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Патент USA US2404348

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July 23,1946..
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' ‘L, B, BOYD
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INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ‘ENGINE PISTON
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2,404,348
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Filed Dec. so, 1943 .
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.INVENTOR.
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f’atented July 23,1946 I
2,404,348 '
Applicamn December 30, 1943,-seria1 No.1516t134? '
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(Cl.‘I123_193)‘- I
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Mypresent invention I l'elatestéfimprové?mhtsl
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in pistons, and particularly to ‘pistons’ for internal
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Figurez is an elevation view of my pistonln
part
section.
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Figure, 3 is an enlarged cross-sectional view of
combustion, engines having a cylinder block
structure and a cylinder ‘cover; and the objects
of; improvement are: first, to provide an _,_internal
a portion of Ian internal combustion engine piston
illustrating the application of copper or other
.combustion engine piston that will cause-im
proved combustion of, the ‘fuel .charge in‘ fuel
Throughout the three views of the drawing,
metals by other than my preferred method.
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similar numerals refer to similar parts and por
tionsof my piston, as mountedI'in an internal
ternal combustion engine piston having a_ thin
layer of substantially pure copper formingIa heat 10 combustion engine, and referring to the drawing:
spaces. of > the . engine; second, to provide anIin
. Numeral Iv refers‘ to my present internal com
radiant,extending-throughout its head for re
bustion engine piston, comprising a skirt portion
?eeting heat of combustion back into ,thecom
bustion; chamber; third, .I to provide“, an- internal
‘ZIwith‘I inwardly extending wrist pin bosses 3, each
having a bore 4 for recei'ving'thev wrist pin 5,v'to
copper extending throughout its head portion 15,. which is swingably connected‘rod 6 connected ‘to
,the crank pm of the engine’s crankshaft, ‘and
thatdoes-rnotg act ,as a-heat transferv member;
combustion engine,v piston. having. a, ,member I of
wherebylthe crank shaftjis‘ turned by the‘ piston
. fourth, to provide an internal combustion. engine
on its power excursion and the piston is moved
piston havingless heat transfer to the wall of
longitudinallyby power stored in the crank shaft '
the cylinder in which the piston reciprocates‘than
veither pistons’; composed of non-ferrous metal or
20 and; associated members I, on , its compression
such other pistons having copper or other non
excursion;
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. . ._The skirt portion ziia'sjriéar itslower endt'an
nulIar ring slot ‘I, having loosely mounted ther'e- _
internalicoml'biistion engine piston that can op
‘in outwardly springable 'oil ?lm", regulating ring
erate on its reciprocative excursions with less
clearance between its periphery.‘andfIthefcylin-i :25 8, and near its upperenda thickened portion I9
having a plurality of annular slots l0, Ieach havé
j der‘ wall than the ii'riternal’ combustion engine pis
ie'rrous metal at their heads; fifth, to provide an
ing». therein an outwardly sprin‘gable pressure
, tQhS 'preséntiy'employed'; IsIiXth, to'provide ‘an in
sealing ring lll’I andIoutwardly'exteInding annu
larI‘fiange “of slightly lessdiameter than the
‘ternal 'combu‘stionieng'ine‘piStorithat will re
Imainv substantially free from'lcarbon accumula
skirt portion and the lands separating .thefpres
tion under its deck’an'd'onthe .t'op'of the piston;
'I'seventh, to provide 'an' internal combustion en
gine ‘piston of which‘the: pressure sealing rings
sure sealing ring slotsQfv
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At the topof the thickened portion 9 and form
ing a portion of the outwardly extending annular,
'will‘ not become carbon bound ;' eighth, to provide
?ange H is the piston head or deck' l2, having
an internal combustion engine piston whereby
the horse power output of the engine will be 35 secured to its side nearest to the combustion of
Ithefuel charge a thin ferrous. ,metal plate l2’
I greaterthan'th'at of internal combustion engines
having a higher resistance to heat transfer than
‘o'fqthfe same horse power rating and using the
the metal of the said deck l2, secured to the deck
same quantity and quality fuel ;v ninth,_ to provide
I I2 preferably by brazing with a high temperature
an internal' combustion e'nginefpiston that will
"causea minimum of ‘fuel consumption for a‘ given» 40 melting, point solder, and has at its side opposite
the side from the said head deck a smooth heat
horse powén'devempe'd by the‘ engine; tenthfto
re?ecting. layer l3 having high heat re?ecting
‘provide: an v[internal combustion engine piston
that will cause a minimum consumption of lubri
I eating oil; eleventh, to‘provide‘ an’internal' com
bustion enginepiston that will be more efficient
characteristics such as copper.' Both the plate
‘. 12-’ and heat re?ecting layer l3, are shown ex
.45. tending
thanlisuch pistonsat present employed. _.
