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Патент USA US2404325

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July 16, 1946.
c. G. ‘SWEBILIUS
2,404,325
EXTRACTQR-SWITCH MECHANISM FOR MACHINE GUNS
Filed Nov. 19, 194:5
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Patented July 16, 1946
2,404,325
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
EXTRACTOR-SWITCHMECHANISM
Fen
YMACHJNE GUNS
Carl G. Swebilius, Hamden, Conn, assignor to
The High Standard Manufacturing ‘Company,
Conn., a. corporation of Connecticut
Hamden,
Application November 19, 1943, Serial No. 510,854
2 Claims. (01. 89--33)
1
The present invention relates to ‘improvements
in machine guns and relates more vparticularly to
improvements in extractor-switch mechanisms
therefor. The extractor-switch mechanism of
2
and partly in vertical longitudinal section of the
rear portion of a machine gun equipped with an
extractor-switch mechanism embodying the pres
ent, invention, the parts being shown in the posi
the present invention is adapted for use in con
5 tions which they assume when the breech-bolt
nection with machine guns of the so-called
has almost reached its rearmost position and the
“Browning” type, which type of machine gun is
barrel-extension has reached the limit. of its
disclosed in detail in United States Patent ‘No.
rearward travel;
.
1,628,226, dated May 10, 1927.
Fig. 2 is a View similar to Fig. 1 but showing
In machine guns of the Browning type above 10 the parts in the positions which they assume
referred to, a pivotal cartridge-extractor is em
when the barrel-extension has reached‘ its .full
ployed which serves to extract a, fresh cartridge
forward position and the breech-bolt is ap
from a belt of cartridges as the breech-bolt moves
rearwardly. Such cartridge-extractor is so actu
proaching-itsfull breech-closing position;
' _
Fig. 3 is a broken view of a portion of therleft
ated that upon the rearward stroke of the breech 15 side-plate of the machine gun looking toward the
bolt, a given cartridge from the belt is carried
louter face thereof;
rearwardly and depressed by the said cartridge
Fig. 4 is a view similar to Fig. 3 but looking
extractor and ultimately brought into alignment
toward the inner face of the side-plate; .
'
.
with the cartridge-chamber of the barrel during
Fig. 5 is a transverse sectional ‘View taken on
the forward travel of the said breech-bolt. The 20 the line 5'—5-of Fig. 4; n
.
.
latter part of the cartridge-depressing action of
Fig. 6 is a similar view taken on the line 6-6
the cartridge-extractor just referred to is accom
of Fig. 4;
plished by a pivotal extractor-switch which‘ serves
Fig. 7 is a view in side elevation of the extrac
to further depress the forward end of the car
tor-switch spring detached;
tridge-extractor as the breech-bolt moves for 25
Fig. 8 is an edgeview thereof; and
wardly. Shortly before the breech-bolt reaches
its breech-closing position, the forward portion
switch detached.
of the ex-tractor~switch is depressed so that the
said extractor-switch then serves to guard against
The machine gun illustrated in the accompany?
ingdrawings is of the Browning type and in
the subsequent depression of the cartridge-ex
tractor until such time as the breech-bolt is again
moved rearwardly. As will more fully herein
after appear, the present invention relates to im
provements in features directly related tosuch an
extractor-switch.
Fig. .9 is a perspective view of the extractor
,
30 cludes a receiver generally designated by the ref -
erence character 'I 9, an axially-reciprocating bar
rel H, a barrel-extension l2, a breech-bolt l3 and
abarrel-jacket l4.
‘
The rear end of the barrel 1 I is extended with
in the forward end of the receiver I0 for recip
rocation therein, and the forward end of the
One of the objects of the present invention-is
to provide a superior extractor-switch mechanism
aforesaid barrel-extension I2 is rigidly organized
for machine guns characterized by simplicity and
with the rear end of the said barrel for recipro
ability to withstand hard usage over long periods
cation also within the receiver III, in a, manner
of service.
40 well known in the art. Both the breech-bolt I3
Another object of the present invention is to
and the barrel-extension l2 (and hence also the
provide a superior extractor-switch mechanism
barrel H) may be respectively urged forwardly
capable of satisfactorily functioning in a machine
by suitable spring-means, not herein shown but
gun when the latter is operated at speeds in ex
well understood in the art and more fully shown
cess of one thousand shots per minute.
