Патент USA US2404414код для вставки
July 23, 1946, ' ' . H_ M, SUTTON 2,404,414 METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR REMOVAL 0F HEAVY OBJEOTIoN-ABLE MATERIAL FROM OEREALS,> LEGUMES, AND OTHER FOOD PRODUCTS _Original Ffiled Jan. 17, 1941 . » _ 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 28 ’Il Ill/l l l LA. ` v I ll/ [/[77 ll/ _ inventor «mgl/WmGîtornegs July l23, 1946. H. M. sU'r‘rc-JN 2,404,414 METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR REMOVAL 0F HEAVY OBJECTIONABLE MATERIAL FROM CEREALS, LEGUMES, AND OTHER FOOD PRODUCTS Uriginal Filed Jan. 17, 1941 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 4 ßnventor - July 23, 194s. H M_ SUTTON -4 2,404,414 METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR REMOVAL OF HEAVY _OBJECTIONABLE MATERIAL FROM QEREALS, LEGUMES, AND OTHER FOOD PRODUCTS Original Filed Jan. 17, 1941 _45 Sheets-Sheet 3 Snuentor Gttorítegs July 23, 1946.4 , , H. M. SUTTON 2,404,414 METHQD AND APPARATUS EoR REMOVAL or' HEAVY oBJEcTIoNABLE ' ~ - MATERTEL FEoM cE'REALs, LEGUMES, AND OTHER FooD PRODUCTS Original Filed Jan. 17, 1941 `5 Sheets-Sheet 4 oU.Q „V«W nun. . O n_ ~ E@ oaD MNab@ .09. O.D O AQ c..\ @WdQ.DMaWQEUÈ?uQNO/wco v. 8MM» M _„0 .0D I v.O.D 9 l .. _ l 0 W .EOE _a mm ¢Q. QU. Ñ 5Q\ OuÚ v. Ö .l @mw mœ?Ñ mvv .QE Qn u.. Ichl_. l u.. Ó`~D vn I._ ~O vnADM @no Ü\ .,N . , mv “v\ »NW 0. l'Snventor amm T w. s July 23, 1946. v ’ |-|„ M_ SUTTON 2,404,414 METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR REMOVAL oF HEAVYIOBJECTIONABLE MATERIAL FROM OEREALs, LEGUMES, AND OTHER FOOD PRODUCTS Original Filled Jan. 17, 1941 ' 5 Sheets-«Sheet 5 \ _Ok Zmventor ZW. Ll/A.. Cîttornegs 2,404,414 Patented July 23, 1946 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR REMOVAL OF HEAVY OBJECTIONABLE MATERIAL FROM CEREALS„ LEGUMES, OTHER FooDY PRODUCTS Henry M. Sutton, deceased, late of Dallas, Tex., ’ by Frank E. Wood, executor, Dallas, Tex., as signor to Sutton, Steele & Steele, Incorporated, Dallas, Tex., a corporation of Texas ’ Continuation of application Serial No. 374,920, January 17, 1941. This application December 4, 1943, Serial No. 512,938 ' ' 14 cmims. (o1. 209-467) 1 This patent application is a continuation of the Henry M. Sutton pending patent application Ser. No. 374,920, filed January i7, 1941, and bearing like title. ' ' This invention relates to improvements in the 2 facture of corn meal, flour, hominy grits, and ce reals, these contaminations are always present in varying degree. kMagnets are used in some in stances to remove metal, which is magnetic but the magnet cannot remove rock. clay balls, glass and various metal particles which are non-mag-A method and apparatus for the removal of heavy netic. . objectionable material from cereals, legumes and If this material is not effectively removed be other food products, and the object of the pres fore processing, damage may be caused to the ent invention is to accomplish this with the fol 10 machinery in the mill and if it is not ñnally lowing new method and apparatus. ‘ The present method and’apparatus can be uti lized for the' separation and cleaning of many dif removed before the edible product is packed, yseri ous injury may befall the consumer. My invention relates to lthe efficient and eco nomical removal of these contaminations from all understanding of the method and apparatus it is hereinafter described in respect to the removal 15 dry food products in one operation. ' 'In the _present state of this art, there are two ' of foreign substances from peanuts or the like, conventional pneumatic methods used. The ñrst for which use the invention is particularly well and most widely used is the air leg 0r aspirator which attempts to lift the good material through To bring out the advantages and improvements of the present invention which constitute an ad 20 a pipe leaving the heavier stones and meta-l be hind. The objection to this type of unit is well vancement in the art thev methods land machines known, namely, it is necessary to use air at high heretofore used in connection with the harvesting velocities‘to lift all'of the material except the and cleaning of ` peanuts and other legumes by stones. It is unable to efficiently remove light separating foreign substances therefrom will be particles of glass, small stones, etc. for this rea explained. . " son. The small particle caught in` a mass of Peanuts and other legumes are harvested by heavier particles is most likely to be drawn up pulling Vthe entire plants with their roots and ward and lost with the good material. A parti passing them through a suitably constructed lferent materials or products. suited. ' . ‘ I To enable a, clear ` ' thrasher which removes the nuts or other prod ucts from the plants orl vines. By reason'of this ~ manner of handling, rocks, balls of clay, pieces of metal, glass and other