ,ey'epieees .I 6
'
with the result thathis right eye will receivev light , .
Another object is to provide a range ?nder of.
from right-hand mirrors I2 and I5, and his left‘;
the above characteristics ‘wherein a plurality of , 10
eye will simultaneously receivelight. from leftjy
optical indicia are impressed upon the ?eld of
hand mirrors I2 and I5. Itis to, be understood
that mirrors I5 andmirrors I2 shouldbe soposi
tioned as to enable an. observer employing‘, the
view, each at predetermined different apparent
distances from the instrument.
A further object is to provide a range finder of‘
instrument to seesubstantiallylthe same l‘?eld
the above‘ characteristics wherein the desired op, 15 with each eye. Such a structure‘; ex‘ce’ptifor‘the.v
tical indicia are produced by ‘means of a colli
use of transparent mirrors ,I5 finsteadofjwholly,
mating lens and reticle means comprising one or
re?ecting surfaces, is standard vin the construe;
more indicia marks each positioned in predeter-v
tion of range ?nders of the class of, the present,
mined relation to the focal plane of said lens.‘ ‘
invention. Its effect and, purpose is toincrease
A still further object is to provide a new and 20 the e?ectiveinterocular distance of theobserv‘er.
improved reticle adapted for use in the range
?nder of the present invention and comprising
by the distance between mirrors ,I_2,,and1thus_,t'o
increase considerably the stereoscopic acuity ,of
a composite sheet composed of a plurality. of su
his vision as applied to the?eld;
perimposed layers of transparent material, par
ticularly plastic material, each of which layers
.
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The indicia-formingapparatus of this embodi-v _
ment of the invention is illustrated in .detail‘__in"_
Figs. 2, 3 and 4, and may conveniently belocated
bears thereon an indicia mark.
Other objects and advantages vwill in part ‘be .
apparent and in part be pointed out in the course .
Within an extended portion I8of housing I0. ‘it
comprises a reticle 20 of particular characterise,
of the following description of one or more em
tics to be described in detail hereinaftenj, alight
bodiments of the invention, which are given as 30 source 22 of any desired type andajrela'tively
non-limiting examples, in connection with the
large lens 24 or other device for collimatingri'the",
accompanying drawing, in which:
rays emanating from source 22 and traversing,
Figure l is a plan view of a housing, suitable
reticle 29. The term “i'etic1e”as it isused héréiri;
for a range ?nder constituting an embodiment
of the invention;
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Fig. 2 illustrates diagrammatically and in plan
and in the claims is to bev understood as having“
35
the meaning commonly accorded thereto in ,the.
the optical elements employed in one embodiment
including
range ?nder
any art,‘
means
andinitthe
is optical
to 'be considered
systemof the
of the invention;
instrument for producing visible indiciasuch, 'for
illustrating an embodiment of the reticle means 40
example, as a line, a dot or a circle or other ?gure. In a simple embodiment of‘ the present inven-., .
Fig. 3 is an enlarged, diagrammatic front'view.
of the present invention;
7
Fig. 4 is a similar side view of the reticle means
shown in Fig. 3; and
Fig, 5 is a side view, similar to Fig. 2, illustrat
ing diagrammatically a modi?cation of the in
ve'ntion.
Invthe form of the invention illustrated in the.
tion, the reticle means may comprise simply light 1
source 22, which, will preferably, comprise‘ avertié:
cal line ?lament illuminated from,‘ '_a suitable _‘
source of current (not shown). In this err1bodi-;_v
45 ment of the invention,_light source 22 will prefer— '
ably be positioned within the fccalplane of lens ,
24. e The relation of its position to the focal plane _
drawing, housing ID of any desired size and shape‘
of the lens will determine its'apparent‘ distance;
is provided with a pair of mirrors or other re?ect
from the observer when it is viewed through eye;v _
ing surfaces I2 adapted to receive light from in 60
Pieces
effect will
I6. Itis.
be readily
believed apparent.’
that the reason
‘If, the,_
forlight.
this
front of the instrument throughthe windows
or apertures at I 4.
