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Патент USA US2404302

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July>16y1946~
E. H. LAND ¿TAL
2,404,302A
RANGE FINDER
Filed April 22,1943- _ »
¿im)y
BY
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INVENTORS.
m
i
Patented July 16, 1946
2,404,302
UNITEDJ STATES PATENT
2,404,302
RANGE FINDER
Edwin H.' Land, Cambridge, Mass., and> Dexter P:`
Cooper, Jr., Washington, D.` C., assig'nors` to.
Polaroid Corporation, Cambridge, Mass., acor
poration. of. Delaware
Application April 22, 1943, Serial No. 484,005
(Cl'. 88-226lî
5`. Claims.
1
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A
2
drawing, housing lo of. .any desired size and
shape isprovided» with. a pair ot mirrors orv other
This invention relates to a new and improved
range iinderand reticles, therefor.4 ~
reiiecting surfaces L2 adapted _to receiveV light
It is; one object of the invention te provide. a
range- finder comprising means for impressing
from in front of the instrumentthrough. thawin
optical, indicia~
the field'l oí View at-a prede
termined apparent distance from the-instrument
and therebyY de.tern'iiningy the distance of objects
both. to providean effectively enlarged interocular
distance or increased sterecscopieeiîect, Vand also
dows or apertures atl 4. This arrangement serves
’
to limitthe- ñ'eld oí view to an- area substantially
Another obiectl is to provide a range. ñnder
of the above characteristics. wherein a. plural
ity of optical indicia aree impressed upon the
in front of thel instrument. Associated with, mir
11ers. l1 isa. pair of transparentmirrors l5 each> of
ñeld of viewp each at predetermined~ different ap- .
mirrors t2 and t@` reñectittowards one of eye.
in; said field from thev observer. e
which4 is adapted to Vreceive light from one of
parent distances> from»` the instrument.
pieces I6..
stereoscopic image»y or images: of optical, indicia
with the. result thathis right eye will receive lig-ht
from right-hand. mirrorsV L?. and. 1.5„ andhisÃleft
eye. will .simultaneously receive light fromleft
Anobserver employing this range ñnde'r'will
A further object. is. to prov-ide, a range finder
of; the above characteristics; wherein thev desired 15 look simultaneously throughboth of eyepieces i6
are produced4 byY meansoi one or more pairs of
light-polarizing indicia- elements, marks or. the
hand. mirrors L2. and l5.AV Itis to be understood
combination. with» means for. collimating the light 20 that mirrorsy li and mirrors l2 should he soposi
tioned- *as td enable. an Aobserver employing the
traversing said indicia elements, and means for
instrument’to see.. substantially the same field
insuring: that each. eye of the observer see only
with .eacn eye.v Suchfajstructura. except fior the
one image» in. each of» said pairs. ~
use ot transparent. mirrors l5 instead of wholly
A. still further object is to provide. a new reti
cle-adapted for. use in- a, range finder of theV above 25. reflecting surfaces, is. standard inthe construc
tion of, range finders. of the. class ofl the present
characteristics and comprising a stereoscopic
inventiom Its. effect and; purpose is to increase
light-polarizing'printhaving oneor more pairs of
the. effective. interocul'ar Adistance of the observer
right-eye and left-eye polarizing indicia elements,
to thedi'stance between mirrors l2., and thus.` to
marks. or the like, of. kopposite polarization char
like, of opposite polarization characteristics in
acteristics, the indicia elements `comprising each
of, saidY pairs being positionedat >predeterminedly
differentl distances apa-rt in order thatan observer
ai increase considerably the. stereoscopic acuity of.
his vision as applied. to the field.
The indicia-forming apparatus of. this embodi.- `
ment .of the invention is illustrated. in detailin o
may fuse» them to. form» a. series ofi stereoscopic
Figs. 2 and 3,` and may conveniently be located
images, each of. which will appear to lie at a
fr: Llo within an extended portion [8 of housing l0.` It _
different distance from- the observer.