throughout the top surface of the head
‘deck (I2, and with the heat re?ecting layer ex
‘I attain these'nam‘ed objects'andsuch other
tending 'beyond the periphery of the annular
objects as'appe'ar from a perusalof the following
description and the structure illustrated in the
gaging the wall of the'cylinder bore in which'the
, ?ange “I I. with a thinbeveled edge l3’ lightly en
.. 5Q piston is , caused ‘ to reciprocate.
accompanying drawing, in which:
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Numeral [4 refers to a cylinder block or frame
Figure 1 is a vertical sectional view of an in- I‘
of an internal combustion engine provided with
a cylinder sleeve 15 having outwardly extending
annular ?ange [6 at its top resting on annular
cylinder sleeve having a piston of my improved
55 ledge ll of the cylinder block or frame, having
structure therein.
ternal combustion engine cylinder block having
a cylinder cover extending over its top and a .
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2,404,348 "
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cylinder cover [8 secured to its top surface with
fuel is obtained; further, the thinness of the cop
a suitable high pressure heat resisting packing
per metal layer l3 approximately one sixty-fourth '
interposed between the cylinder block and cover.
of an inch coupled with its. joinder zone between
it and the ferrous‘plate to which it is attached
Numeral l9 refers to the combustion chamber 7
of the engine which should be of suitable form 5 and the joint of said plate with the piston head
deck, form a dam in part that resists heat vtrans
for the engine in which the piston is to be used,
fer of combustion to the piston and particularly
as different designs of engine require differently
to the under side of the head deck, and thereby
formed combustion chambers. Numeral 20- re
fers to the fuelintake valve operated by the valve
prevents accumulation of carbon within the pis
stem 2i for admittinglzgaseous fuel to the com- 10 "ton'gi as where the lubricating oil is splashed
bustion chamber I9 from fuel intake passage 22;
against the under side of the head deck of a pis
numeral 23 designates the ignition spark plugv V : ton when heated, as it is in internal combustion
and 24 the chamber containing the cooling fluid“ ' ‘
I ,‘of the cylinder block or frame. -
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engines having assisted heat transfer by a heat
transfer means, form, a deposit of
carbon
Referring to Figure 3 therein is shown a meth- 15 throughoutmost of the interior of the piston,‘
0d of securing copper directly to the top of the 7’ ' and ‘also ‘in the pressure sealing ring grooves,
piston’s head by the metal being melted into a, '. thereby preventing free action of the rings. This
formation of carbon in the piston contributes to
recess extending over the deck of the piston, and
excessive oil consumption and the prevention of
into annular grooves 26 machined into the said
, deck. This method forms no part of the subject 20 pressure sealing ring free action contributes to
of the present application, the View merely shows
,a method whereby copper or other metal having
a lower‘ melting temperature than ferrous metal
can be app-lied to the head of a piston.
7 high fuel
consumption.
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"In-my internal combustion engine piston there
'islthe layer of substantially pure copper metal of
‘approximately one-sixty-fourth inch thickness,
‘Applicant isaware ‘thatprior to his present in- 1"25 ~which acts asga radiant to ‘divert'or throw back
intothe combustion spaces vof‘ the engine, heat
caused by T'combustion, and to the means of at;
taching the copper to the ferrous metal plate, and
tion engine‘ pistons for the express purpose of
uniformly transferring heat caused by combus
the ferrous metal .plate to the head deck, together
tion in the combustion spaces above the piston“? :30: with the ferrous
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I metal plate, dampens heat trans
fer tothe piston skirt and cylinder wall with its
to the head of the piston to be dissipated by air
vention copper of considerable thicknesshas been
attached to ‘the head .portion of internal combus
circulated within the ‘piston against the under
side of the head, ‘and also conveyed by the head
to the ‘surrounding skirt i-portion and therefrom to a p
[dissipation byya cooling medium.