heavyforeign material which cling to the roots are carried through the thrasher and although‘the vines, c'haiis and free hulls are shaken loose and blown off, the heavy rocks, metal particles, glass and clay remain. The thrashed products are taken to the mill or proc essing plant for final cleaning by 'shalier'screens or tanning separators combining screens'. Large cle must either go up or down. If itis of inter mediate weight and remains suspended in air, other particles of the samejcharacteristics will gradually surround it until the velocity inlthe >pipe increases to such an extent that all of the mate rial including stones and good product are taken out at one time. 1t cannot cope with variation in particle shape. A hat, light piece of glass pre sented to the air current with its flat sideV down will be taken upward immediately-with the good material. If lower velocities are used,too much good »material Vstays with the stones, glass and sticks, clods, metal and rocks are screened out 40 metal and a practical separation- is not therefore over a perforated screen which has openings small enough to prevent large contaminations from passing through but small enough to allow passage of good stock. The material then lpasses over a screen with smaller openings' which in accomplished.` ' ' _ , E The other method which is less widely used on account of» its cost but whichfis far more efficient than the aspirating or suctiondevice, utilized a pneumatic or gravity table; using the air notation turn allows fine gravel, sand and dirt to pass but principle. ' This equipment actually iloats mate which retains the good material on its surface. lrial inair as if in water. The air is used under The sand screen is usually directly below the top pressure and there are no high Velocity air cur-or scalping screen. Air suction on the screens'is 50 rents to disturb the separation. The heavy ma sometimes employed to remove dust and chaff. terial sinks to the bottom of the mass and works The so-called finished product is now free of gradually upward4 and side-wise until it is dislarge undesirable particles and ñne dirt but it still charged at the end along“ with» a mixture-of good contains all of the stones, glass, metal, etc. which heavy material. The .chief advantage 1 of- the are of the same size as the good product. gravity separator over the aspirator units lies in In other milling operations such as, the manu 2,404,414 3 4 1 the fact that it is more ableto separate minute the mass against the roughened surface deck by ‘ particles of glass, stone, and other heavy contam - the weight of the over-lying stratus of lighter ` inations since it'does not usehigh velocity air’curá elements Which by their 'pressure force the heav ‘ rents. ier elementsinto contiguousvcontact with each other and against the roughened surface causing the heavy under-lying stratum to move forward `If material to be removed is' very near the i 1 >same density vof the good vmaterial it is not nec» ` essary for it to separate immediately. It simply , lies on the surface of the separator deck and'` " together toward the discharge. It was found in ; moves forward gradually until it is at the point of Y experimenting that if various weight stones were discharge. Equipment used in this process is placed only on the deck surface the end raise i such as described and substantially as shown in 10 could be increased to the point where no stones Patent No. 1,710,521 granted to VSutton et al., April l 23, 1929. . . would discharge since by this end raise the con veying action of the ~high speed shaking mech ' ‘ type Theofdisadvantage separator is two-fold. of the use of First, thisalthough method and the removal of heavy contaminating materialfromA 15 Q the bulk of the good material is perfect, the rocks, ' I stone, metal, and glass produce contains a quan ltity of good material which is near the Weight `of the heavy contaminating material. anism had been counteracted. Then wheat was fed on~ the deck and the pressure of this grain Ystarted the forward movement of the stones. As soon as_the feedwas reduced, the stones again. were stationary. An exaggerated feed brought all stones forward at a rapid rate'until al1 but ' Cutting a few lighter stones were discharged. These light fingers are set to out out the stone product with 20 stones remained against the diagonal banking ìthe loss of as little good product as possible but rail and would continue to discharge only if ad ditional stones were added to the feed. There 'was at times a tendency for some of the heaviest ïmachine some of this foreign material will dis ywheat to work forward into the discharge'. To charge to the wrong side of the cutting finger 25 remedy this, a specially constructed bar was uti Iand contaminate the material which is normally lized which extends across the'heavy particle dis §clean. For