This arrangement serves
both to provide an effectively enIargedinter;
source orreticle is positioned atthe .fvocal'plane
of lens 24, the rays from the reticle to eyepieces ,
ocular distance or increased stereoscopic , effect;
It will all be rendered parallel, vand,thejresultv
and. also to limit the ?eld of view to an area sub
will be to cause thereticle image to appear tov lie '
2,404,301
3
within the focal plane of the lens, the rays going
to each of eyepieces It will diverge slightly from
parallelism, with the result that the reticle image
will appear to lie nearer than in?nity, and the
greater this distanceibetween the position of the
reticle and the focal plane of the lens, the more
said rays will divergeand thenearer to the ob
server will be the. apparent position of- the reticle
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hat in?nity. If, however, the reticle‘ispositioned
image.
it
.
requirements thereof are ful?lled if only a'single I
mark is used.
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Reticles of the type shown in Figs. >3'and 4 may
be constructed in a Variety of ways. For example,
.
each of sheets 25-39 may comprise a separate
sheet of glass or other transparent material such
as a transparent plastic having an opaque mark
reproduced on one surface thereof. The con
verse of this construction may also housed, and
10 each reticlemark maycomprise a light-trans
mitting areaetched or otherwise produced in an
The above-described embodiment of the inven
tion‘ willprovide only a single indicia in space’. i. i 1 opaque area of one of sheets 25-—30, provided
For preferred results, however, there should bea: ' that said opaque areasdo not overlap so far as
‘to: cover the reticle mark on any of the others of
said sheets. It has been found particularly use
plurality of such indicia, each caused to lie at a , .
different apparent distance from" the observer’,
ful to-preparesuch vreticles by conventional pho
This effect may be attained by the use of the
reticle shown in greater detail in Figs. 3 and 4,
which comprises a plurality of sheets ‘25,, 2s, '25
tographieproce‘sses, that is to say, each of the
' sheets‘25—'30 may comprise a positive or nega
tive’reproductio-n of the diamond outline illus
trated as forming A, B, C and D. The thickness
of each sheets 25-30 will be chosen to provide
and 30, each bearing on a surface thereof, a",
reticle mark A, B, C and D.
, In this embodiment of the invention, reticle 2Y9
willjbe positioned. in ‘predetermined relation to
, the vdesired differences. in the 1 apparent positions
the focal plane of lens 24. For example, reticle
20. may besopositioned that mark A of sheet 39,
will lie substantially in the focal plane, of the lens.
Marks B, C and D will therefore lie at different
distances .withinwthe focal plane of the lens.‘
of the indicia thereon when viewed as illustrated
in, Fig. 2. ; It will be apparent that said dis
tances will, vary depending upon the focal length
of lens 24. and on the base line of the instrument,
i. e. the distance between mirrors I2.
I
As an illustrative example, assume that reticle
lookslthrough eyepieces [6, mark A will appear
20 is incorporated in an instrument having a base
to lie the farthest-away, while mark D will ap-v so? line of four feet-and using a-lens 24 having-a ,
‘ focal length of eighteen inches. -If reticleyZllbe’
pear .close .to the observer, mark C. the next,
so positionedwith. respect to the ,focal'point of
. andmarkjB between mark- C and mark A.. .- .j
- With reticle 20 in this position when the observer
sheets/25_—30 will be such that .saidseries of in-.
the lens that mark D appears to lie 7,600 yards
from the instrument, and if sheet 25 is approxi
Jmately .0075 inch‘in thickness,” mark'C will ap
‘ dicia will appear to- lie at known distances from .
V' pearv to lie at 1,200 yards from the instrument;
It will. befunderstood that the relative di'se
tances .between I the indicia-carrying surfaces of .