¥Having described my present invention
the cylinder wall, which" of most internal com-‘ 35; claim:
bustion' engines'is surrounded by a cooling ?uid
circulated through cooling ?uid chambers and
relat-
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ing'to; internal combustion enginepistons, I
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combustion engine vpiston hav- '
'ing’a' copper metal layer forming a heat re?ector.
head, ,andi'ifastened thereon by a ferrous
air 'cooledrradiators, all making it necessary to
provide suf?'cient' ‘metal throughout- the piston '‘ 7 metal plate secured to the head deck of thepis
structure ‘to carry ‘the heat’ of' combustion to the" 40 ton-and having a-lesser heat conduction factor
cylinder wall and resulting in a heavier‘pi'ston
'th'anjthe heat 'conduction'factor'of thecopper
than is necessary in'my piston, structure,'where
for ‘reflecting back into the'combustion ‘spaces
the heat vof combustion isreflected vback into the
heat caused by'com‘bu'stion of, fuellin said: com
combustion'spaces with only a minor portion of w ,bustion'spaces.
the heat reaching the cylinder wall.
" 45 :2.‘_In anjinternalbombustion ‘engine ‘piston
In-my piston structure, the copper layer, which ' having a skirt with'a head deck associated there
is substantially pure acts as a heat radiant with
with,1machined 'atfits top side exterior of the
out su?icient thicknessto absorb any appreciable
piston, a ferrous metal plate joined to the ma-'
quantity of heat and has only a knife’ edge con;
,chined
side of ‘the head‘ deck of the piston‘, and
tacting the'cylinder wall, and therefor can not‘ 50 having, at its opposite side from the head deck a
transferheat to the cylinder wall in any vappre
heat ‘radiant'surface, forire?ecting heat of com
,ciableamount; also, the copperlayer I3 or other
bustion back ‘into ‘the combustion spaces of the
satisfactory n'onferrous metal that might'be em
' engine. ' Q.
ployed having similar heat characteristics, is _be
"3.;In,an internal combustion engine. piston
ing secured to the ‘felTOlls metal plate ' l2" having-"155 vhaving askirtrand a head deck the head deck
‘a higher resistance toheat transfer than vthe
‘having witha ‘machined ‘side ‘external of the pis
metal of ‘said deck 12 and which in turn is'secured
to the head deck of the pistons, forms a resistance
tongi'a steel plate having a copper metal "layer
tolcoin'bustion heat transfer from the copper to
‘to .one'of its'?at sides, with the‘ steel plate fused
notexceeding one sixty-fourth inch‘ thickvjoined ,
the head deck of the piston and ‘to the oil and‘ :60 to the mac'hined'side of vthe head deck. __
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" 4. In‘an internal combustion engine piston, the
‘atmosphere ‘circulating within the piston; all of
which contribute to producing higherrop’erating ’
eii‘icien'cy'of the engine‘in whole, as the thin layer ‘
of copper being smooth at its combustion exposed ,
surface acts; as ‘a radiant to re?ect or de?ect and‘ "65
throwback iiito'thecombustion spaces-of the en
gine jheat ,to'cause'uniform heating of the suc
needing gaseous fuel jcharges'draw'ninto the com
lbustion spaces of thevengin'e and thereby more
nearly perfect and uniform‘; combustion of the‘ 70
combination of'ahollow, piston'body having a’
head deckc‘losing' ‘one of ‘its ends with a ferrous
metal plate having ,a fused ,joinder with"the
head decjk-exteriorofthe piston‘,'and,hav,ing a
I nonferrou'slmetal , layer integral with the ferrous
niet’aiplate at the opposite ‘side thereof," from
the headdeck.-,
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‘LANDONBL'BOYD.
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