Other objects and advantages willV in part to
be apparent and inA part be pointed out in the
course of thev follow-ing- description of one or '
more» embodiments `of the invention, which are
given as non-limiting examples,4 in connection
with the» accompanying drawing, in which;
Figure 1 is aV plan. view oft a housing suitable
for a range iinder constituting an' embodiment>
of the invention.;
Fig. 2 illustrates diagrammatieally and in plan
the optical elements employed4 in one embodi
ment of~ the invention;
.
' comprises a reticle. 2_0L of particular characteristics -
to be .described in detail hereinafter, alight source
2'2- of any desired typeÄ and a relatively large. lens
24,01' other device for collimating the rays ema
nating from source 22 andl traversing reticle 20.
The terrnfreticle.” as. it is used herein and in
. the claims is to, be understood as` having. the
meaning. commonly accorded` thereto in. the range
finder art., and it isi-._Q bey considered as. including
any means' in the optical system of. the instru
" ment for' producing visible indicia such, ,for ex
ample, as a line., a dot or acircle. or otherfigure.
In the preferred embodiment, of the present
Fig. 3 is an enlargedV diagrammatic view illus
trating a stereoscopic, light-polarizing printsuit
invention, reticle 20 comprises alight-polarizing
able for> use asy a reticle in the range finder of
stereoscopic print of the. type. shown and de- Y
the invention; and.
Fig. ‘iv is aside- view, similar to Fig. 2,v illus
scribed in Patent. No„ 2,203,687.. More. specifical
trating diagrammatieally a. modification of the
plastic material having reproduced4 thereon 'by
invention.
meansof. light-polarizing. areas a series. of stereo
»
1y, it. may comprise a sheet .25- of a transparent
In the formy of the invention illustrated in the 55 scopiß pairs of images comprising right-eye im
2,404,302
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nearer lens 24 than the focal pla-ne of the lens,
the series of reticle images will appear to lie
ages, indicia elements, marks or the like, A, B,
C, D, having their transmission axes parallel, for
example, to arrow26, and left-eye images, indicia
elements, marks or the like, A', B', C', D', having
in the field nearer to the instrument .than when
the reticle is Within the focal plane 0f the lens.
All such modifications embody the essentials of
the invention, and are accordingly to be con
their transmission axes at right angles to arrow
26, as represented by arrow 28.V _
yA suitable material for use as the base sheet in.
Y producing reticle 20 is polyvinyl galcohol, and
in one embodiment of the invention reticle 20
may comprise a sheetl 25 of said material having
strued as coming, within the sGODe thereof.
f It will'now be apparentthat inïiall cases the
range finder of the invention will be so cali«
brated that the series of reticle marks will ap
the molecules on one surface thereof oriented 'j n'fpear to lie at known distances from the in
parallelto arrow 25 and themolecules onY the i. strument. An observer using the device may
therefore compute .the approximate distance’of
other surface thereof oriented parallel'to arrow
2li. Alternatively, reticle ZO‘may/comprise a com-< , objects in the field b’y their relation in space
posite sheet 25 formed by bonding two mólecu
' . tothe apparent positions of the images.
larly oriented layers of polyvinyl alcohol ltogether ’
It will
f be apparent,V furthermore, that the invention
Y with their directions of molecular orientationrel-- ,-. ` vcontemplates the employment of any useful num
atively perpendicular. Such a sheet is shown andI ,
ber of reticle images, although the essential re
described, for example, in U. S. Patent No. 2,289,
'115. Images A, B, C, etc. maybe produced by
quirements thereof are fulfilled if only a single
20
dyeing or staining the molecularly oriented sur
stereoscopic pair of images, for example CC',
isu'se'd.