this reason it is necessary to have an charge end which deflects air coming through foperator watch the table carefully andV make ad the deck surface back against the flow of ma- f Íjustments when necessary. ï ' . ` terial upwards but allows stones to escape freely 1' ’ Even if the adjustments are kept perfect; there 30 under it. If light stones are blown backward by `is always a mixture of good material which is al this action they quickly settle and start forward `most as heavy as the contaminationswhich re again in contact with the other heavier elements. :port in small quantities with the contamination. The light material which has a tendency to move lThis heavy and discharge stream must be either forward on> the surface eventually builds up un constantly retreated, or if economical, justbe 35 til it slides off the deck surface downward by `if, _there is "a fluctuation in the quantity of rocks, .metaL etc., contained in the feedV going, to the ‘sortedby hand»V ÍI'n most instancesthematerial making up'this discharge stream is Vthrown away Íwh’ichrresults in a sizable loss 'of material during la year’s operation. l Y gravity toward the light end discharge. 'I’his deñector, which is designated as a skimmer, is considered one of the chief features of the im provements of this invention. . The other objection to the gravity or air ño 40 At the light end discharge of the deck is pro tation table is the limitation'in capacity. VMa vided an adjustable retaining wall extending terial Ais comîned on two sides and it can dis ' across the discharge at right angle to the flow charge in'only one direction. 'I'he feed therefore of the light material. This tailing rifl‘le can be ‘cannotbe heavy. used to regulate the pressure as above described 45 c The present invention overcomes the disad when working on the removal of heavy mate vantagesfof both the conventional aspirator and rials which are lighter than normal. It also pre the gravity separator. For years the apparatus and the process used by the inventor utilized the , vents ñaky `stone. or glass from cascading from the feed and getting into the light material dis well knownv eccentric and pitman for yproducing ` charge. If this material drops too far near the the necessary reciprocation of the deck and the 50 end of the separator it is quickly held by thisl re materialsY thereon being processed, substantially taining wall and starts its forward motion under as shown >in vpatent to Sutton, Steele and Steele pressure of the lighter over-lying stratus. This ' No. 1,710,521 Y table granted April 23,1929. The ' riille, or retaining wall,r can also be used to regu above mentioned eccentric and pitman is neces late the capacity making the operation fully auto sarily limited in speed. i. e., ranging in practice V55 matic. This separator does not allow an inter from two hundred and eighty to four hundred mediate or second grade product to be discharged. twenty’strokes per minute and the length of the _. If the material lacks weight enough to climb’ stroke being three-eighths of an inch. 'I'he in through'friction'with the roughened surface it ventor has found this to be a comparatively slow maintains its position on the deck of the surface oscillatory movement. In working out the pres 60 and moves forward by contiguous contact with ent improvement the inventor discovered thatas ` other heavier elements as above described. the vibrations of the tables are increased,'the air Another important feature of this invention pressure passing through the _perforated deck to is the increased capacity which can be obtained lift the material thereon can be greatly dimin-y on this separator. Except for the heavy end dis ished-__Thisrhigher speed agitation is very im 65 charge point there is no banking rail to retard ¿rmrtantL in aiding ranid settlement'of the heavier «the movement of the light materialY in its how ' elements through the lighter materials in >the backward and with the degree of end raise used rnass.; To increase the frequency has the same effect as to increase the air. Therefora'less air ` the light material flows freely and unobstructed.v `can be used and the separation will more closely approach true flotation as in water. thus increas ing the range of materials of very close density for the same working deck areaas can be ob which be separated. ` ‘ Capacities were obtained live to ten times greater tained on the standard gravity separator herein before referred to. yI The inventor has also discovered that an added -friction value is given to the heavier elements 0f ' , 'I‘he high speed longitudinally vibrating or Y 7.5 trembling action is regarded as an important part of this invention. The use of a roughened sur l .2,404,414 face which imparts a hold tothe material on the lower stratum which combined with normal fric tion of the heavy material aids in its up-hill travel, is also regarded as important. 