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Патент USA US2404371

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2,404,371
A. F. c; GLASER
- July 23, 1946. ,
FLUID TURBINE
Filed Jan. 7,'-1941
5 Sheets-Sheet 2
FIG. 4
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'FIG. 5
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WINVENTOR’
9%
ALEX F ,EDERIK GEO GE GLASER
NM“,
ATTORN 5Y6 ‘
July 23, 1946.
A. F. G. GLASER
2,404,311
FLUID TURBINE
Filed Jan. 7, 1941
Y
5 Sheets-Sheet 3
I
FIG. 7
‘ INVENTOR=
ALEX FREDERIK GEORGE GLASER
~BYj/M¢Z§>w% a @
ATTORN 5Y5
_
7
July 23, 1946.
A. F. G. GLASER'
‘
., 2,404,371 '
FLUID TURBINE
J;
I
INVENTOR=
ALEX FREDERIK GEORGE GLAJSER
BY
‘
,mgc?
WORNEYS ''
July 23,1946.
' 'A.-F. G. GLASER '
2,404,371
I '
4 ‘FLUID TURBINE
Filed Jan. 7,‘ 1941
'10
H642.
FIGJO
Sheets-"Sheet 5
5
INVENTORI
ALEX FREDERIK GEORGEGLASER 1
Patented July
1946
2,404,371
4
UNITED
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STATES
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‘FLUID
2.404.371‘
TURBINE
PATENTgOFFlCE
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Alex Fre'derik'wGeorge Glaser,_ Blimbing, Java,
Netherlands East Indies; vested in the Alien ' “
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‘Property (:Justodian
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‘ . Application January 7, 1941, Serial No. 373,481
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.In the Netherlands January 31, 1940
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1 Claim.
(Cl. 253-67)
1
The invention relates
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_ ‘a device fOr starting
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the rotor of a steam turbine using steam passages
instead of blades.
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theturbine.
‘
By the known types of steam turbines generally
the steam is ?rst let into guide blades (nozzles) at ,.5
the one end of the; rotor to obtain the right‘direc- ’
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tion and speed. The steam jets then go through
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Fig. 9 is the steam pressure and steam velocity
diagram of the turbine of Fig. 8.
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Fig. 10 shows a section on the line C--D of
Fig. 8.
Fig; 11 shows an outer circumference of a sleeve
the blade rim of the runner that is located be
hind the blade rim toleaye that runner in nearly
opposite direction. ‘.When' the steam has still
su?icient velocity or ‘pressure, it'can go through
2‘
Figs. 6, 7, and 8 show other constructions of
with a broad groove.
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Fig. 12 shows a construction of the turbine with
.19
three jet pipes.
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r In Fig. 1 the frame is represented by I and the
a second rim of guide blades (nozzles) to be led
rotor by 2, which consists of a cylinder orv drum,
into the right direction, respectively to reassume
shrunk round an axle 3, that rests in bearings
its original velocity'by. its expansion, in which
4, and two sleeves 8 and 9.
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way this can again be led‘ through the blade rim 1,5 The drum of the rotor 2 has a peripheral groove
of a second runner that is locatedbehind the
in the middle, which groove is indicated by'num
blade rim, which runner is placed, like the ?rst
her 5. From this groove v5 grooves'? run left- and
one, immovably on thesame 'axle.’_I_n, that'way
right across each half of the drum,‘respectively,
a great number of guideblade's and runners, can
bordered by a small wire 1. .These ‘grooves 6,
be placed behind eachother if ‘onlythe steam .20 which run to the ends of the drum, are gradually
containssu?icient heat contents. The'vpressure
cut deeper. From each end. of the drum‘ the
against theblades of the runners causes a great
sleeves 8 and 9, respectively, extend to'the'pe
coupling that‘sets the axle revolving. ».The_ func
ripheral groove 5. In this way the grooves 6 be
tionoi‘ the guide, blades (nozzles) is evident, the
come helicoidal steam passages which" begin [at
steam‘ every time escapes from the runners in 25 5 and through‘ which the steam can escape at the f
the wrongudirection, approximately opposite to
ends. The inlet of the steam is,gjconse_quently; at
theirlpmovement and the guide blades" (nozzles)
5. The sleeves, 8 and 9 must’be suitably ?xed
alter the wrongdirection intothei'right?one. ,
,The disadvantages which are inherentin such
immovably around the drum»; the‘ vrotor must be
able toirotate steam-tight'iin the turbine frame
friction of the steam‘between the guide and run
ning blades, the collisions; against theisharp edges
of the blades,_.the_formation9f ‘Whirlpools ‘and
whirls, the "so-called wheel friction ‘caused by the
the steam flows with great speed into the'groove
5 andinto the helicoidal passages '6,~'inj which
the resistance is increased by’ the friction result
types are the great losse's‘of pow'errcaused by the , 30 I. Through one or more 'jet pipes 10 (seeFigf 2)
ing in the release of energy, which setsthe rotor
turning of the 'turbineerunners' ‘in ,the "steam, .35 revolving. ‘In: a straight‘ pipe agas or'Isteam
While always‘ the'ste'arn isilowing at the exterior meets resistance,vwhich increases with the veloc
round the runnersgwithout exerting any energy.
