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Патент USA US2404327

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JuEy16,1946-
‘.
I J.C.T1GHE
2,404,321
ARTIFICIAL ‘TOOTH
Filed March 23, 1943
,
2 Sheets-Sheet l
INVENTOR.
BY '
Cj’ig'he.
1;"
‘h
ATTORNEY.
July 16, 1946.
,
'
I
J. c. TIGHE
ARTIFICIAL
_ 2,4043”
TOOTH
‘
Filed March 25, 1943
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
.
ATTORNEY.’
‘
Patented July 16, 1946
. 2,404,327
‘UNITED ‘STATES PATENT oFFlCE'ff‘,
Application March 23, 1943, Serial No.
5 Claims.
(01.32-8)
‘
'
'
'
-
‘
larly the occlusal surfaces of the jlower?poste'rlor
This invention relates to arti?cial posterior
teeth.
V
.
‘teeth;
- Figure 3 illustrates the buccal and labial-{cheek
'
One object of the present invention resides in
and lip side) surfaces of an- upper and lowerden
the provision of an arti?cial posterior tooth com
posed of porcelain or plastics and more particu 5 ture in normal occlusion-thaws, centric‘ position, ‘
in which position» each chewing stroke is i?nished
larly to the occlusal surface ‘of arti?cial teeth ‘(bi- '
and alsoas when swallowing and‘when-thegtéeth '
cuspids and molars).
,
Another object of the invention is to provide
are closed in a position of rest; ~
-
»
‘r
v a
<
Figure 4 is an enlarged fragmentary view illus
an arti?cial posterior tooth with a serrated oc
clusal surface of a serrated formation to provide 10 ' trating a portion of the occlusal-surfac'e of a pos
terior tooth-formed in accordance with one em
"a plurality of interconnected or communicating
fgrooves with intermediate ?at elevated surfaces
and in which'the outermost grooves of the tooth
lead laterally outwardly of all of the sides of- the
tooth.’
-
-
bodiment
Figure 5
of is
my
a invention;
transverse \sectionalview
f
.
..
, .. ,.
onan
enlarged scale through the-upper and lower den
15 tures showing the. posteriornteeth in occlusion; A
Another object of the invention is'to provide a -
- : Figure @6 illustrates the upper and lower jaws
together with-a side view of an upperand lower
denture in ‘.‘centric position,“ which is_the rela
tive . position of ‘the lower, to the. upper j aw.‘ ‘while
dentures but the use of an independent tooth may
be used to advantage in certain types of dentures 20 swallowing, or the relation, of , the teeth and. jaws
when they are closed?in aposition oi rest,’ theihead
incident to' the fact that the teeth of the dentures "
of the condyle I6 being atrest inwthe glenoid l7;
are of an independent character with relation to
7 Figure 7 is anelevation illustrating the general
one another.
’
view of the upper and lower jaws togethenwith
Another object of the invention resides in the
provision of upper and lower dentures provided. 25 the side viewof an upper andlower denture in‘the
particular design of artificial posterior tooth
chie?y for the construction of upper and lower
.with arti?cial posterior teeth having their occlusal‘
surfaces each serrated to provide each occlusal
. protruded position;
,
-
'tooth with a plurality of ?at surfaces and a plu
Figured} is a transverse sectionalwview illus
trating movements of the ‘movable lower denture
rality of communicating grooves with the outer
with relation. to, the upper, denture-
most grooves leading laterally of the sides of the . 30
grooves whereby to provide for e?'ective mastica-‘ "
‘tion and escape of ‘foods frombetween opposing
teeth regardless of the direction of theopposing
‘pressure incident to mastication and from the be
“ ;
Referring now more particularly to the accom
panying drawings, the reference characters l9
and l I indicate’ upper and lower dentures, respec
tively, of a set of false teeth, Figures 1 and 2 in
particular illustrating the usual number of por
celain or otherposterior teeth l2 in the upper
ginning to the'end of the masticating stroke.
.. 35
denture and illustrating the usual number of por- ,
With these and other objects in view, the in
celain or other posterior teeth 13 in ‘the lower
vention consists in the novel construction, combi
denture and illustrating also the cusplessocclusal
nation and arrangement of parts, hereinafter fully
surfaces A of all of the posterior teeth as formed; I
describedsillustrated in-the accompanying draw
ings and pointed out in the claims hereto ap- 40‘ generally speaking, in accordance with at least ~one
embodiment of my'inv'ention. ' ’ '
r
.
pended, it being understood that various changes1
The, occlusal surfacesA of all of’the'posterior
in the form, proportion‘and minor details of con
teeth ‘formed in accordance with the present in
struction, within the scope of the appended claims,
vention are serrated or grooved in a‘peculiar man
may beresorted to without departing from the
spirit or sacri?cing any of the advantages of the
ner for an 'e?ective mastication. of foodrincluda
.45 ing
invention.
elevated flat surfaces I4 and relatively nar
In the accompanying drawings:
'
row outwardly tapering grooves l5, that is’ grooves
which are substantially V-shaped in cross section.
