Патент USA US2404325код для вставки
July 16, 1946. c. G. ‘SWEBILIUS 2,404,325 EXTRACTQR-SWITCH MECHANISM FOR MACHINE GUNS Filed Nov. 19, 194:5 ‘wi g Sheets-Sheet 2 '7 ,a/ 5 1 _____ _A hue/7 fa” y (811/ 6.“ J'WeAi/r'u; Patented July 16, 1946 2,404,325 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE EXTRACTOR-SWITCHMECHANISM Fen YMACHJNE GUNS Carl G. Swebilius, Hamden, Conn, assignor to The High Standard Manufacturing ‘Company, Conn., a. corporation of Connecticut Hamden, Application November 19, 1943, Serial No. 510,854 2 Claims. (01. 89--33) 1 The present invention relates to ‘improvements in machine guns and relates more vparticularly to improvements in extractor-switch mechanisms therefor. The extractor-switch mechanism of 2 and partly in vertical longitudinal section of the rear portion of a machine gun equipped with an extractor-switch mechanism embodying the pres ent, invention, the parts being shown in the posi the present invention is adapted for use in con 5 tions which they assume when the breech-bolt nection with machine guns of the so-called has almost reached its rearmost position and the “Browning” type, which type of machine gun is barrel-extension has reached the limit. of its disclosed in detail in United States Patent ‘No. rearward travel; . 1,628,226, dated May 10, 1927. Fig. 2 is a View similar to Fig. 1 but showing In machine guns of the Browning type above 10 the parts in the positions which they assume referred to, a pivotal cartridge-extractor is em when the barrel-extension has reached‘ its .full ployed which serves to extract a, fresh cartridge forward position and the breech-bolt is ap from a belt of cartridges as the breech-bolt moves rearwardly. Such cartridge-extractor is so actu proaching-itsfull breech-closing position; ' _ Fig. 3 is a broken view of a portion of therleft ated that upon the rearward stroke of the breech 15 side-plate of the machine gun looking toward the bolt, a given cartridge from the belt is carried louter face thereof; rearwardly and depressed by the said cartridge Fig. 4 is a view similar to Fig. 3 but looking extractor and ultimately brought into alignment toward the inner face of the side-plate; . ' . with the cartridge-chamber of the barrel during Fig. 5 is a transverse sectional ‘View taken on the forward travel of the said breech-bolt. The 20 the line 5'—5-of Fig. 4; n . . latter part of the cartridge-depressing action of Fig. 6 is a similar view taken on the line 6-6 the cartridge-extractor just referred to is accom of Fig. 4; plished by a pivotal extractor-switch which‘ serves Fig. 7 is a view in side elevation of the extrac to further depress the forward end of the car tor-switch spring detached; tridge-extractor as the breech-bolt moves for 25 Fig. 8 is an edgeview thereof; and wardly. Shortly before the breech-bolt reaches its breech-closing position, the forward portion switch detached. of the ex-tractor~switch is depressed so that the said extractor-switch then serves to guard against The machine gun illustrated in the accompany? ingdrawings is of the Browning type and in the subsequent depression of the cartridge-ex tractor until such time as the breech-bolt is again moved rearwardly. As will more fully herein after appear, the present invention relates to im provements in features directly related tosuch an extractor-switch. Fig. .9 is a perspective view of the extractor , 30 cludes a receiver generally designated by the ref - erence character 'I 9, an axially-reciprocating bar rel H, a barrel-extension l2, a breech-bolt l3 and abarrel-jacket l4. ‘ The rear end of the barrel 1 I is extended with in the forward end of the receiver I0 for recip rocation therein, and the forward end of the One of the objects of the present invention-is to provide a superior extractor-switch mechanism aforesaid barrel-extension I2 is rigidly organized for machine guns characterized by simplicity and with the rear end of the said barrel for recipro ability to withstand hard usage over long periods cation also within the receiver III, in a, manner of service. 