ity. vThis resistance is greatly increasedincurves. In the turbine according to the invention the
passages area seriesof circular curves placed
According . to,‘ the inventipn these I disadvantages
are whollyeliminate'd, so that “an, important tech
nical effect is obtained. " _‘
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In the accompanying ,'drawings constructions
4,0 behind each‘gother. Instead'of the ,helitioidal
grooves in the drum of the rotor 2,"these grooves
according to the invention are ‘ schematically
shown, by way of'ex‘ample.
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could be cut in the‘ sleeves} and '19, as vshown in
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Fig. 1 shows a longitudinal section of a turbine
according to the invention, in whichthe steam
goes in two directions through the'rotor.
Fig. 2 is a section on the line A—B on Fig. 1.
4.5
Figs. 6 and 7_, or both 'the'drum and sleeves 8 and
9 could be provided with helicoidal grooves 6', as
shown in Fig. 8. vIn the last case care should be
taken thatby the ?tting the grooves‘ofthe drum
‘and those of the sleeves are put exactly opposite
Fig. 3 shows the steam pressure and velocity
each other, so that on each half of the drum
diagram.
one steam passage is formed. By the construc
Fig. 4 is a longitudinal section of a turbine in 50 tion of steam turbines of a greater axial length
which the rotor has been constructed in a slightly
a greater number of adjoining‘ steam passages,
different way.
‘
all with a similar bearing, can be ?tted instead
Fig. 5 shows a longitudinal section of a turbine
of one steam passage on each half of the drum.
according to the invention, in which the steam
In this connection for larger units more rotors
55 could be mounted on one axle (see Fig; 8). By
passes in one directionthrough the rotor.
2,404,371
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development can also take place by allowing the
the construction of two rotors von one axle the
escape of steam can take place at the ends and
steam to expand in diverging jet pipes from the
initial pressure to the ?nal pressure. Then the
in the center of the turbine frame. The inlet
steam flows with the greatest possible velocity
is as with the ?rst described, in the center of
each‘ rotor. Without any objection the steam 5 into the groove 5 and'into the steam passages
,6, ~in whichemission of venergy‘takes place till
'theivelocity oi- the stea‘ml i'sl su?‘iciently." exhausted.
could be pro?tably ,used in a highrpressure and
then in ailo'wjé-pressuiiefturbine.:Y' _ f 1-;
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The c‘o'nstriictionbo’uld be "simpli?ed? by the
When the sleeves" 8 and!) ‘are shrunk‘ iif'the right
system, by making one end of the drum thicker,
_, , ., way on the drum, leakage in thesteam passages
which end should be able to move freely and steaiff'l‘o " is prevented. ‘ By making use of a greater num
tight in the turbine frame as shown at I'll‘ (see? " r ber‘ ofijet pipes (Fig. 12) thergroove 5 can be made
smaller, so that the frictional loss at the small
inneriwalfof’ the‘ turbine frame can be reduced
tea‘ minimumic When the steam has come in
case with theformer, is gradually cut deeper to 15 the steam passages in which it. can, gradually‘
ans: without "shbck'; release kinetic energy, the
its end. Over the drum a sleeve is ?tted?t'o' groove’:
5, which sleeve is immovable on th‘e1drunil~~ Also - fb'r'cewhicl'il‘ is accumulated in it can be, with-'
out'any loss, transferred to the rotor, which re
lthis‘rotor, shaped in this way, should’ revolve»
sult‘ cannot be produced in any other of the
steam tight in the turbine frame; The’ steam
is let into the groove 5"by meansof one or more 20 known steam turbinespin which the e?iciency is
Fig. ,5). At the ‘inner side of the thick part the ,
drum has a peripheral grooveri; andifromrgroove‘
5 the helicoidal groove 6 begins which‘, as‘is the“
' jet“ pipes;
considerably‘ reduced by’ losses caused‘ by ‘steam
friction against-diagrams and" tnemov'in'g‘ blades
The exhaust steam ’ at the? ends" of
the rotor must be mutually combined ,t'o'n‘eutralise
which must be polished withfgr'e'alti c'are‘q'The
axial differences‘ of pressure. Alfthesemdmbiiia
causesof' the several‘ lossesfofi'power, have been
tions are, however, variants on the‘?rst-des‘cribed _._,
systems and'unde‘r the same'principle‘s;
‘
,
explained ‘already 'in'fthe' beginning: of"
de
scription'. In" the'xturbine'whi‘chi isr‘des'cnted in
25
The ‘invented turbine system offers man"','adi
this‘ application, it isv mer'elyfthe" friction of‘ the
steam’ the" steam passages which sets~ the‘rotor
de‘r a certain pressure‘intothe groove‘ 5:.