'I'he disposition of air under this blowing bar is also regarded as another important feature in this improvement. Furthermore, the special construction of the deck surface is regarded as another important the mass between the'walls »9. The bar vIIJ oscil lates up and down by'swinging on said eye I4. ' Attached to the upper end of the bar I0 is a rod Il!a that carries on its ends weights Iûb that are adjustable on said rod I0a and by these weights the skimmer bar I0 can be balanced ac cording to the requirements of the material being operated upon. i Said mass is fed through a chute I8 that de feature of this invention which will specifically 10 vclined in the direction of the flow of the lighter be described hereinafter. particles and said chute extends substantially A further and modified construction is shown clear across the deck, and it is preferably posi and described, wherein the Yblowing bar or de tioned nearer the end 5 than the end l. flecting pneumatic skimmerr is automatic in its The wall 8 at the outlet for the lighter particles action as will be described hereinafter. is provided with an apron I9 and a gear rack 20 Additional features of the invention will be re and a gear wheel 2l and a hand wheel, not shown, ferred to hereinafter. for vertically adjusting the wall 8 and thus con > In the drawings: i trolling the depth of the mass maintained on Fig.A 1A is a longitudinal vertical sectional view saidÍ deck 2. ‘ » through the machine. Fig. 2 is a top plan view with thedeck or cov ering being partly broken away. . Fig. 3 is an enlarged detail View in vertical sec tion illustrating the preferred form of bar. . - skimmer Figs. 4 and 5 are extremely enlarged detail ver tical sectional and plan views illustrating the deck. I Fig. 6 is a fragmentary enlarged vertical sec tional. view showing a modified form of skimmer bar. . ‘ - » Fig. 7 is a plan view showing a modified Aform of an apparatus specially designed for separating the meats from the shells of cotton seed. ' It-will of course be understood that the depth of the mass on the deck depends upon the char acter thereof that is being separated and cleaned. Attached to the-air chest and hence with said deck 2 is afan chest 23 that carries a suitable fan 2‘4 that is containedin a suitable fan housing Y 25 that has the usual air inlet 26 that is connected by a. passage 2l with an air filter 28. The pas sage 21 has the usual control shutter 29. The outlet 30 of said fan housing extends outwardly 30 through the chest 23 as at 3| and is provided with a flexible connection 32 which attaches it to the member 33 which is connected to the air chest `I. Carried by the lower portion of said air chest Fig. 8 is a central longitudinal sectional view of Fig. 7. 35 where it connects with the member 33 are a plu- ' rality of adjustable louvres 34 for directing the Figs. 9 and 10 are schematic views illustrating air to the baflles 35 which are located below and the hereinafter described operation of the pres preferably separated from said deck 2. The air ent improved method. flows in the direction indicated by/arrows from the Referring now specifically to the drawings the fan to the deck 2. ‘ deck is composed of frame-work consisting of an Attention is particularly directed to the fact air chest I ,which has a deck 2 which consists of that the baffles 35 do not extend below the blowing a suitable covering which will Vbe specifically ex bar I0 andV that therefore the air freely flows plained hereinafter. Said deck has upwardly throughv the deck area 2’ into the space under extending sides 3 and these sides converge toward said bar I il. The purpose of this `is to blow out the center of the deck as shown at 4. This forms the heavy particles and thus prevent any chok an outlet 5 through whichthe heavier particles ing of the apparatus. 6 of the mass escape from the deck 2. ‘ The opposite end 'l of this deck is provided with> a vertically extending wall 8 that spans said end 1. The air chest I and the deck 2 carried thereby are attached to a chassis or member 3E. One end 37 of said member 36 is hinged at 38 to the said This end 1 will for convenience be referred to as 50 air chest, and its opposite portion 36 is adjustably an outlet for the lighter particles of the mass S', connected with the air chest I by a vertical screw while the opposite converged end 4- will for con 39 which carriesa suitable handle e9. The pur venience be termed the outlet for the heavier « pose of this adjustment is to increase or decrease particles. Said end 4 is formed by the short the inclination of the deck 2. ’ parallel walls 9. and a skimmer bar 0r deflect Suitable vertical spring metal rods 40’ have ing pneumatic skimmerv Il) .is vertically movable between said walls 9. The bar I B is broadly termed their upper ends connected with