Патент USA US2404395код для вставки
H. MILUKEN ,44,395 APPARATUS Foa coNv ERTING HEAT ENERGY INTO USEFUL WORK Filed Dec. 14, 1942 dumm mé@ mamá M23 W „ \ om\\ ß/@/ mwîä W @n UIT: „a à œ g \ Ã am \ É mßwHëm WMma Patented July 23, 1946 2,404,395 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,404,395 APPARATUS FOR CONVER'I‘ING HEAT ENERGY INTO USEFUL WORK Humphreys Milliken, Mount Royal, Quebec, Cañada Application December 14, 1942, Serial No. 469,027 4 Claims. (Cl. 60;;49) 2 This invention relates to the conversion of heat energy into useful Work and the main pur pose is to provide means whereby a higher ther heating of liquid oil in the tip which might car bonize the oil and clog the small aperture in the tip. The air entering the combustion chamber mal eñîciency is attained in connection with the through jacket i2 also serves to prevent the walls operation of prime movers in which a gaseous 'la of the combustion chamber being overheated by the stream of burning products issuing from the burner 5. The proportion of air supplied through valve 9 is not sufficient to interfere with medium expanded by heat is used as the motive ñuid. Other purposes, advantages and characteris tic features of the invention will be more read complete combustion of the fuel. A baille I3 of ily understood from the following detailed de 10 fire-resisting material de?lects the combustion scription of the accompanying drawing, in products exhausting through opening Iâ, meet which ing thefexcess air supplied through valve B and Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic View of one form of mixing thoroughly in the mixing chamber l5, apparatus by which the invention may be re thence passing to the high-pressure engine ii duced to practice. y Fig. 2 is a sectional View showing the preferred construction ci the inlet valve of a high pres 15 sure engine forming part of the apparatus shown in Fig. l. s Ignitio'nrof the fuel-air mixture at the outlet of the burner 5 is accomplished by a pair oi’ elec trodes I6 which are drawn apart and out of the name -aftertlie ignition. Thereafter combustion As shown in Fig. l, a low-pressure compressor 20 is «maintained continuously by the heat of the flame with'a continuous iiow of fuel oil and com i takes air from the atmosphere, compresses it pressed air into the furnace. The ycombustion to a relatively low pressure (such as 6 pounds does not raise the pressure, which is maintained per square inch Vabove atmosphere). About 90% approximately constant at 209 lbs. absolute per ci this low-pressure air is used for cooling pur square inch. The combustion increases the tem poses as hereinafter described. A small percent' 25 perature of the air and the volume increases in age of this low-pressure air (such as ten percent) proportion to the increase in the absolute tem~is drawn into a high-pressure compressor 2 which perature. compresses the air to a relatively high pressure The metal drum Il of the pressure furnace (such as 209 pounds per square inch absolute). is lined internally with heat-insulation Ha to This high-pressure air passes through a heat protect the metal from overheating and is heat exchanger 3 absorbing heat from the exhaust insulated externally as indicated at Hb to mini pipe of the engine, increasing in volume, passing mize loss of heat energy, All piping conveying through a hand-operated valve ¿l into a burner air or gas is likewise insulated internally and ex 5, where the air mixes with fuel-oil supplied con tinuously by pump E, and burns continuously in combustion chamber '1. Valve 4 is adjusted to supply air in the correct ratio for combustion (approximately l5 lbs. of air per pound of fuel oil). Valves S and 9 are adjusted to conjointly ternally. The high~pressure engine I7 has inlet and eX haust valves llb and l‘íc which open and close in the same sequence as the valves of a steam engine. The inlet or “admission” valve Hb opens at or near “top dead-center” of piston l'ld, re supply excess air of such amount that the ratio ' mains open supplying pressure-gas at the con~ of fuel to total air is approximately 41 percent stant pressure of 209 lbs. until the piston has of the quantity of fuel which could be burned moved 20 percent of its working stroke, then by admixture with that quantity of air. The the admission valve closes and the gases expand combustion chamber ï has Walls 'la 0I" nre~resist-` ing material such as ñrebrick or soapstone. A 45 down to a pressure of about 2l lbs. absolute (as suming 14.7 atmospheric pressure) at or near metal cylinder Il surrounds the fire-resisting the “bottom dead-center” or end of Working walls, with a space or jacket I0, through which stroke, when the exhaust valve opens. passes the excess air entering through valve 8. Under normal operating conditions, the tein The excess air absorbs heat from the lire-resist perature of the exhaust will be about 900° F. ing walls, increasing in temperature and volumel 50 above the temperature of the compressed air as it passes through the jacket. The air supplied through valve 9 enters the combustion chamber through a small jacket I2 and serves to shield the burner tip 6a from the radiant heat of the name in the combustion chamber and to prevent over~ 55 leaving the high-pressure compres-sor. The ex haust is passed through the heat-exchanger 3 transferring heat to the compressed air and in creasing the volume of the air. Under normal operating conditions, the tem~ 2,404,395 3 . perature of the compressed air leaving the high pressure compressor Will be about 1220" F. ab solute and the temperature of the air and gases entering the high-pressure engine will be about 4200“ F. absolute. Although these temperatures are lower than those in internal combustion en gines, still