faces of' the :polyvinyl alcohol'sheet'fwith a suit
able ldiehi‘oie dye or stain, suchïfor example asa
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f
"
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-
"
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It Ashould be >understood that indicia elements,Y
marks or the? like, A, B, C‘, etc.- in f‘ reticle 20
may take any ofymany forms;V For exampla'lríy
r solutionf off'iodine- andl an iodide. Y
thefoperation 1of the invention,V >reticle 20
a' preferred case said indicia elements may com-'
prise Ynon-polarizing .light-transmitting outlines
in an> otherwise uniformly light-polarizing sheet,
is „ positioned substantially ,in the'focal plane
ofY lens Y21|,”and elements 3l] >comprise polariz
ers arranged sothat each eye Yof the observer
will see, onlynitsrproperv set of the images of
and in this case ¿said indicia elements will ap
pearas outlines of light superimposedupon the
ñeld. Another example mayv comprise 4the con-verse of~this case, with said indicia elements
` reticle 20. Y Thus, right-eye polarizer 30 may have
its V‘axis parallel to arrow 28 and left-eye po
larizer may have its Vaxis parallel to arrow 26.
' >When reticle/20 is viewed through eye-pieces
formed as light-polarizing outlines in an other
wise non-polarizing light-transmitting sheet,VV and '
-|6 and, polarizers 431)„ the observer will see only
inthis case said'indicia elements will appear as
a single set'- of rstereos_co’pic images AA', BB',
CC',vand DD', each of whichwill appear to
black outlines Vsuperimposed upon the ñeld. In
either of said examples, each of said indicia
lie atja different vertical' plane in> space ow
elements may comprise a' solid areaV rather- than
in_g .tothevarious .amounts by' which the com-j.l
ponent images of thestereoscopicpairsare lat-'
erally'oñ‘set. The elements ¿of stereoscopic pair
apparent to those skilled in the art, and are
f AA' areV illustrated. as >being substantiallyv su
perimposedfand thestereoscop-ic image formed
~ therebywill Vvappear to lie farthest fromjthe ob
an- outline." Still further alternatives will be
40
tobe Yunderstood asi coming within the scope
h_erœóf’v~
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v.
_,
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.
.Y
Aireticle of the _type 4shown in Fig. 3 is par
ticularly useful with‘moving _targets or when the
range finder itselfv is moving towards the tar
servermwhile stereoscopicimage DD' lwill ap
pear nearest 'to the observer, CC_"the next, and 45 get. V"For example, it may be assumed that a
range finder using reticle 20 is installed kin' a
BB' farthest awayjwith the exception of AA'.
tank or airplane approaching a target and that
1 It will be understood thatthe relative 'lateral
it is desiredtohold _ñre until the rangeV is,y for
displacement .of Athe two indicia elements form
example,i200 yards.Y /In Ythis case, indicia ele-l
ingjeach of the stereoscopic pairs in reticle 20
will besuch that the stereoscopic images formed 50 ments D and D'vvillY initiallyrbe so oiîsetrwith
thereby will appear to lie'at known distances ` respect to eachother that the range of thef'api
parentposition of the stereoscopic image formed
fromïthe instrument._ 'Said distances may ‘in
therebywill be 200 yards. Similarly, the stereo-A
turnbe determined in a variety of ways. If,
scopic image CC' may appear to lie at 300 yards
,for'exampla mirrors I5 are at right angles to
each. other and parallel to their `associated mir 65 and the stereoscopic image'lBB' may appear to
rors.v l2,»reticle image AA' will appear to lie
atfinñnity with respect to space, with reticle
images BB', CC' and DD' progressively nearer
the instrument in_theV ñeld. If, however; mir
lie at 400 yards. , Therefore, as the tank'or plane
_ approaches the ' target, the gunner will know
that he should ‘prepare to fire when- theï ap-`
parent position of ima-ge BB' ¿coincides with the
rors Vl5 are Vat right angles to eachother and 60 target, should aim when the apparent position
of image CC' 'coincides Áwith the target," and
mirrors `>I2 are atan angle of lessV than„90 de
should fire when the `'apparent'positionY of im
greestoeach other, or vice versa, reticle image
age DD' coincides with the target. It is par
AA’„wil1 ,appearv to Alie nearerrin _space than in#
ticularly useful, for example, in an'airplane to
utilize only a single stereoscopic pair of indicia
spondingly nearer. í'I'he-y actuall ranges of said
elements in reticle 20 whoseapparent position
apparentjpositions will> be dependent in each
will _lie at the known' range which is the maxi-v
caseupon the,V b‘ase line Aof the device, i. e. the
mum for accurate ñre for the weapons in con
distance ‘between mirrors I2.
