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Патент USA US2404395

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H. MILUKEN
,44,395
APPARATUS Foa coNv ERTING HEAT ENERGY INTO USEFUL WORK
Filed Dec. 14, 1942
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Patented July 23, 1946
2,404,395
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,404,395
APPARATUS FOR CONVER'I‘ING HEAT
ENERGY INTO USEFUL WORK
Humphreys Milliken, Mount Royal, Quebec,
Cañada
Application December 14, 1942, Serial No. 469,027
4 Claims.
(Cl. 60;;49)
2
This invention relates to the conversion of
heat energy into useful Work and the main pur
pose is to provide means whereby a higher ther
heating of liquid oil in the tip which might car
bonize the oil and clog the small aperture in the
tip. The air entering the combustion chamber
mal eñîciency is attained in connection with the
through jacket i2 also serves to prevent the walls
operation of prime movers in which a gaseous
'la of the combustion chamber being overheated
by the stream of burning products issuing from
the burner 5. The proportion of air supplied
through valve 9 is not sufficient to interfere with
medium expanded by heat is used as the motive
ñuid.
Other purposes, advantages and characteris
tic features of the invention will be more read
complete combustion of the fuel. A baille I3 of
ily understood from the following detailed de 10 fire-resisting
material de?lects the combustion
scription of the accompanying drawing, in
products exhausting through opening Iâ, meet
which
ing thefexcess air supplied through valve B and
Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic View of one form of
mixing thoroughly in the mixing chamber l5,
apparatus by which the invention may be re
thence passing to the high-pressure engine ii
duced to practice.
y
Fig. 2 is a sectional View showing the preferred
construction ci the inlet valve of a high pres
15
sure engine forming part of the apparatus shown
in Fig. l.
s
Ignitio'nrof the fuel-air mixture at the outlet
of the burner 5 is accomplished by a pair oi’ elec
trodes I6 which are drawn apart and out of the
name -aftertlie ignition. Thereafter combustion
As shown in Fig. l, a low-pressure compressor 20 is «maintained continuously by the heat of the
flame with'a continuous iiow of fuel oil and com
i takes air from the atmosphere, compresses it
pressed air into the furnace. The ycombustion
to a relatively low pressure (such as 6 pounds
does not raise the pressure, which is maintained
per square inch Vabove atmosphere). About 90%
approximately
constant at 209 lbs. absolute per
ci this low-pressure air is used for cooling pur
square inch. The combustion increases the tem
poses as hereinafter described. A small percent' 25
perature of the air and the volume increases in
age of this low-pressure air (such as ten percent)
proportion
to the increase in the absolute tem~is drawn into a high-pressure compressor 2 which
perature.
compresses the air to a relatively high pressure
The metal drum Il of the pressure furnace
(such as 209 pounds per square inch absolute).
is lined internally with heat-insulation Ha to
This high-pressure air passes through a heat
protect the metal from overheating and is heat
exchanger 3 absorbing heat from the exhaust
insulated externally as indicated at Hb to mini
pipe of the engine, increasing in volume, passing
mize loss of heat energy, All piping conveying
through a hand-operated valve ¿l into a burner
air or gas is likewise insulated internally and ex
5, where the air mixes with fuel-oil supplied con
tinuously by pump E, and burns continuously in
combustion chamber '1. Valve 4 is adjusted to
supply air in the correct ratio for combustion
(approximately l5 lbs. of air per pound of fuel
oil). Valves S and 9 are adjusted to conjointly
ternally.