said member 36 and their lower ends connected with the chest as a skimmer bar for the Want of a better term. 23, whereby said partsrl, 2 and 36 are longitudiH It might be called` a blowing bar because itjdi nally movable. These parts will hereafter be rects the air below it through'said outlet 5 and 60 again referred to. ` to some extent controls the air passing, or blow >Attached to the member 36 is what may be ing through said outlet passage. Said bar is in termed a high-speed longitudinally vibrating or the form of a square bar as shown in Fig. 2. trembling mechanism 31. This trembling is lon This bar Ill has its bottom II curved as shown gitudinal of the deck I', and its purpose is to cause and its inner end I2 is. attached to and supported“ ' Athe said deck to vibrate or tremble longitudinally. by an oscillating movable member I3 which carries The spring rods 40 are set at an inclination at its upper extremity an eye I4 which is en toward the wall 8 whereby the said movement gages by a rod l5 that has its ends'ls fastened lifts the mass 9’ slightly. This causes the heavier particles to fall through the lighter particles and or clamped to the side walls 9. As shown by thus finally reach the deck and the heavier par arrows the air is divided and caused to ñow in ticles arev carried toward and escape through the opposite directions from about the center of said outlet passageway 5. y skimmer bar l0. Therefore the air is controlled For the purpose of aiding the movement of the by said bar and' it controls also the speed of and heavier particles on said deck I, said‘deck hasits the amount of escaping heavier particles 6 -of top surface 4I slightly roughened to increase the v2,404,414. ..7 . frictional coeñicientcf the heavier particles of the ï mass therewith. The deck is- composed of woven wire, and it has the warp strands M’ thereof ‘ crimped over the weft strands , very rough upper surface as 42 thus producing a . compared with the ` ordinary weaving of wire screening which has Therradius _of .the curved under side of the skimmer bar shouldrbe thesegment'of a true circle because the construction shown in Figs. 1 and 3 operates better when so shaped. Placed at the extremity of the skimmer or blowing bar IU, a suitable skirtk rail 52’ is provided, said rail being preferably declined. . both strands of the wire in the same plane which In Fig. 6 is shown a modified form of skimmer produces a comparatively smooth surface. As bar which consists of a bar |0° having its under previously stated my screen is preferably addi 10 side lûe curved from its outer end a to its inner tionally roughened substantially as shown at 43. end b. This curve is preferably formed on the In the accompanying drawing Fig. vl, the power ' for operating the devices is derived from a driv ing element-preferably electrical-_which has a belt 44 that passes around the shaft 45 and a belt 46 from said shaft 45 to a shaft 41 and a belt 48 to a shaftêg. This device carries weights 5D and 5| which are so geared up together that when arc of a true circle, and the outer end a is at wall c which slides in ver- , tached to a member or tical grooves d formed in the inner side of the wall c.r Attached to the wall c is a vertical rack f `which engages a gear wheel g. The end of the shaft h that carries said gear g is provided with a hand wheel-_shown in dotted lines-_which is lo cated outside of the wall c.Y By this construction mechanism, the weights are out of balance with 20 said skimmer bar Hic is adjusted vertically- ac cording to the material being processed. `This each other in the horizontal line of movement, rotated‘rapidly by means vof a suitable driving but are in perfect balance in a perpendicular line of the same. There are many devices of this kind on the market for the purpose of causing a rapid trembling or vibrating movement, for instance the skimmer bar is not automatic in its vertical move ment, as is the skimmer bar Ill illustrated in the well known AjaX-Shaler shaker made by Ajax matically illustrate` and describe the present method. No attempt has been made to properly illustrate the disposition of the particles in Figs. Flexible Coupling Co., Westfield, N. Y. In the ' present invention it is necessary that this device be set so that the out of balance is in a other figures of the drawings. . I Figs. 9 and 10 of the drawings serve to sche. 1 and 2 of the drawings. Obviously the bed of l light particles will have an upper surface which' nal line with the deck. 30 is parallel vto the horizontal with the result that As clearly shown in Fig. l, below the deck 2 the bed of light material is of tapered depth with under the skimmer bar ll) at 2",the bañies 3'5 are the deep end yof the bed at and against the re omitted topermit'the air at that point free to taining wall orgate at the lower end of the table. blow the lighter particles back, and the baffles In Figs. 