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¿Although it ‘is _, preferred to place reticle' 201 , . nection with the range ñnder being used. ,
'
substantially within the focal plane of lens Y2t, 70 It will be understood that the above-described
this arrangement ~is not essential, and it is pos
embodiment of the invention is given only by
,sible- to `obtain further variation of the rela'->
tionship between the reticle images and the iìeld
by changing'.V therelative positions of reticle 20
' and lens 24. If', for eXample, reticleíZll, is slightly
way ,ofv illustration, and that it maybe modified
' to a considerable degree without departing from
within vthe scope of theinvention. VTo'afconsid
erable extent the construction of the range find
m4043302
6
5
ers: of the» inventiony is `»determined' by the lpurpose
for which they are intended-_> 'For example, `mir
rors A I 2‘ andir Hiv are .usedl asl illustratedi in Figs.> 1
andE 2'1 for the purpose ofvincreasing the range of
the'l instrument »and its accuracy at vincreased
ranges. However, thisV construction may be mod
ified if the instrument is designed for use at rela
tively shorter' rang-es,> il e. ofthe order of 100 yards
or less. Fer'such-short ran-ges it may be desirable
scopic pair is»V visible when viewed' inl light. polar
izedfi‘n aplane'at 90°' to said» ñrst named> plane; a.
light. sourceA positioned on 'the side of- said' reticle
most.; `distant'- from saidl viewingv means, light
from said sour-ee being' transmitted throughÍ said
reticle, collimator means- positi'oned between said
reticle and said 'viewing means ata location out
of
saidÍ imageforming meansi for
collimating. ‘light’4 passing through .the reticlel and
to rely only upon the human interocular, and 10 directing a portion thereof to one of said viewing
means and another portion to the other of said
Fig. 4 illustrates diagrammatically a modification
of the invention suitable for such use.
One. eye
of the observer is indicated at 40 as viewing the
held through a single transparent mirror 42, and
viewing means, and analyzing means in the field
of each viewing means between said reticle- and
said viewing means whereby only one indicia ele
ment of each stereoscopic pair is observable
through one viewing means and only the other
reticle 45, lens 46 and a pair of analyzers 48, one
indicia element of each stereoscopic pair is ob
for each eye of the observer. Many other modi
servable through the other viewing means.
flcations will doubtless be apparent to those
3. In a range ñnder having a left-eye and a
skilled in the art, and are to be construed as com_
20 right-eye viewing means through which an ob
ing within the scope of the invention.
server looks when viewing an object to be ranged
It is also to be understood that the following
and means for increasing the interocular of the
claims are intended to cover all the generic and
observer, in combination, a reticle positioned in
speciñc features of the invention herein described,
the field of said viewing means, said reticle being
and all statements of the scope of the invention
which, as a matter of language, might be said 25 formed of transparent material having predeter
mined areas therein which are rendered light po
to fall therebetween.