The high~pressure engine I7 has inlet and eX
haust valves llb and l‘íc which open and close
in the same sequence as the valves of a steam
engine. The inlet or “admission” valve Hb opens
at
or near “top dead-center” of piston l'ld, re
supply excess air of such amount that the ratio '
mains open supplying pressure-gas at the con~
of fuel to total air is approximately 41 percent
stant pressure of 209 lbs. until the piston has
of the quantity of fuel which could be burned
moved 20 percent of its working stroke, then
by admixture with that quantity of air. The
the admission valve closes and the gases expand
combustion chamber ï has Walls 'la 0I" nre~resist-`
ing material such as ñrebrick or soapstone. A 45 down to a pressure of about 2l lbs. absolute (as
suming 14.7 atmospheric pressure) at or near
metal cylinder Il surrounds the fire-resisting
the
“bottom dead-center” or end of Working
walls, with a space or jacket I0, through which
stroke, when the exhaust valve opens.
passes the excess air entering through valve 8.
Under normal operating conditions, the tein
The excess air absorbs heat from the lire-resist
perature of the exhaust will be about 900° F.
ing walls, increasing in temperature and volumel 50 above
the temperature of the compressed air
as it passes through the jacket. The air supplied
through valve 9 enters the combustion chamber
through a small jacket I2 and serves to shield the
burner tip 6a from the radiant heat of the name
in the combustion chamber and to prevent over~ 55
leaving the high-pressure compres-sor. The ex
haust is passed through the heat-exchanger 3
transferring heat to the compressed air and in
creasing the volume of the air.
Under normal operating conditions, the tem~
2,404,395
3
.
perature of the compressed air leaving the high
pressure compressor Will be about 1220" F. ab
solute and the temperature of the air and gases
entering the high-pressure engine will be about
4200“ F. absolute. Although these temperatures
are lower than those in internal combustion en
gines, still some cooling of the cylinders will be
required to prevent overheating the metal and
lubricating oil in the cylinders. In compressors
.
`
_,
_, __
v
..
through pipe 22, hand valves 20 and 2| remaining
normally closed.
When it is desired to operate the apparatus
described herein valve 2I is opened so that com
pressed air passes from storage tank I8 through
line 25 to the inlet valve 2c of the low-pressure
engine2b. Valve 25 is alsoopened so that com
pressed air passes from storage >tank I8 to the inlet
valve I'Ib of engine I1 via line 22, furnace II and
line 22a. The air supply valve 4 and the fuel feed .
and engines heretofore used such cooling is done
regulating valve 5b are adjusted to deliver to the
without any means of utilizing the heat taken
burner 5 -a combustible mixture of air and fuel
from the cylinders to produce motive power.
' which is ignited by supplying current to the elec
In this invention, such heat is utilized for
trodes I6 which are initially positioned close to
motive power by the following means: Compressor
gether in the path of the combustion products is
15
j
cylinder 2 and engine cylinder I'I have cooling
suing from the burner 5. After ignition of the
jackets as shown at 2a and I‘Ia. The compressor ’ fuel mixture has been accomplished the electrodes
I pumps air through these jackets at a pressure
I6 are withdrawn from the flame and are deener- '
of about 6 lbs. per square inch above atmosphere, »
giaed. I have not considered it necessary to show
the compressed air entering jacket 2a atabout
any particular means for energizing and moving
120*l F. and leaving jacket I'Ia at about 175° F. 20 the electrodes I5 since such means forms no part
The quantity of low-pressure air (by weight)
of the invention claimed herein.
passing through the jackets being about nine times
In connection with the fuel feeding regulating
the quantity of air (and gases) passing through
valve 5b, it is pointed out. that this valve controls
the high-pressure cylinders in a given time, and
a by-pass connection through which, in the fully
the density of the cooling air being about 33% 25 opened position of the valve, all the fuel deliv
greater than sea-level air, effective cooling can be
ered by the pressure side of fuel pump 6 is re
accomplished by this means.
turned to the suction side of said pump or to the
.After passing through the cooling jackets of
fuel supply tank 5'. When the valve 5b is fully
the high-pressure compressor and engine, ab
closed allthe fuel delivered by the'suction side
sorbing heat and increasing in volume (at the
of the fuel pump passes through line 5a to -the
constant pressure of 6 lbs.) the cooling air then
burner 5. Consequently, by regulating the degree
passes through a heat-exchanger 3a, where it re
ofopening of valve 5b it is possible to vary the
ceives heat from the cooler end of the exhaust
amount of fuel which reaches the burner 5'for
from the high-pressure engine. This exhaust .„ «~ admixture with the air supplied through air
has been cooled to about 1320° F. absolute in pass
valve 4.