'l and 8 is shown another modification 35 are omitted> throughout that part which ex of the machine illustrated in Figs. 1 to 5 inclu - tendsbeyond the wall which permits the air to freely blow the heavy particles from the outlet to prevent any clogging of the outlet by them and sive. This modiñcation consists in lowering the banking bars shownl in the other figures of the drawings, and preferably increasing therheight they flow freely over the skirt rail 52’. It will be observed that the baflies 35 deliver 40 somewhat of the walls 4, and instead of placing the feed I8’ intermediate the ends of the machine y the air diagonally against the under side of the as shown in Fig. .1,A it is preferably placed at the deck 2 in the direction of the flow ofthe lighter Y receiving end as shown at I8’ of Figs. 7 and 8; particles, while the heavier particles engagethe rough surface of the deck and they are propelled This modification is to, adapt th'e machine to the separation of meats from the hulls of cotton ` by the high-speed movement of the deck into the 46 seeds. It will be observed that in thismodi?ica narrow outlet opening in which the skimmer bar tion the machine utilizes the skimmer bar I0 and lll is located; Y It will also be observed that the converging it works to remove the meats--the heavy parts walls d form banking bars between which the heavy particles are crowded and against which they bank. The action of the skimmer or blow ing bar is very different from prior devices known banking bars A, the lighter particles-_the hulls of the seed from the hulls and by lowering the flow over thebanking bars A, while the meats the heavy particles-'flow under said skimmer bar Ill. In operation the cotton seed are previ ous/ly acted on in the well known method, which makes a mass composed of mixed shells and skimmer or blowing bar and the intensity of the 55 meats. This mixed mass is fed to the machine, draft increases as the distance between its'under and the heavy particles are separated from the to the inventor. In the present instance is used anrexpanded draft of air at the outer edge of the side and. the deck diminishes. The feature of the ‘ skimmer or blowing bar I0 and the converging walls 4 are important. The proper regulation of light particles, and these two particles flow to different places. In this modification the skimmer bar may or ’the distance the blowing bar I0 is spaced above 60 may not be provided with weights, according to the deck surface is such that nothing but the the character of seed being processed. As here heavy elements pass under it and are discharged shown the weights are omitted. The deck 2a has through the opening, while the lighter particles its rear end provided with a wall B for holding are crowded back and finally are discharged over ' 65 the( mass being separated thereon. the wall 8 at the opposite end of the deck. Itwill be observed that the table or deck has ` It should be understood that the separation of aperfectly blank surface from end to end which the material in the manner described is accom is essential because any form of riilie crossing the plished by the high-speed longitudinal movement surface of the table will act to break up the for alone which enables the vsmall amount of air to mation of these heavier particles so that their 70 cause Ythe mass to become extremelyy liquid contiguous contact with each other would be bro throughout the entire mass without the necessity ken up into smaller units by means of riîlies, of varying the relative size of the air openings in which would prevent their concentrated. move-l the deck. This is a novel construction, operation, and method in separators. It makes the process of controlling the air automatic. ment in a mass. This ¿new method causes them to concentrate along the sloping bars and as they 2,404,414» rial 0f the kind beine fed in with the stock they gradually accumulate enough friotional Value> sageway, and separate means for permitting the e escape of lighter material from said table. I with the deck owing to the fact that the impetus of one stone is continually being added to the 3. A construction such as defined in claim 2, wherein, the lighter material escapes from the next, so that finally the forward line of stones or other heavy element overcomes the blowing back action Of the skimmer b_ar and report out under it. This is, in brief, the process of separation here defined. If there is no material fed to the end of said table at opposite'sides of the outlet passageway for the heavy material. 4. A construction such as defined in claim 2 wherein, means is provided -rox-crowding and con l0 deck, there is no discharge of heavy elements out under the skimmer bar notwithstanding there may be quite a collection of them along the slop ing banking bars. Therefore, in a way, the sepa ration depends on the volumetric pressure that 15 is developed by theweight of the material being fed in, which continually adds to the frictional value of the heavier materialA underlying the stock. 