.Figure 1 is aninverted plan view illustrating
The grooves ‘I5 of the posterior teeth are
the?general arrangement and usual number of
formed and arranged to provide for the escape
posterior teeth in an upper denture,v ‘showing par
of food in at least four differentfdirectionsiv ir
ticularly the'occlusal surfaces of? he upper pos-’'
respective of the direction of pressure of'masti
terior teeth;
’_
_
I
Figure 2.is a top plan view illustrating the gen
cation. In other words, the outermost grooves
a of the occlusal surface of eachjposterior tooth
eral arrangement and the usual number of pos
terioriteethr in a lower dentureshowlng particu-__ ‘55', leads outwardly‘ laterally ». from the respective
‘2,404,327
,
3.
7
if ‘
‘
~
tooth, providing for escapage of food from there
surfaces laterally outwardly with respect to the
between and opposing or adjacent teeth and to
which outermost grooves all interior grooves b
lead, as clearly shown particularly in Figures 1
sides of the teeth.
and 2.
‘I
>
As shown, the ?at surfaces [4 are square and
the upwardly tapering grooves are straight, all
grooves intercommunicating but it will be un
derstood thatithe flat surfaces‘ It‘ may be other
than square and the grooves ‘l5 {other than 10
‘ straight so long as the grooves communicate
'
-
'
Reference to Fig. 5 wherein the general plane,
of the posterior teeth are‘ shown in occlusion,‘
‘the general line or plane of occlusion may be at
the line A. R. or at the line A. ‘S. or at a line any
place between the lines A. R. or A. S. or similar
to these lines. This line, plane or occlusal sur
face is established-in the ‘mouth during the con
'stru'ction'of the. dentures. This . line of - occlusion
is never the same on the right side as on the left
with one another for escapage of food from be-' > . 1 side of the mouth and it is never the same in
tween opposing teeth through outermost grooves. .. two different people. The line of occlusion (A.
opening outwardly laterally of the sides of'the "S;). changes with the changes of the underlying’
structure of the denture, viz., the ridge of the
teeth. The grooves may'range from 'frontito
maxilla or mandible. This change, commonly
back mesio-distally or from side to side. bucco-l
lingually or diagonally. The grooves may'range '
called the “settling” of the denture, is, therefore
over part or the entire distance acrosstthe‘rocg
clusal surface. The grooves may be curved in
va variant in the occlusal plane and manifests‘
itself as such at some time or other in practically
stead of being straight, as shown and they may 20 every denture made.
It will be noted in Fig. 7 that the condyle I3 is
be different lengths, widths, depths and arranged
at different angles. 'Where the grooves range
in, an advanced position in the glenoid fossa H.
from front to back mesio-distally, and from side
to side-bucco-lingually, the ?at surfaces M have
noid fossa IT is peculiar to,the- individual and is
The natural curve (usually concave) of'the gle
a tendency to take square formation. Where 25 never ‘the same on the right and leftsides of a
person. It is the natural movement o-fthecon
the grooves range diagonally across the occlusal
dyle head hi in, the glenoid fossa. I“! which pro
surface, the ?at~surfaces have a tendency to
duces the curve of Spee l8. Some form of the
take a diamond shape. Since the teeth are en
curve of Spee is foundin all natural teeth. The
tirely independent‘ of eachv other, ‘either type of
occlusal surface is equally effective‘ and either 30 mandible is a triangle-which, inits lateral move
or both types may be used in the: same or oppos
ments, moves around two or more rotation cen
ing dentures. These teeth are entirely cuspless
and are completely independent and the teeth} .
ters. It is thisfact, in connectionwith- the fact
that all glenoid fossae are different, that causes
occlude with any portion of opposing teeth.
the curve of Spee [8 (Fig. '7) to'be different in
The said ?at surfaces and grooves serve to 35 eachindividuai.v It-is also responsible for the
fact that the plane A. .S. (Fig. 5) is‘ also corre
lated and regulated by the. movement of the. con
dyle I6 in the glenoid fossa l'l. Since, the man
dible is a triangle moving around two- or more
to ?t each other, the same degree of masticating
emciency is obtained regardless of the direction 40 rotation centers, it cannot make any movement
in a straight line; all movements are in an arc.
of the opposing pressure. It is possible to masti
crush and tear the food from the beginning to
the end of the masticating stroke. Since the oc
clusal planes of the opposing teeth are milled
. cate e?iciently on the right and left. sides at the
same time.
Thus will be seen the ease with which; the. lower
(and movable) denture, constructed in accord-"
ance with the present invention may pass from
The arti?cial posterior tooth having an 001
clusal surface formed as speci?ed and vshown 45 right to left and anero-posteroly on a self made
path according tothe guidance of the 'condyle IS
each tooth is independent of any other tooth
in the glenoid fossa l1 without occlusal inter
in the same, or in the opposing denture as far
ference, a condition highly ‘desired in the con
as position is concerned. That is to say, a
struction of all: arti?cial ‘dentures.
bicuspid could be used in place of a molar or a
60
What is claimed is:
e
molar in place of a bicuspid. If, for any special
1. An arti?cial posterior tooth; having a ser
reason, all bicuspids would be used on one den
rated occlusal surface providing .av plurality of
ture, any combination of bicuspids or‘ molars
elevated ?at portions and a pluralityof communi
could be used on the opposing denture.