some cooling of the cylinders will be required to prevent overheating the metal and lubricating oil in the cylinders. In compressors . ` _, _, __ v .. through pipe 22, hand valves 20 and 2| remaining normally closed. When it is desired to operate the apparatus described herein valve 2I is opened so that com pressed air passes from storage tank I8 through line 25 to the inlet valve 2c of the low-pressure engine2b. Valve 25 is alsoopened so that com pressed air passes from storage >tank I8 to the inlet valve I'Ib of engine I1 via line 22, furnace II and line 22a. The air supply valve 4 and the fuel feed . and engines heretofore used such cooling is done regulating valve 5b are adjusted to deliver to the without any means of utilizing the heat taken burner 5 -a combustible mixture of air and fuel from the cylinders to produce motive power. ' which is ignited by supplying current to the elec In this invention, such heat is utilized for trodes I6 which are initially positioned close to motive power by the following means: Compressor gether in the path of the combustion products is 15 j cylinder 2 and engine cylinder I'I have cooling suing from the burner 5. After ignition of the jackets as shown at 2a and I‘Ia. The compressor ’ fuel mixture has been accomplished the electrodes I pumps air through these jackets at a pressure I6 are withdrawn from the flame and are deener- ' of about 6 lbs. per square inch above atmosphere, » giaed. I have not considered it necessary to show the compressed air entering jacket 2a atabout any particular means for energizing and moving 120*l F. and leaving jacket I'Ia at about 175° F. 20 the electrodes I5 since such means forms no part The quantity of low-pressure air (by weight) of the invention claimed herein. passing through the jackets being about nine times In connection with the fuel feeding regulating the quantity of air (and gases) passing through valve 5b, it is pointed out. that this valve controls the high-pressure cylinders in a given time, and a by-pass connection through which, in the fully the density of the cooling air being about 33% 25 opened position of the valve, all the fuel deliv greater than sea-level air, effective cooling can be ered by the pressure side of fuel pump 6 is re accomplished by this means. turned to the suction side of said pump or to the .After passing through the cooling jackets of fuel supply tank 5'. When the valve 5b is fully the high-pressure compressor and engine, ab closed allthe fuel delivered by the'suction side sorbing heat and increasing in volume (at the of the fuel pump passes through line 5a to -the constant pressure of 6 lbs.) the cooling air then burner 5. Consequently, by regulating the degree passes through a heat-exchanger 3a, where it re ofopening of valve 5b it is possible to vary the ceives heat from the cooler end of the exhaust amount of fuel which reaches the burner 5'for from the high-pressure engine. This exhaust .„ «~ admixture with the air supplied through air has been cooled to about 1320° F. absolute in pass valve 4. ' ing .through heat-exchanger 3. .The exhaust en Alternatively, the operator may leave valve 2l ters heat exchanger 3a 'at 1320” F., which is about closed; its purpose is to give additional starting , 680 degrees above the low-pressure air, increas torque to the engine by applying relatively high ing its volume at constant pressure (the weight pressure >to the large area of the low-pressure of the low-pressure air being about nine times engine cylinder while it is standing still. Non the weight of the high-pressure air), after which return Valves I9 and 24 prevent -theV compressed the low-pressure air enters the low-pressure en air from the valves 20 and 2l from flowing back gine cylinder 2b and expands down to about 15.15 wardand thus into the cylinders of the engine lbs, absolute, doing work which is added to the i 45 and compressors, thus opposing the starting work of the high-pressure engine. _ torque. All of the heat energy received by the low-pres Fig. 2 shows means for cooling the inlet valve sure compressor-engine combination would be I_'Ib of the high-pressure engine which is the valve otherwise wasted and therefore whatever power which is subjected to the maximum temperature , it develops is obviously a clear gain for the high- í! inr this power plant, although this temperature is pressure and low-pressure combination. . only 32.50° F. absolute as compared with the usual In Fig. l is shown a storage tank I8 in which compressed air at 209 lbs. pressure is stored, by passage through non-return valve I9 from pipe 22, Whenever the pressure in the tank drops below :g5 the pressure in the pipe by a predetermined amount which may be varied at will by the oper ator. Tank I8 is also connected through valve 20 to pipe 22 and through valve 2l to pipe 25. By operating the air supply Valve 4 and a fuel?"et feed regulating valve 5b associated with the fuel supply line 5a; the operator increases or decreases temperature of about 4500" F. absolute in the com mon type of internal combustion engine. Except as hereinafter noted, the inlet valve is of the usual design including a relatively long and slender stem 30 which is _usually about .30” in l diameter. According to the present invention i stem 33 is provided with a bore SI of very small diameter (about 515') along its axis. This bore is provided, adjacent its upper end, with a side opening 32 which, in the open position vof the valve, ^ registers with a side opening 34 provided in the valve stem guide 35. Water :is continuously the now of fuel and air to the burner 5, keeping pumped to opening 34 through'pipe connection the fuel-air ratio at one to fifteen, for complete combustion; the power output of the engine is thus ‘~ 65 ‘ 