10 ‘wayA cover being curved to present a convex shaped surface opposed to the bottom of said pas are ,continually beingjadded to from fresh mate ` centrating the heavy material toward and` in front of the inlet end'of said outlet passageway. 5. A construction such as defined in claim 2 wherein, the deck longitudinally is vertically in clined and at its lower _end is provided through out its Width with a vertically disposed wall mounted for vertical adjustment to selectively `create on said deck a bed of material of prede termined depth, and the upper end of said deck This apparatus and method is merely a clean 20 having inwardly converging walls- to crowd ,and concentrate the heavy material toward the inlet up separator either to follow and re-.wcrk over end of-said heavy material outlet passageway. part of the product from a regular table, or _to 6. An apparatus for separating from an inter ' be used as a receiving separator at the head of a mill, or to be used as a separator on a mill refuse mixed mass of material made up of particles hav where usable products can be salvaged from waste materials. Concretely this _is its ñeld of opera ing different specific gravities the lighter particles tion. ‘ What is claimed is: from the heavy particles comprising, an elon gated deck having its longitudinal axis disposed ` at an inclination to the vertical, means vfor rap , idly and smoothly longitudinally reciprocating 1- An apparatus for separating from an inter miXed mass 0f material made up 0f. particles hav said deck to avoid imparting `a jerking motion to an abrupt stoppage of> movementof vsaid deck, ing different speciñc gravities the lighter particles from the heavy particles comprising, an elon gated deck having its longitudinal axis disposed at an inclination to the ver-ticahmeans for _ra-pid ly and smoothly longitudinally reciprocating said deck to avoid imparting a jerking motion to an abrupt stoppage of movement of said deck, said deck being porous, means for forcing air upward ly through said deck, walls of considerable height extending upwardly from the longitudinal edges said deck being porous, means forforcing air up wardly through saidr deck, .walls of considerable height-extending upwardly from the longitudinal edges ofrsaid deck, a wall. extending- acros's' the lower end of said deck and mounted for vertical adjustment to prevent the escape of vI_naterial from the lower -end of said deck until a bed of predetermined >depth has been’created »on said 40 deck,»wa1ls convergingtowards the center of said deck adjacent the upper end >thereof and ter-- of said deck, a wall extending across the lower end of said deck and mounted yfor vertical adjust ment to prevent the escape 0f material from the minating in an outlet opening, a yclosed outlet passageway communicating with said outlet open _lower end o_f said deck until a bed of predeter ing with said porous deck constituting the bot >mined. depth has been created onsaid deck, walls 45 tom of said passageway, said passageway at the converging towards the center of said deck adja upper `eind of said deck being open to permit ma cent the upper end thereof and terminating in terial traveling through said passageway to escape an outlet opening, walls extending from seid out from the upper end of the> deck, the topvclosure let opening to provide an outlet passageway vter of said passageway being in the form `0f Aa skim minating in an open end at the upper edge of said 50 mer bar the inner end of which is horizontally deck, the bottom` of said passageway being pervi pivotally mounted, the bottom `face of said gbar ous for the upward passage therethrough of some being formed to present a convex surface to the of the air delivered for upward passage through air entering upwardly through the porous bottom the deck, a skimmer bar in said passageway and of saidpassageway, and means to feed the in extending entirely Vthere-across and vbeing freely movable vertically in respect to the bottom of said 55 mediateitslength, passageway, and the bottoni face oi said bar be ing formed t0 direct the air which enters up wardly through the porous bottom of said pas- i sageway horizontally bothv outwardly and in wardly in respect to said passageway. 