If the baseline is increased without otherwise
changing .the design, each ‘mark will appear ‘to he
still farther away and still farther apart from’
each other, andthe converse will be true if the
the ‘instrument. -,Said~ distances may in turn be
determined in avvariety of ways- In the ‘above,
example-litis assumed that mirrors l5‘ are at;
right angles to each. other and parallel to their 40
7 associated mirrors .l 2, In such case mark A will
base .line.» is lessened. ' 7, These conditions, ~ how- '
appear to lie' at in?nity with respect to' space,
with marks B, C and Dlprogressively nearer the
instrument. 1 ‘If, however, mirrorslE are at right
angleslto each otherand mirrors. I 2i are at an
angle; of less than 90 degrees to each-other, or
vice versa,»mark'A~will appear to lie. nearer in
1 ever, 'will be readily understood by those skilled
in the art,- and need only be taken 'into' account
inthe ?nal design and calibration of the instru- ‘
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ment-
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Range ?nders of the type, of the present inven- ‘ '7
tion ‘utilizing: reticlesg'of the type ‘illustrated in
space than in?nity, with marks'B, C and D. cor
Figs. 3 and 4 are particularly useful with-mov-v
respondingly nearer, vthe \ actual ranges of said
- ing targets“ or mounted in moving vehicles. For
apparent'positions being dependent in each case; 60 example, it may be assumed that a range ?nder
using reticle 20 is installed in a tank or airplane
upon..the .base, line of the device,.i. e., the dis-~
tance between mirrors ' l2. 'Similar Variation may
approaching a target, and that it is desired to
beobtaintedbyadjusting reticle 28 with respect
' totheqfocal. plane offlens 24. 'For example,
hold ?re until the range is, for example 7200
yards.‘ In this case reticle 20 will be so designed
reticle20
may be positioned with markB in;the as. and positioned'with respect to the base line of
.
focal plane of lens“, and if mirrors '15. are at‘ ‘the instrument and focal length of lens ‘24 that
right angles to each. other, mirrors i2 ,may' be:
mark D will appear to lie at 200 yards. Simi
larly, mark C may appear to lie at 300 yards,
set'at‘an. angle of lessthan QOdegrees to each
and mark. B may appear to lie att400 ‘yards.
other. such that mark A will appear't‘o lie at in- w
j ?nitywithrespectto the ?eld. .If said'angle is
Therefore, ‘as the tank or plane approaches
further-reduced below 90 degrees, all said marks
' the target, the gunner will known that he should
i will appear to move still-nearer tothe observer.» '
prepare to ?re when the apparent, position of
7 All such modifications are accordingly to be con-,. ' ‘ mark B coincides with the target, should aim
strued-as coming within the scope ofv-the in;
vention.'ii~».§;
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when the apparent position of'_ mark C coincides
with the target, and should ?re when thelap
parent position of mark D coincides with the-tar-j
. get. As another exampla'it is particularly useful
; inanairplane to outline only ‘a single 1mark in' j
"165-.
rangei?nder.
It will now be
of understood
the" inventionf
thatwill
in all
be cases
so calla
the ~ '?
brated that the series of indicia will appear to lie
-atknown. distances .. from the instrument;
An
v 7
observer usingthe device may then compute the
approximate distance of objects. in the ?eldby'
their relation in space to the apparent positions
of saidindiciaf It will be, apparent, furthermore,
thatftheinvention. contemplates the. employment
of any ,usefulnumber of marks, but the essential
reticle 20 whose apparent position will lie 7 at the
known range‘which is the maximum for accurate
" ?re of the plane's guns. Many other examples
of useful installations for the range ?nder of the,
present invention will be readily apparent to.
thoseskilled in the art.
15;, "i It will be understood that the above-assented,
2,404,301
5
embodiment'of the inventionis given. only, by’
way of illustration, and that it maybe modi?ed
to a considerable degree without, departing.‘ from
within the scope of the invention. ‘To ‘a con
siderable extent-the construction of the ‘range
?nders of the invention is determined by the pur-'
pose for which they are intended. For-example,
mirrors l2 and I5 are used as, illustrated in Figs.