35. When the valve is in its open position a fine _stream of water passes into bore 3I through open varied at will. Normally the air-intakes to >the ing 32 and is quickly vaporized and superheated, two compressors is not throttled, but remain wide 4the _steam and vapors thus generated escaping open, so that there. is no reduction in “volumetric -through the open lower end of the bore into the eiiiciency”; the compressors draw in the saineI weight of atmospheric air. per stroke regardlessY of the rate of flow of fuel and output of engine. When the operator shuts down the engine,vstorage tank I8 remains charged with air at about engine cylinder and mixing with the pressure gases and air. When the inlet valve is closed aperture 32 moves out of registration with valve . stem guide opening 34 so that the supplyof water toV bore' 3| _is vdiscontinued. during Vthe expansion V269 lbs. per square inch, non-return valve 24 hav-. . ing closed when engine stops and air `iiow stop-Dcd4 75 and exhaust stroke of vtheV engine. The heat 0I 2,404,395 5 evaporation being high (about 1000 B. t. u. per pound of water) a very small quantity of water will have a relatively great eiîect in cooling the valve. Furthermore, the cooling effect is concen trated on the exact spot where it is most needed, viz., the small valve-stem and valve disc. To as sist in distributing the cooling eñect throughout the valve disc, the disc carrying portion of the valve stem may be provided with a number of 6 sure compressor for compressing the gas which is used as the motive agent in said prime mover, said compressor and prime mover being provided with cooling jackets, an auxiliary compressor for compressing air to a temperature and pressure lower than the temperature and pressure of the compressed gas delivered by the main compressor to said prime mover, means for passing com pressed air from the auxiliary compressor through small passages 31 radiating from the bore 3l, the l0 said cooling jackets and means whereby the com steam passing through all of these radiating pas pressed air delivered by said auxiliary compressor sages into the hollow interior of the valve disc expanded in the performance of useful Work 39 and from thence through openings 40 into the after passing through said jackets. engine cylinder. 2. Apparatus as set forth in claim 1 including The inlet valve must open against the constant 15 means whereby heat is transferred from the pressure of the gases. To assist the cam and expanded gas discharged by the high pressure mechanism in opening the valve against this pres prime mover to the compressed air delivered by sure, the valve disc is extended into the working the auxiliary compressor after the last mentioned cylinders of engine I1 slightly (such as %") so compressed air is passed through said jackets but that the valve disc is moved about île" by the en 20 before it has been expanded in the performance gine piston ll'd as its velocity approaches its mini of useful work. mum and comes to rest at the “top dead center” 3. Apparatus as set forth in claim 1 in which of its exhaust stroke. Lifting the valve disc ïlë” the last mentioned means comprises a low pres off of its seat admits pressure-gas to the cylinder sure prime mover and in which means are pro thus equalizing the gas-pressure on both sides of 25 vided to enable the low pressure prime mover to the valve-disc, permitting the valve-gear and cam be used as a starting motor for said apparatus. to easily move the valve to its full open position 4. Apparatus of the character described com (about %") . prising a low-pressure compressor, a high-pres Fig. l shows the low-pressure compressor deliv sure compressor of the reciprocating piston type ering air to 2l lb. absolute to the intake of the 30 provided with a cooling jacket, an air heater, a high-pressure compressor. This is not essential; high-pressure engine of the reciprocating type the high-pressure compressor might take air from provided with a cooling jacket, a low-pressure the atmosphere, as was assumed in the foregoing engine, primary and secondary heat inter calculations of the performance. Fig. l shows an changers, means for passing a portion of the com oil-cooler 27 for cooling the hot lubricating oil pressed air delivered by the low-pressure com from the high-pressure engine and compressor by pressor to the working cylinder of the high-pres transferring heat to the low-pressure air. Fig. 1 sure compressor, means for passing another por also shows heat-exchanger 3a similar to 3, in tion of the compressed air delivered by the low which the exhaust from the high-pressure engine pressure compressor through the cooling jacket transfers heat to the 10W-pressure air without 40 of the high-pressure compressor and thence mixing with it. through the cooling jacket of the high-pressure It is obvious that turbines or rotary engines engine and the secondary heat interchanger to might be substituted for pistons and cylinders for the Working cylinder of the low-pressure engine, the compression and expansion of the air and means for passing the compressed air delivered gases Withoutdeparting from the principles of the 45 by the high-pressure compressor through the pri invention. mary heat interchanger and thence through the What I claim is: air heater to the Working cylinder of the high l. Apparatus of the character described com pressure engine, and means for passing the ex prising a high pressure prime mover in which gas, haust from the high-pressure engine through the which has been compressed to a relatively high 50 primary heat interchanger and then through the pressure and heated externally of the prime secondary heat interchanger. mover, is expanded to produce power, a high pres HUMPHREYS MILLIKEN.