With the above and other objects in view, as
will appear to those skilled in the art from the
present disclosure, this invention includes all
features in the said disclosure which are novel
over the prior art and which are not claimed in
any separate application.
' in the Browning patent before referred to. '
The breech-bolt l3 reciprocates both with and
with respect to the barrel-extension l2 in a man
nerwell known in the art. The said breech-bolt
I3, is carried by the barrel-extension 12 but with
capacity for reciprocation with respect thereto, as
before referred to.
’
.
In the accompanying drawings, in which cer
Pivotally connected, at its rearend to the left
tain modes of carrying out the present invention
side of the breech-bolt I3 is acartridge-extractor.
are shown for illustrative purposesr
generally designated by the‘reference character
Fig 1 is a broken View partly in side elevation 55 l5. At its forward end, the cartridge-extractor
2,404,325
Slightly forwardly of the extractor-switch I9
is located an upwardly and-forwardly-inclined
cam-bar 34 rigidly secured to the inner face of
I5 is formed with a depending cartridge-extract
ing hook I6 which is adapted in a manner well
known in the art to successively hook into the re
spective cannelures of cartridges to effect the suc
cessive individual extractions thereof from a, car
the side-plate 24 and which in a manner as will
Cl
tridge-belt such as I1 indicated in Figs. 1 and 2.
Extending laterally outwardly from the for
ward end of the cartridge-extractor I5 is an in
tegral guide-lug I8 which is adapted to coact with
hereinafter appear, is engaged by the guide-lug
I8 of the cartridge-extractor I5.
When the machine gun is discharged, the bar
rel II and the barrel-extension I2 move rear
- ~wardly, under the recoil-forces, a relatively-short
the edge surfaces of a lever-like extractor
switch generally designated by the reference
character I9. all as will more fully hereinafter ap
pear.
Rigidly carried by the under-face of the top
plate 20 of the receiver II) is a downwardly-and
rearwardly sloping extractor-depressing cam 2|
positioned so as to engage with the upper surface
of the forward portion of the cartridge-extractor
distance substantially from the positions in which
they are shown in Fig. 2 into substantially the
positions in which they are indicated in Fig. 1.
The breech-bolt I3 will coincidentally trave1 rear
wardly with the barrel II and barrel-extension
I2 but its stroke will be greatly in excess of the
stroke of the said parts II and I2. The breech
bolt I3 will travel rearwarly into a position slight
ly to the rear of the position in which it is indi
cated in Fig. 1.
.
,
I6 to depress the same when the breech-bolt I3
During the rearward travel of the breech-bolt,
20
moves rearwardly, as indicated in Fig. 1.
the cartridge-extractor I5 will, of course, travel
About midway of its length, the extractor
switch I19 above referred to is formed with an
integral outwardly-extending and cylindrically
therewith and will throughv the intermediaryrof
its cartridge-extracting hook I6, withdraw a car
tridge from the cartridge-belt I1 and carry such
contoured pivot-stud or trunnion 22 which turns
cartridge rearwardly. As the cartridge-extractor
25
in a bearing-opening 23 extending laterally
is moved rearwardly as described, the upper face
through the left side-plate 24 of the receiver I6.
of its forward portion will be in engagement with
The said pivot-stud 22 is of a length materially
the extractor-depressing cam 2I on the under
exceeding the thickness of the side-plate 24, so
side of the top-plate 20, with the result that the
as to extend outwardly well beyond the outer
forward portion of the said cartridge-extractor
30
face of the said side-plate. Adjacent its rear
together with the cartridge carried by it, will be
end, the extractor-switch I8 is formed with an
depressed. During this rearward travel and
outwardly-projecting limiting-lug 25 ?tting into
slightly beforet he guide-lug I8 clears the rear
a recess 26 formed in the inner face of the side
end of the extractor-switch I9, the said guide-lug
plate 24 before referred to. By its engagement
I8 will engage with the upper surface of the said
with the upper wall of the recess 26, the said lim 35 extractor-switch I9 and depress the rear end of
iting-lug 25 serves to limit the upward swinging
the latter against the tension of the extractor
movement of the rear portion of the said ex
switch spring 29. This condition substantially
tractor-switch I9.
corresponds to that shown in Fig. 1.