1 and 2 for the purpose. ofincreasi-ng the range
6
_ ' s. In: a: binocular . range nudes-1n, combination:
a reticleieomprisinga pluralityof ‘iHdiQiBml?fGOI-f '
limating ‘lens positioned <between ‘said reticle and
the veyes of an observer, means forisuperimposing
a single image of said-reticle'upon the ?eldaof;
view, said-image being. at alltimes visiblesto'both
eyes of an observer, and means for so positioning
said reticle with respect‘to'said‘lens: that ieach
of said indicia is positioned‘a-predetermined' di~f,-~
of the instrument ‘and its accuracyfat increased. 10. ferent distance from the focal plane of ‘said/lens.
ranges. However, this construction maybe modi
said reticle comprising a plurality of superim
?ed if: the instrument is designed for use at rel
posed V'sheets, each of said, 'sheetsrbearing.a-n-aine
atively shorter ranges, i. e. ,of, the' order‘ of. 100;
dicium, saidsheets being so positionedvthat the
yards or less. Forsuch'short ranges ‘it. may be
axis of ‘said lens. is substantially normalsthereto, desirable to rely only upon the human inter, 15' the apparent positionvof said image in said‘ ?eld
ocular, and Fig, 5 illustrates diagrammatically
of ‘view being afunction ‘of the distance between.
a modi?cation of the invention suitable forjsuch
I said reticleiand the focal plane of said lens.w3»- 5:15 “
use. One ‘eye of the observer is indicated at'50'
'4. 'In- a binocularrange ?nder, incombi'natio‘n, i
, as viewing the ?eld through a single transparent.
a reticle‘comp'rising meansproviding aiplu‘rality
mirror 52, and the reticle; system comprises-light 201 of spaced,runconnectéd indicia, a collimating lens
source 54, .reticle .55, and. lens .56. Mannother
positioned between.‘ said reticle and. 'thereyesi-of
modi?cations will doubtless lie-apparent, to'jthose
an observer, means for superimposing .a. single
skilled in theart, and are to be construed‘ as
image: of saidreticle ‘upon-l the ?eld of/viewl,=;said,
coming within the scope of the invention.
7
image beingat‘all times ,visible to both‘ eyes-of‘an
It is to be noted that light proceeding from any 25 observer, and'means ‘for 'so positioning said reticle
reticle means such as alight source or ?lament
with respect to said lens that each of said indicia
thereof or an indicia mark located in the focal
is positioned a predetermined different distance
plane of lens 24 will be collimated while if such
from the focal plane of said lens, the apparent
light source or ?lament or indicia mark is lo
position of said image in said ?eld of view being
cated inside of the focal plane, that is nearer 30 a function of the distance between said reticle.
an observer than the focal plane, the lens will
and'the focal plane of said lens.
.
not bring the light rays into collimation or par
alellism but will leave themslightly divergent as
they approach the eyes of the observer. This is
a physical characteristic of any collimator lens
5. In a binocular range ?nder, in combination,
a reticle comprising a plurality of indicia, a col
limating lens positioned between said reticle and
and throughout the speci?cation and claims the
term “collimator lens” is intended to have a‘
meaning which embraces this characteristic.
view, said image being at all times visible to both
It is also to be understood that the following
claims are intended to cover all the generic and_ 40
speci?c features of the invention vherein ‘de
scribed, and all statements vof the scope of the.
invention which, as a matter of language, might
the eyes of an observer, means, for superimposing, ' '
a single image of said reticle upon the ?eld of
eyes of an observer, and means for so positioning
said reticle with ,respectto said lens that each of
said indicia is positioned a predetermined diifer- v
ent distance from the focal plane of said lens, said
reticle . comprising a plurality of superimposed
transparent sheets, each of said sheets bearing an
indicium, the apparent position of said image in
45 said ?eld of view being a function of the distance
What is claimed is:
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1. In a binocular range ?nder, in combination,
between said reticle and the’ focal plane of said
a reticle comprising a plurality of indicia, a col
lens.
limating lens positioned between said reticle and
'6. In a binocular range ?nder, in combination,‘
the eyes of an observer, means for superimposing
a reticle comprising a plurality of indicia, a col
a single image of said reticle upon the ?eld of
limating lens positioned between said reticle and
view, said image being at all times visible to both
the eyes of an observer, means for superimposing .
eyes of an observer, and means for so positioning
a single image of said reticle upon the ?eld of
said reticle with respect to said lens that each
\view, said image being at all times visible to both
of said indicia is positioned a predetermined dif
eyes of an observer, and means for so position
ferent distance from the focal plane of said lens, 56 ing said reticle with respect to said lens that each
of said indicia is positioned a predetermined dif
the apparent position of said image in said ?eld
ferent distance from the focal plane of said lens,
of view being a function of the distance between
said reticle comprising a plurality of superim
said reticle and thefocal plane of said lens.