40 well known in the art. Both the breech-bolt I3 Another object of the present invention is to and the barrel-extension l2 (and hence also the provide a superior extractor-switch mechanism barrel H) may be respectively urged forwardly capable of satisfactorily functioning in a machine by suitable spring-means, not herein shown but gun when the latter is operated at speeds in ex well understood in the art and more fully shown cess of one thousand shots per minute. With the above and other objects in view, as will appear to those skilled in the art from the present disclosure, this invention includes all features in the said disclosure which are novel over the prior art and which are not claimed in any separate application. ' in the Browning patent before referred to. ' The breech-bolt l3 reciprocates both with and with respect to the barrel-extension l2 in a man nerwell known in the art. The said breech-bolt I3, is carried by the barrel-extension 12 but with capacity for reciprocation with respect thereto, as before referred to. ’ . In the accompanying drawings, in which cer Pivotally connected, at its rearend to the left tain modes of carrying out the present invention side of the breech-bolt I3 is acartridge-extractor. are shown for illustrative purposesr generally designated by the‘reference character Fig 1 is a broken View partly in side elevation 55 l5. At its forward end, the cartridge-extractor 2,404,325 Slightly forwardly of the extractor-switch I9 is located an upwardly and-forwardly-inclined cam-bar 34 rigidly secured to the inner face of I5 is formed with a depending cartridge-extract ing hook I6 which is adapted in a manner well known in the art to successively hook into the re spective cannelures of cartridges to effect the suc cessive individual extractions thereof from a, car the side-plate 24 and which in a manner as will Cl tridge-belt such as I1 indicated in Figs. 1 and 2. Extending laterally outwardly from the for ward end of the cartridge-extractor I5 is an in tegral guide-lug I8 which is adapted to coact with hereinafter appear, is engaged by the guide-lug I8 of the cartridge-extractor I5. When the machine gun is discharged, the bar rel II and the barrel-extension I2 move rear - ~wardly, under the recoil-forces, a relatively-short the edge surfaces of a lever-like extractor switch generally designated by the reference character I9. all as will more fully hereinafter ap pear. Rigidly carried by the under-face of the top plate 20 of the receiver II) is a downwardly-and rearwardly sloping extractor-depressing cam 2| positioned so as to engage with the upper surface of the forward portion of the cartridge-extractor distance substantially from the positions in which they are shown in Fig. 2 into substantially the positions in which they are indicated in Fig. 1. The breech-bolt I3 will coincidentally trave1 rear wardly with the barrel II and barrel-extension I2 but its stroke will be greatly in excess of the stroke of the said parts II and I2. The breech bolt I3 will travel rearwarly into a position slight ly to the rear of the position in which it is indi cated in Fig. 1. . , I6 to depress the same when the breech-bolt I3 During the rearward travel of the breech-bolt, 20 moves rearwardly, as indicated in Fig. 1. the cartridge-extractor I5 will, of course, travel About midway of its length, the extractor switch I19 above referred to is formed with an integral outwardly-extending and cylindrically therewith and will throughv the intermediaryrof its cartridge-extracting hook I6, withdraw a car tridge from the cartridge-belt I1 and carry such contoured pivot-stud or trunnion 22 which turns cartridge rearwardly. As the cartridge-extractor 25 in a bearing-opening 23 extending laterally is moved rearwardly as described, the upper face through the left side-plate 24 of the receiver I6. of its forward portion will be in engagement with The said pivot-stud 22 is of a length materially the extractor-depressing cam 2I on the under exceeding the thickness of the side-plate 24, so side of the top-plate 20, with the result that the as to extend outwardly well beyond the outer forward portion of the said cartridge-extractor 30 face of the said side-plate. Adjacent its rear together with the cartridge carried by it, will be end, the extractor-switch I8 is formed with an depressed. During this rearward travel and outwardly-projecting limiting-lug 25 ?tting into slightly beforet he guide-lug I8 clears the rear a recess 26 formed in the inner face of the side end of the extractor-switch I9, the said guide-lug plate 24 before referred to. By its engagement I8 will engage with the upper surface of the said with the upper wall of the recess 26, the said lim 35 extractor-switch I9 and depress the rear end of iting-lug 25 serves to limit the upward swinging the latter against the tension of the extractor movement of the rear portion of the said ex switch spring 29. This condition substantially tractor-switch I9. corresponds to that shown in Fig. 1. At a point slightly outwardly with respect to As the breech-bolt I3 moves further rearwardly the outer face of