An arti?cial posterior tooth with an occlusal 55 cating grooves extending entirely across the oc
clusal surface spacing the ?at portions from each
surface serrated retains its original ef?ciency
other, said ?at portionslyingin- the same plane
although at times ground for adjustments inci
and said grooves being=of uniform ‘depth and
dent to changes in the base material or for other
diameter
to eliminate food pockets and all of. the
The
same
original
e?iciency
may
also
' reasons.
grooves being disposed in the samev plane with
be maintained over a period of years during the;
natural resorption and other changes in the ridges 60 relation to the occlusal. surface, the outermost
\
or because of natural wear in use. Should it be
come necessary for any reason whatsoever to de
grooves opening laterally outwardly at thesides
of the‘tooith to provideescapage of foods-from
mastication of‘food and for an'effective escape
of ‘food in a plurality of directions 'duringpres
vsure -of mastication and especially since all
2. An arti?cial posterior tooth Mariam.
rated occlusal surface providing a. plurality of\\
elevated ?at portions and a plurality of separate
and through the grooves during. the masticating .
stroy or change the original occlusal surface the
occlusal surfaces'may be restored to their'orig 65 stroke, regardless of the direction of opposing
pressure, said ?at portions being subject-‘to. a
inal- efficiency by recutting the grooves" with a
grinding action to fit the curved plane established
“Joe Dandy” cutter or other suitable grinding‘
by the jaw of each individual patient,.and said
or cutting tool.
grooves being restorable for adjustment purposes
'Thus it will be. seen that I provide ajtooth de
or .to normalv conditionafter .the?at surfaces
signed‘or formed to provide for an effective 70 have been ground. .
'
.
"grooves in the'occlusalsurfaces. of the posterior
, communicating grooves extending entirely across,
"teeth interconnect and lead from the occlusal 75 the occlusal surface and being of uniform depth
5
2,404,327
6
and diameter and spacing the ?at portions from
portion and grooves of uniform depth and diazn- -
each other, said ?at portions lying in the same
plane and all of the grooves being disposed in
the same plane with relation to the occlusal sur
eter extending entirely across the occlusal surface
and leading outwardly laterally of ‘the sides of the ,
respective tooth, the serrated occlusal surfaces
face, said ?at portions being subject to a grind
of opposing teeth being non-interlocking and in
ing action between the grooves to ?t the curved
dependently operable to crush and tear food and
plane established by the jaw of each individual
to discharge the same through said grooves in’-~
patient, and the grooves being restorable to nor
dependently of other'teeth and regardless'of the
mal condition after grinding of the ?at surfaces,
direction of the opposing pressure, the ?at portion
the outermost grooves opening laterally outwardly 10 of each tooth being subject to grinding for ad
of the four sides of the tooth to provide efficient
justment purposes so as to ?t the‘curved plane
escape of the food in four directions from the
or surface established by the jaw of each indi
beginning to the end of the masticating stroke
vidual patient, ‘and the grooves being restorable
and regardless of the direction of the opposing
to normal condition after the surface of the ?at
pressure.
portion has been ground.
3. An arti?cial posterior tooth having the oc- '
5. The combination with upper and lower den- ‘
clusal surface thereof provided with a plurality of
tures, each carrying arti?cial posterior teeth,
?at portions and a plurality of substantially
each posterior tooth having serrated occlusal sur
V-shaped communicating grooves extending en
faces providing a plurality of spaced ?at‘surfaces
tirely across the occlusal surface and spacing
changeable as to- form to fit the curved plane es
said ?at portions from each other and all ar 20 tablished by the jaw of each individual patient,
ranged within the occlusal surface area of the
and a plurality of communicating grooves of uni
tooth with the outermost grooves, opening out
form depth and diameter to eliminate food pock
wardly laterally at the sides of the tooth,rsaid
grooves being of uniform diameter and depth
throughout their lengths, preventing food pockets
in the side walls of the grooves and all ofthe
grooves being in the‘same plane with relation
ets leading outwardly laterally of the sides of the
25 respective teeth to convey masticated food later
ally from between opposing teeth during the
masticating stroke, the opposing teeth having
their serrated occlusal surfaces formed on a line
to provide for mastication on both sides of the
disposed in the same plane with relation to one
dentures at the same time and permitting escap
another and being subject to a grinding action to 30 age of the food in various directions regardless of
?t them to the curved plane or surface estab
the direction of pressure applied against the flat
lished by the jaw of each individual patient.
surfaces of the opposing occlusal surfaces or as
4. The combination with upper and lower den
regards the line of occlusal meeting of the oppos
tures, each carrying arti?cial posterior teeth hav
ing occlusal surfaces.
to the occlusal surface, said ?at portions being
ing serrated occlusal surfaces providing a ?at
JOHN C. 'I'IGI-IE;
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