posed sheets, each of said sheets bearing an in
2. In a binocular range ?nder, in combination;
a reticle comprising a plurality of indicia, a col 00 dicium, there being not more than one indicium
on the contacting surfaces of any two sheets, the
limating lens positioned between said reticle and
apparent position of said image in said ?eld of
the eyes of an observer, means for superimposing
view being a function of the distance between
a single image ,of said reticle upon. the ?eld of
view, said image being at all times visible to both 65 said reticle and the focal plane of said lens.
7. In a binocular range ?nder, in combination,
eyes of an observer, and means for so positioning
be said to fall therebetween.
»
. said reticle with respect to said lens that each
a reticle, a collimating lens positioned between
said reticle and the eyes of an observer, means
of said indicia is positioned a predetermined dif
for superimposing a single image of said reticle
ferent distance from the focal plane of said lens,
upon the ?eld of view, said image being at all
said reticle comprising a plurality of superim 70 times visible to both eyes of an observer, and,
posed sheets, each of said sheets bearing an in
means for predeterminedly positioning said
dicium, the apparent position of said image in
reticle with respect tothe focal plane of said lens
said ?eld of view being a function of the distance
to determine the apparent position of said reticle
between said reticle and the focal plane of said
image within said ?eld of view.
lens.
75
8. Ina binocularrange ?nder, in combination,
2,404,301‘? I
8g
7.
c a‘ reticle comprising a plurality'of .indicia, a‘. col
limating. ‘lensl positioned betweem said reticlé ‘and
the ‘eyes of an observer, transparent mirror means
for superimposing a single image of said reticle
upon the ?eld of View, ‘said image being at all
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plane-30f saidrlens,-the~apparent position ofrsaid
image-‘in saidv ?eld of: viewebeing a fu'nctionof
the distance between said reticle Tand' thee-focal
planeofsaidlen's.
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vv10;"In arbinocular range ?nder, incombination, ‘V
a reticle comprising 'aiplurality of indiciaga'coh
timesvisible to both eyes, of van observer, and
means for so positioning said reticle with respect
to said lens ‘that-each of said indici'a is positioned
a predetermined di?erent distance from the focal
e?ective interocularsofan observer andifor super-‘i
image'in said ?eld of view being a function of the
v?eld ‘of-‘view; said image being at all times ‘visible
di‘stance'betw'een said reticle and the-focal plane
to'both eyes'of ‘an observer; said means ecmpna "
ingl avpair-Iof re?ecting surfaces and a‘ pair‘lof
transparent- smirrorsl positioned intermediate 1 said
limating lens positioned between said reticle and
the» eyes of an observer, means for increasing-the
plane of said lens, the apparentiposition of said 10 imposing a single image of said reticIe'upO'n the
of'saidlens."
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' 9. In agbinocularsrange ?nder, zini'combination,
a reticlecomprisinga plurality oflindicia," acol
limating‘ lens positioned between" said ~reticle ‘and
the eyesof an observer,_'means for increasing the
effective interocular .o'f an'observer, *rneans for _
re?ectingsurface's vand-between said lens andLan
observer; and means for so‘ positioning said reticle
with’ respect to s'aid'len's that‘each of said indicia
positioned a" predetermined‘ 'di?er'ent vdistance
fiom-tthe "focal plane‘ "of" said ‘lens; the . apparent
superimposing a single-image of saidgreticl‘e upon
the "?eld of View, saidF-image being at all‘ times 20: position ‘of 'said imagein said ?eld of view‘ being
' visible to both eyesotan observer, and means'for, V
' so positioning "said : reticle '- with 'respect' to‘ ‘said,
lens that each of said indicia is-positioned ajp‘reJ
determined'i different/distance Ifrom‘ the ‘.focal‘
ai-filn‘ction of th'e'dis'tance between said reti'le
andithe' focal plane ‘of said'l‘ens: g"
iw'zEDWIN
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