the side-plate 24, the pivot-stud from the position in which it is shown in Fig. 1, 22 of the extractor-switch I9 is formed with a it will carry with it the cartridge-extractor I5, diametric passage or socket 21. Extending and slightly before the said breech-bolt reaches downwardly through the passage 21 just referred the limit of its rearward travel, the forward edge to is the key-portion or tension-?nger 2B of an of the guide-lug I8 will ride rearwarly clear of extractor-switch spring generally designated by . the rear end of the extractor-switch I9. As soon the reference character 29. The said spring 29 as this clearance occurs, the extractor-switch may be conveniently formed of relatively-heavy spring 29 will assert itself and swing the rear spring-steel wire and includes also a loop-por end of the extractor-switch I9 upwardly. Now, tion 30 and a relatively-long tension-arm 3I. during the subsequent forward travel of the In the normal unrestrained condition of the ex- breech-bolt I3 and its cartridge-extractor 15, the tractor-switch spring 29 above referred to, the downwardly-and-forwardly-sloping cam-surface key-portion 28 thereof is displaced outwardly 35 of the extractor-switch I9 will be engaged by with respect to the outer face of the side-plate the forward upper portion of the guide-lug I8 of 24, so as to exert a constant effort to yieldingly the cartridge-extractor I5. The engagement just hold the outer face of the extractor-switch I9 . referred to will further depress the forward end of the cartridge-extractor I5 and hence also the cartridge now carried thereby until the said car tridge is horizontally in line with the cartridge chamber of the barrel II. The said‘ guide-lug against the inner face of the said side-plate 24. This displacement is especially clear in the show ing of Fig. 8. The relatively-long tension-arm 3I of the spring 29 is hooked beneath a down wardly-facing spring-seat 32 constituting the un GI) will new travel forwardly in a path beneath the der-face of a reinforcing-bar 33 rigidly secured extractor-switch I9. to the outer face of the side-plate 24 in a loca Ultimately during its forward travel coinci tion forwardly of the extractor-switch I9. When dentally with the breech-bolt I3, the guide-lug the tension-arm 3| is thus located in engagement I8 of the cartridge extractor I5 will engage with with the spring-seat 32, the extractor-switch spring 29 acts through its key-portion 28 to the upwardly-and-forwardly-sloping cam-bar 34, but only after the cartridge which is in process yieldingly turn the extractor-switch I9 in such of being loaded into the cartridge-chamber of direction that the rear end of the said extractor the barrel II has been partly inserted thereinto. switch is raised and the forward end thereof is The resultant lifting-action of the forward end 70 lowered. The turning movement just referred to of the cartridge-extractor I5 will lift the car is limited by the engagement of the upper face tridge-extracting hook I6 thereof clear of the of the limiting-lug 25 of the extractor-switch I9 cannelure of the cartridge now partly inserted with the upper wall of the recess 26 in the side into the cartridge-chamber of the barrel I I. plate 24, as is especially well shown in Figs. 3 In riding-up the surface of the cam-bar 34, the 75 m4. 2,404,325 5 guide-lug I8 of the extractor-switch [9 will up wardly crowd the forward end of the extractor switch l9 against the tension of the extractor switch spring 29, as indicated in Fig. 2. In Fig. 2 the barrel H and barrel-extension l2 are shown in their full forward positionsand the breech-bolt i3 is shown in a position closely ap proaching its full forward or breech-closing po sition. As the cartridge-extractor l5 moves for. wardly with the breech-bolt l3, from the position in which it is shown in Fig. 2 into its full breech closing position, the rear end of the guide-lug l8 will clear the forward end of the extractor-switch l9, whereupon the forward end of the said ex 6 , bodiments are, therefore, to be considered in all respects as illustrative and not restrictive, and’ all changes coming within. the meaning and‘ equivalency range of the appended claims are» . intended to be embraced therein. ' I claim: ’ ‘ ' s 1. The combination with a machine gun hav ing a breech-bolt and a pivotal cartridge-extrac~' tor carried by the said breech-bolt: of a hollow receiver-structure having a bearing-opening ex tending through a wall-portion thereof; a pivotal extractor-switch located mainly within the re- ' ceiver-structure and constructed and arranged to de?ect the