larizing and which form groups of indicia ele
What is claimed is:
ments, pairs of indicia elements in the different
1. In a range finder having a left-eye and a
groups being spaced apart for stereoscopic com-v
right-eye viewing means through which an ob
server looks when viewing an object to be ranged 3f). bination when viewed stereoscopically, the spac
ing between the stereoscopic pairs of indicia ele
and means for increasing the interocular of the
ments in the diiîerent groups being different'and
observer, in combination, a reticle positioned in
of magnitudes to cause the stereoscopically com
the field of said viewing means, said reticle being
bined indicia elements in each diiferent group to
formed of transparent material having predeter-l
' mined areas therein which are rendered light 35 appear in said held at predetermined but differ
ent apparent distances from lthe range iinder
polarizing and which form at least two indicia
when viewed stereoscopically through said view
elements spaced with respect to each other. to pro
ing means, said areas forming said indicia ele
vide a stereoscopic pair which can be fused when
the reticle system comprises light source 44,
viewed stereoscopically, the spacing between said
indicia elements forming a stereoscopic pair being
of a magnitude to cause the fused indicia ele
ments to appear in said ñeld at a predetermined
apparent distance from the range finder when
viewed through said viewing means, said areas
being predeterminedly polarized so that only one 45
of said indicia elements of a stereoscopic pair is
ments being predeterminedly polarized so that
only one indicia element of each stereoscopic pair
is visible when viewed in light polarized in a pre
determined plane and only the other indicia ele
ment of each stereoscopic pair is visible when
viewed in light polarized in a plane at 90° to said
first named plane, and analyzing means in the
ñeld of each viewing means between said reticle
and said viewing means whereby only one indicia
element of each stereoscopic pair is observable
through the left-eye viewing means and only the
visible when viewed in light polarized in a prede
termined plane and only the other of such stereo
scopic pair of indicia elements is visible when
viewed in light polarized in a plane at 90° to said 50 other indicia element of each stereoscopic pair is
observable through the right-eye viewing means.
first named plane, and analyzing means in the
4. A reticle for a binocular range ñnder, com
ñeld of each viewing means between said reticle
prising transparent material which is capable of
and said viewing means whereby only a different
being rendered light-polarizing when in `a molec
indicia element of a stereoscopic pair is observ
ularly oriented condition by Vthe incorporation
able through each Viewing means.
therein of a dichroic material, said reticle mate
2. In a range iinder having means for forming
rial having the molecules thereof in at least one
a left-eye image and a right-eye image of an ob
predetermined area substantially oriented in a
ject being ranged and also having individual left
predetermined direction and the molecules there
eye and right-eye viewing means which are opti
of in at least a second predetermined area sub
cally aligned respectively with said left-eye and
stantially oriented in a direction substantially at
right-eye image forming means and through
90° to said first named direction and also having a
which an observer looks simultaneously with his
dichroic material incorporated in each yof said
left eye and his right eye for viewing said respec
areas, each predetermined area forming at least
tive images, in combination, a reticle positioned
one of a stereoscopic pair of indicia elements, the
in the field of said-viewing means, said reticle be
, ing formed of transparent material having prede
termined areas therein which are rendered light
polarizing and which form at least two indicia
elements spaced with respect to each other to pro
vide a stereoscopic pair which can be fused when k
viewed stereoscopically, said areas being prede
terminedly polarized so that only one indicia ele
corresponding elements of each pair being spaced
apart by a predetermined distance for stereo
scopic combination to appear in a plane located
at a predetermined apparent distance from an
observer when viewed stereoscopically by said
observer.
_
5. A reticle for a binocular range finder, com
prising transparent material having predeter- '
ment of a stereoscopic pair is visible when viewed
in light polarized in a predetermined plane and
mined light-polarizing areas provided vtherein
only the other indicia elementV of such stereo
which form a plurality of groups of indicia ele
2,404,302
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7
8
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ments, pairs `of indicia elements in’each group
being vspaced apart for stereoscopic combination
when viewed stereoscopically, the spacing between
the indicia elements in different groups being Vdif
transmissionaxis of a light-polarizing area form
ing one of the indicia elements of each stereo
scopi@V pair being substantially at 90° to the trans
mission axis of a lightèpolarizing area forming
ferent and of a magnitude such that stereoscopic
pairs of indicia elements in the different groups
appear in planes located at different and prede
termined apparent distances from an observer
the other element of each stereoscopic pair of
Who isV viewing the reticle stereoscopically, vthe
DEXTER P. COOPER, Jn. ï
indicia elements,
Y
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EDWIN H. LAND.
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