At a point slightly outwardly with respect to
As the breech-bolt I3 moves further rearwardly
the outer face of the side-plate 24, the pivot-stud
from the position in which it is shown in Fig. 1,
22 of the extractor-switch I9 is formed with a
it will carry with it the cartridge-extractor I5,
diametric passage or socket 21. Extending
and slightly before the said breech-bolt reaches
downwardly through the passage 21 just referred
the limit of its rearward travel, the forward edge
to is the key-portion or tension-?nger 2B of an
of the guide-lug I8 will ride rearwarly clear of
extractor-switch spring generally designated by . the rear end of the extractor-switch I9. As soon
the reference character 29. The said spring 29
as this clearance occurs, the extractor-switch
may be conveniently formed of relatively-heavy
spring 29 will assert itself and swing the rear
spring-steel wire and includes also a loop-por
end of the extractor-switch I9 upwardly. Now,
tion 30 and a relatively-long tension-arm 3I.
during the subsequent forward travel of the
In the normal unrestrained condition of the ex- breech-bolt I3 and its cartridge-extractor 15, the
tractor-switch spring 29 above referred to, the
downwardly-and-forwardly-sloping cam-surface
key-portion 28 thereof is displaced outwardly
35 of the extractor-switch I9 will be engaged by
with respect to the outer face of the side-plate
the forward upper portion of the guide-lug I8 of
24, so as to exert a constant effort to yieldingly
the cartridge-extractor I5. The engagement just
hold the outer face of the extractor-switch I9 .
referred to will further depress the forward end
of the cartridge-extractor I5 and hence also the
cartridge now carried thereby until the said car
tridge is horizontally in line with the cartridge
chamber of the barrel II. The said‘ guide-lug
against the inner face of the said side-plate 24.
This displacement is especially clear in the show
ing of Fig. 8. The relatively-long tension-arm
3I of the spring 29 is hooked beneath a down
wardly-facing spring-seat 32 constituting the un GI) will new travel forwardly in a path beneath the
der-face of a reinforcing-bar 33 rigidly secured
extractor-switch I9.
to the outer face of the side-plate 24 in a loca
Ultimately during its forward travel coinci
tion forwardly of the extractor-switch I9. When
dentally with the breech-bolt I3, the guide-lug
the tension-arm 3| is thus located in engagement
I8 of the cartridge extractor I5 will engage with
with the spring-seat 32, the extractor-switch
spring 29 acts through its key-portion 28 to
the upwardly-and-forwardly-sloping cam-bar 34,
but only after the cartridge which is in process
yieldingly turn the extractor-switch I9 in such
of being loaded into the cartridge-chamber of
direction that the rear end of the said extractor
the barrel II has been partly inserted thereinto.
switch is raised and the forward end thereof is
The resultant lifting-action of the forward end
70
lowered. The turning movement just referred to
of the cartridge-extractor I5 will lift the car
is limited by the engagement of the upper face
tridge-extracting hook I6 thereof clear of the
of the limiting-lug 25 of the extractor-switch I9
cannelure of the cartridge now partly inserted
with the upper wall of the recess 26 in the side
into the cartridge-chamber of the barrel I I.
plate 24, as is especially well shown in Figs. 3
In riding-up the surface of the cam-bar 34, the
75
m4.
2,404,325
5
guide-lug I8 of the extractor-switch [9 will up
wardly crowd the forward end of the extractor
switch l9 against the tension of the extractor
switch spring 29, as indicated in Fig. 2.
In Fig. 2 the barrel H and barrel-extension l2
are shown in their full forward positionsand the
breech-bolt i3 is shown in a position closely ap
proaching its full forward or breech-closing po
sition. As the cartridge-extractor l5 moves for.
wardly with the breech-bolt l3, from the position
in which it is shown in Fig. 2 into its full breech
closing position, the rear end of the guide-lug l8
will clear the forward end of the extractor-switch
l9, whereupon the forward end of the said ex
6
,
bodiments are, therefore, to be considered in all
respects as illustrative and not restrictive, and’
all changes coming within. the meaning and‘
equivalency range of the appended claims are» .