'
ing .through heat-exchanger 3. .The exhaust en
Alternatively, the operator may leave valve 2l
ters heat exchanger 3a 'at 1320” F., which is about
closed; its purpose is to give additional starting ,
680 degrees above the low-pressure air, increas
torque to the engine by applying relatively high
ing its volume at constant pressure (the weight
pressure >to the large area of the low-pressure
of the low-pressure air being about nine times
engine cylinder while it is standing still. Non
the weight of the high-pressure air), after which
return Valves I9 and 24 prevent -theV compressed
the low-pressure air enters the low-pressure en
air from the valves 20 and 2l from flowing back
gine cylinder 2b and expands down to about 15.15
wardand thus into the cylinders of the engine
lbs, absolute, doing work which is added to the i 45 and compressors, thus opposing the starting
work of the high-pressure engine.
_
torque.
All of the heat energy received by the low-pres
Fig. 2 shows means for cooling the inlet valve
sure compressor-engine combination would be
I_'Ib of the high-pressure engine which is the valve
otherwise wasted and therefore whatever power
which is subjected to the maximum temperature ,
it develops is obviously a clear gain for the high- í! inr this power plant, although this temperature is
pressure and low-pressure combination.
.
only 32.50° F. absolute as compared with the usual
In Fig. l is shown a storage tank I8 in which
compressed air at 209 lbs. pressure is stored, by
passage through non-return valve I9 from pipe
22, Whenever the pressure in the tank drops below :g5
the pressure in the pipe by a predetermined
amount which may be varied at will by the oper
ator. Tank I8 is also connected through valve
20 to pipe 22 and through valve 2l to pipe 25.
By operating the air supply Valve 4 and a fuel?"et
feed regulating valve 5b associated with the fuel
supply line 5a; the operator increases or decreases
temperature of about 4500" F. absolute in the com
mon type of internal combustion engine. Except
as hereinafter noted, the inlet valve is of the
usual design including a relatively long and
slender stem 30 which is _usually about .30” in l
diameter. According to the present invention i
stem 33 is provided with a bore SI of very small
diameter (about 515') along its axis. This bore
is provided, adjacent its upper end, with a side
opening 32 which, in the open position vof the valve, ^
registers with a side opening 34 provided in the
valve stem guide 35. Water :is continuously
the now of fuel and air to the burner 5, keeping
pumped to opening 34 through'pipe connection
the fuel-air ratio at one to fifteen, for complete
combustion; the power output of the engine is thus ‘~ 65 ‘ 35. When the valve is in its open position a fine
_stream of water passes into bore 3I through open
varied at will. Normally the air-intakes to >the
ing 32 and is quickly vaporized and superheated,
two compressors is not throttled, but remain wide
4the
_steam and vapors thus generated escaping
open, so that there. is no reduction in “volumetric
-through the open lower end of the bore into the eiiiciency”; the compressors draw in the saineI
weight of atmospheric air. per stroke regardlessY
of the rate of flow of fuel and output of engine.
When the operator shuts down the engine,vstorage tank I8 remains charged with air at about
engine cylinder and mixing with the pressure
gases and air. When the inlet valve is closed
aperture 32 moves out of registration with valve .
stem guide opening 34 so that the supplyof water
toV bore' 3| _is vdiscontinued. during Vthe expansion
V269 lbs. per square inch, non-return valve 24 hav-. .