the I _ revolving; By‘ allYthese- propitious-conditions it
correctly de?ned mutual- relations- between" jet ‘30 'i'sjpo'ssible to build, within normal scope'rhigh
speed‘ and‘ lowsp'ee'd' steam turbines‘iof high‘ e?‘i
pipe's', the groove 5, the length'andithe diverging
ciency. As- a' result of ‘the limited number OfSilb
positions of.‘ the steam. passages; it is ‘possible
parts which can‘ be" easily‘pro‘duc'edi the‘ rotor
to make the steam liiro‘diice~ energy in the“ steam‘
passages by which the steam-variety through i, can“ be' made" very light‘ and yet ‘very strong" and
gradual- expansion to‘lthe ?nal-pressure can“ be 35 especially cheap. ‘Where‘ the weight of the. rotor
can be? kept- smallthelos's'es caused bythe lbwer
kept-constant. See the diagram- crth'e; steam
friction- are. consequentlyals'o‘ vefry's'mall; ‘is case
pressure and the steam velocity‘ (Fig; 3)‘. - In
' vantages‘: the steam can be‘ ‘led 'th'rollg‘lj"_con
verging jet pipes witha certain velocit'yilandnn
of ' defects‘v in the bearings” the‘ rotor" is’ not ' dam:
this ?gure the. line of st'e'arh pressure is‘ shown" by
aged, because Ofthé absence of. blades‘. WTh'e‘rO'e
‘ Hthat. of the Velocity by l2, While line'l‘3'lslio'w's .7 s,
tbr'is' substantially iIi’dé’sti‘'l'lci'iible"hyfllse’.f '
the path of ‘ the coridensator'--pre.s'sure‘.v Expert'- 40
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The I‘Otdr forms: 3} Stable alld strcngunit" s0
ments will have to show-in which vway'the‘ grooves
that-- th'ecriticali number of revouiticnseanbe,
inithe rotor-must. bemade. to allow the .greatest
possible e?ic'iencyl With regardto the question
even at high speed; above the working
of; the steam . tight; revolving» Of the rotor’ in the 5 ,_
By acceleration‘of‘ the revolutions; ti
be; effected. withoutr’much di?iculty
as the axle does not experience ur‘fdiie'.
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turbine frame i'tYmay. be observed‘ that-fthi's' can 4'" ‘number of‘ revolutions‘ is" never exceedsv
the case
of small turbines by, providing. the sleeves at the.
In conclusibril it maybe stated that,
vouter circumferencerwith =broad._groove's, while in;
stead.v of' steam, air or. liquid" is' for'c'e'd ‘_ ,
velocity through the passages- the‘ rotorfcarifalso
beset revolving.
big v j rotors? the well known so-calleiil"v .laby'rinthi- !_ ;;
paokingl-B (see Figclll would be suitable‘. ‘ '
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50
‘The. turbine - needs'not be restricted to the
Especially becausevof, its simplicity ‘such a tur
scribedconstructions", butmay be altered in‘rnan'y‘
bine¢offers~ greatadvantagesy'by keeping . theip'ro
ductiomcosts asxlow;asipossible. Another ad‘
' ,ways-withinithe scope‘of'the‘inventi‘on‘.
1
vantagevlies-in the fact¢that by‘ the construction v
according to_ the inventioirthe steamjet" is hard‘ 55, 'In a turbinethe combination ofla hollow frame
vWhatIclaimis:
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provided.with-bearings.and ,?iiid‘port's; a shaft , I
1y. subject to»' anyalter-ation of the directionsof
the‘?ow,~as¢i_s the case» with the known‘ types of
I.
rotatable in; saidbearings; two rotors mounted
' upon said‘ shaft, and havinghspirali'cha'nn'els ex
Figs 4 shows 'a-construction-similar’to the other, _ tending thereabout and opening‘y'toward'. said
?gures, with only this. difference Y‘ thatv the. sleeves 60 ports; and- a .sleeve cover- mounted? upon each’ '
turbines.
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8.1and:9" are bent- inwardly at: their endslfll with
concentric > openings I for the steam exhaust: \ ‘ I This
will; result in1 the steameexhaustv taking another
direction. . Dependent-r on‘the-admissible:friction = ~_,
theibendingzisrgreater or smaller.- ’Ifhework-ihg 65
rotor» and, covering. said‘ channels, the ends of
the covers adjacent the ends of. the fram‘e'bei'n
bent inwardly toward-said shaft;
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ALEX‘ resonant GEORGE" ceases:
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