intended to be embraced therein. '
I
claim:
’
‘
'
s
1. The combination with a machine gun hav
ing a breech-bolt and a pivotal cartridge-extrac~'
tor carried by the said breech-bolt: of a hollow
receiver-structure having a bearing-opening ex
tending through a wall-portion thereof; a pivotal
extractor-switch located mainly within the re- '
ceiver-structure and constructed and arranged to
de?ect the cartridge-extractor of the machine
tractor-switch will swing downwardly under the 15 gun, the said extractor-switch having a rigid
tension provided by the extractor-switch spring
29. In this manner the extractor-switch 19 will
reassume its normal position, wherein the guide
lug I8 of the cartridge-extractor I5 will ride over
trunnion extending outwardly through and be
yond the bearing-opening in the adjacent wall- a
portion of the said receiver-structure, the said
trunnion having a spring-receiving socket there
the top of the said extractor-switch when the 20 in located in its portion projecting outwardly
breech-bolt is next moved rearwardly by the sub
beyond the said wall-portion; and alaterally
sequent discharge of the machine sun.
bendable spring having one end held by the said *
In former practice and as is shown in the
Browning patent above referred to, it was the
receiver-structure and ‘having its opposite end .
extended ‘into the spring-receiving socket in the
custom to insert a U-shaped extractor-switch 25 trunnion of the said extractor-switch to turn the
spring in the recess 25 of the side-plate 24 in
said trunnion and hence also turn the said ex
such manner that one arm of such spring exert
tractor-switch and to also act as a positive key 4
ed an upward tension against the underside of
to limit the inward displacement of the said
the limiting-lug 25. Furthermore, in the prior
trunnion, the end of the spring which is entered
construction the pivot-stud such as 22 of the ex 30 into the socket in the trunnion of the extractor
tractor-switch was threaded at its outer end and
switch being pre-set outwardly away from the
the entire extractor-switch was retained in place
outer face of the adjacent wall-portion of the re
by a nut bearing against the outer face of the
ceiver-structure to thereby ‘draw the said trun
side-plate 213 and retained by a suitable cotter
nion outwardly.
'
pin. The described construction not only failed 35
2. The combination with a machine gun' hav
to provide a fully reliable extractor-switch spring
ing a breech-bolt and a pivotal cartridge—extrac
in the cramped space available but also required
tor carried by the said breech-bolt: of a hollow
that the aforesaid nut be adjusted with exacti
receiver-structure having a bearing-opening ex5
tude in order to prevent a binding action.
tending through a wall-portion thereof; a pivotal
As will be seen from the foregoing and by ref
extractor-switch located mainly within the re
erence to the accompanying drawings, the pres
ceiver-structure and constructed and arranged
ent invention provides an extractor-switch spring
to de?ect the cartridge-extractor of the machine
which not only serves the function of turning the
gun, the said extractor-switch having a rigid
extractor-switch but also acts as a positive key
trunnion extending outwardly through and be
to hold the same in place in the side-plate 24. 45 yond the bearing-opening in the adjacent wall
Furthermore, by suitably pre-tensioning the ex
tractor-switch spring 29 (see Fig. 8), the said
portion of the said receiver-structure, the said
trunnion having a spring-receiving socket there
spring may be caused to yieldingly maintain the
in located in its portion projecting outwardly be-'
outer face of the extractor-switch ?rmly against
yond the said wall-portion; and a torsion-type
the inner face of the side-plate 24.
50 spring having an inner end extended into the
By means of the present invention not only is
spring-receiving socket in the trunnion of the
the cost of the assembly reduced with respect to
said extractor-switch to turn the said trunnion
manufacturing operations and materials, but the
and hence also turn the said extractor-switch,
assembly of the extractor-switch I9 with the side
the said spring having a loop-portion extending
plate 24 may be effected very rapidly and with 55 from its said inner end and also having an outer
out requiring any delicate adjustments of the
end extending from the said loop-portion away
parts. Conversely, the disassembly of the parts
from the said inner end and engaged with a por
for inspection or repair is similarly rendered most
tion of the said receiver-structure; the inner end
convenient.
of the said torsion-type spring being pretensioned‘
The invention may be carried out in other spe 60 outwardly to exert a constantebut-yielding eff‘.
ci?c ways than those herein set forth without
fort to draw the said trunnion outwardly with’
departing from the spirit and essential charac
respect to the said receiver-structure.
teristics of the invention, and the present em
CARL G. SWEBILIUS.
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