ing closed when engine stops and air `iiow stop-Dcd4 75 and exhaust stroke of vtheV engine. The heat 0I
2,404,395
5
evaporation being high (about 1000 B. t. u. per
pound of water) a very small quantity of water
will have a relatively great eiîect in cooling the
valve. Furthermore, the cooling effect is concen
trated on the exact spot where it is most needed,
viz., the small valve-stem and valve disc. To as
sist in distributing the cooling eñect throughout
the valve disc, the disc carrying portion of the
valve stem may be provided with a number of
6
sure compressor for compressing the gas which is
used as the motive agent in said prime mover,
said compressor and prime mover being provided
with cooling jackets, an auxiliary compressor for
compressing air to a temperature and pressure
lower than the temperature and pressure of the
compressed gas delivered by the main compressor
to said prime mover, means for passing com
pressed air from the auxiliary compressor through
small passages 31 radiating from the bore 3l, the l0 said cooling jackets and means whereby the com
steam passing through all of these radiating pas
pressed air delivered by said auxiliary compressor
sages into the hollow interior of the valve disc
expanded in the performance of useful Work
39 and from thence through openings 40 into the
after passing through said jackets.
engine cylinder.
2. Apparatus as set forth in claim 1 including
The inlet valve must open against the constant 15 means whereby heat is transferred from the
pressure of the gases. To assist the cam and
expanded gas discharged by the high pressure
mechanism in opening the valve against this pres
prime mover to the compressed air delivered by
sure, the valve disc is extended into the working
the auxiliary compressor after the last mentioned
cylinders of engine I1 slightly (such as %") so
compressed air is passed through said jackets but
that the valve disc is moved about île" by the en 20 before it has been expanded in the performance
gine piston ll'd as its velocity approaches its mini
of useful work.
mum and comes to rest at the “top dead center”
3. Apparatus as set forth in claim 1 in which
of its exhaust stroke. Lifting the valve disc ïlë”
the last mentioned means comprises a low pres
off of its seat admits pressure-gas to the cylinder
sure prime mover and in which means are pro
thus equalizing the gas-pressure on both sides of 25 vided to enable the low pressure prime mover to
the valve-disc, permitting the valve-gear and cam
be used as a starting motor for said apparatus.
to easily move the valve to its full open position
4. Apparatus of the character described com
(about %") .
prising a low-pressure compressor, a high-pres
Fig. l shows the low-pressure compressor deliv
sure compressor of the reciprocating piston type
ering air to 2l lb. absolute to the intake of the 30 provided with a cooling jacket, an air heater, a
high-pressure compressor. This is not essential;
high-pressure engine of the reciprocating type
the high-pressure compressor might take air from
provided with a cooling jacket, a low-pressure
the atmosphere, as was assumed in the foregoing
engine, primary and secondary heat inter
calculations of the performance. Fig. l shows an
changers, means for passing a portion of the com
oil-cooler 27 for cooling the hot lubricating oil
pressed air delivered by the low-pressure com
from the high-pressure engine and compressor by
pressor to the working cylinder of the high-pres
transferring heat to the low-pressure air. Fig. 1
sure compressor, means for passing another por
also shows heat-exchanger 3a similar to 3, in
tion of the compressed air delivered by the low
which the exhaust from the high-pressure engine
pressure compressor through the cooling jacket
transfers heat to the 10W-pressure air without 40 of the high-pressure compressor and thence
mixing with it.
through the cooling jacket of the high-pressure
It is obvious that turbines or rotary engines
engine and the secondary heat interchanger to
might be substituted for pistons and cylinders for
the Working cylinder of the low-pressure engine,
the compression and expansion of the air and
means for passing the compressed air delivered
gases Withoutdeparting from the principles of the 45 by the high-pressure compressor through the pri
invention.
mary heat interchanger and thence through the
What I claim is:
air heater to the Working cylinder of the high
l. Apparatus of the character described com
pressure engine, and means for passing the ex
prising a high pressure prime mover in which gas,
haust from the high-pressure engine through the
which has been compressed to a relatively high 50 primary heat interchanger and then through the
pressure and heated externally of the prime
secondary heat interchanger.
mover, is expanded to produce power, a high pres
HUMPHREYS MILLIKEN.
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