cartridge-extractor of the machine tractor-switch will swing downwardly under the 15 gun, the said extractor-switch having a rigid tension provided by the extractor-switch spring 29. In this manner the extractor-switch 19 will reassume its normal position, wherein the guide lug I8 of the cartridge-extractor I5 will ride over trunnion extending outwardly through and be yond the bearing-opening in the adjacent wall- a portion of the said receiver-structure, the said trunnion having a spring-receiving socket there the top of the said extractor-switch when the 20 in located in its portion projecting outwardly breech-bolt is next moved rearwardly by the sub beyond the said wall-portion; and alaterally sequent discharge of the machine sun. bendable spring having one end held by the said * In former practice and as is shown in the Browning patent above referred to, it was the receiver-structure and ‘having its opposite end . extended ‘into the spring-receiving socket in the custom to insert a U-shaped extractor-switch 25 trunnion of the said extractor-switch to turn the spring in the recess 25 of the side-plate 24 in said trunnion and hence also turn the said ex such manner that one arm of such spring exert tractor-switch and to also act as a positive key 4 ed an upward tension against the underside of to limit the inward displacement of the said the limiting-lug 25. Furthermore, in the prior trunnion, the end of the spring which is entered construction the pivot-stud such as 22 of the ex 30 into the socket in the trunnion of the extractor tractor-switch was threaded at its outer end and switch being pre-set outwardly away from the the entire extractor-switch was retained in place outer face of the adjacent wall-portion of the re by a nut bearing against the outer face of the ceiver-structure to thereby ‘draw the said trun side-plate 213 and retained by a suitable cotter nion outwardly. ' pin. The described construction not only failed 35 2. The combination with a machine gun' hav to provide a fully reliable extractor-switch spring ing a breech-bolt and a pivotal cartridge—extrac in the cramped space available but also required tor carried by the said breech-bolt: of a hollow that the aforesaid nut be adjusted with exacti receiver-structure having a bearing-opening ex5 tude in order to prevent a binding action. tending through a wall-portion thereof; a pivotal As will be seen from the foregoing and by ref extractor-switch located mainly within the re erence to the accompanying drawings, the pres ceiver-structure and constructed and arranged ent invention provides an extractor-switch spring to de?ect the cartridge-extractor of the machine which not only serves the function of turning the gun, the said extractor-switch having a rigid extractor-switch but also acts as a positive key trunnion extending outwardly through and be to hold the same in place in the side-plate 24. 45 yond the bearing-opening in the adjacent wall Furthermore, by suitably pre-tensioning the ex tractor-switch spring 29 (see Fig. 8), the said portion of the said receiver-structure, the said trunnion having a spring-receiving socket there spring may be caused to yieldingly maintain the in located in its portion projecting outwardly be-' outer face of the extractor-switch ?rmly against yond the said wall-portion; and a torsion-type the inner face of the side-plate 24. 50 spring having an inner end extended into the By means of the present invention not only is spring-receiving socket in the trunnion of the the cost of the assembly reduced with respect to said extractor-switch to turn the said trunnion manufacturing operations and materials, but the and hence also turn the said extractor-switch, assembly of the extractor-switch I9 with the side the said spring having a loop-portion extending plate 24 may be effected very rapidly and with 55 from its said inner end and also having an outer out requiring any delicate adjustments of the end extending from the said loop-portion away parts. Conversely, the disassembly of the parts from the said inner end and engaged with a por for inspection or repair is similarly rendered most tion of the said receiver-structure; the inner end convenient. of the said torsion-type spring being pretensioned‘ The invention may be carried out in other spe 60 outwardly to exert a constantebut-yielding eff‘. ci?c ways than those herein set forth without fort to draw the said trunnion outwardly with’ departing from the spirit and essential charac respect to the said receiver-structure. teristics of the invention, and the present em CARL G. SWEBILIUS.