2. An apparatus for separating light _from termiXed material'to said Vdeck _at a point inter 60 ' ' ‘ ' ' ' 7. A construction such as defined in claim 5 wherein, means is >provided for directing all Aof the air which passes through said deck other than through the bottom of said outlet passageway in ' a direction toward the lower end of. said deckQ and said skimmer bar suspension and curyature being heavy particles of an intermixed mass of mate such that the under side _of said barA is disposed , rial comprising, an elongated pervious deck, nearest the bottom of said passageway ata point means for longitudinally reciprocating said deck 65 adjacent but short of the open outer end thereof. in a manner to prevent any bumping or jerking 8. Alconstruction such as definedV in claim 6 action, means for forcing air upwardly through wherein, the .suspension and curvature of» the said deck,'an elongated narrow walled and-cov skimmer bar is such that »for thegreater` portion f ered outlet passageway at one end of said deck of the length .of the outlet passageway Asaid skim for the discharge of heavy material, the cover 70 mer‘bar causes theair entering vsaid passageway of said passageway being movably mounted to swing upwardly Afrom the bottom of s_aid pas sagcway, the bottom of said passageway being pervious to permit the passage of air >upwardly ' ’ .through the bottom thereof to be deflectedtoward the inlet end of thepassagewaywith the force of said air progressively _íncreasingin a direction to. Wards the open `outlet `end of said pa'ssagewaxnand therethrough, andthe under side of said passage y75 said yskimmer bar deflect-ing. the'air entering said . Y ~ 1’2l f Y . passageway adjacent-the open outlet end thereof ' ‘ sure uponand rate _of discharge offthe1~>10wë? stratum upwardly of said deck and through?said in a _direction toward said open end to assist in the discharge Vof material from said Vopen end. throat discharge. - Y » `atelynçollecting particles in a mass in accordance _11. The process of separatinglthe light from'the I heavy particles of a mass ofintermixed divided with their differences in 'speciñc gravities, an in materials the particles of which are of different specific gravities, comprising, continuously >feed- . l 9. kIn an apparatus forseparatingV and sep clined porous deck devoid of riffles on its surface, means to reciprocate said deck in line with its in ing to alongitudinally inclined pervious> deck a clination, walls extendingalong the sides of said stream of said mass at a point intermediate >the deck and‘at the upper endvof the deck converg 10 length of said deck, conñning >said material against escape Vfrom the sides of said deck, agi tating and stratifying the- materialen saidy deck ing'to define a restricted discharge throat- and Iacting to concentrate the heavier particles, of said vmass under volumetric- mass pressure to by simultaneously rapidly reciprocating >saiddeck jcause their»Y movement up said deck toward and in the direction of its inclination andlforcingf'air through saidthroat discharge in response to deck impetus, _an automatically operable curved plate upwardly through said deck andthe material thereon, permitting the upper'strata of light ma' overlying a porous portion of said deck and piv terial to move down said deck in-re'spons'e to the otally mounted for vertical movement in respect' thereto, said plate confining saidthroat discharge force of gravitybut positively Vobstructing the by being‘positioned so that the heavier particles of the mass must passv beneath the plate to dis ‘ passage of any of said material from the Vlower end of said deck until a bed of predetermined ed thickness of said material is established on that said deck to stratify _Saidfmass and to impinge against the curved surface of said plate, said plate area of the deck between the point of material feed and the lower end of said deck with said bed being deepest at the lowermost end of the deck and tapering in thickness upwardly of said curved surface acting todivide the air current i deck to the point of material feed to the deck, charge through said throat, means for maintain ing a continuous-air current upwardly through which is directe-d against it into two'streams one of which moves in a direction to facilitate4 the making the inclination of said deckand the speed lighter particlesaway from said throat discharge, ticles will not move up said deck until they are forced into close relationship-with one another of reciprocation thereof and the amount of ‘air forced upwardly through the deck such that the discharge of heavy particles through the throat discharge and the other _of which acts'to propel 30 heavy underlying strata composed of heavy par and vertically adjustable means at the lower end of said deck acting tomaintain a predetermined depth of stratified _mass on said deck and to con trol thedischarge' of the lighter particles o_f said` mass from the lower end of said deck. y V 10. An apparatus for separating andseparately collecting mixed particles of different speciñc ` and into frictional engagement with the deck by the force and weight exerted upon them by 35 the said bed composed of the lighter particles, progressively narrowing the width of the stream l of heavy particles on said deck as said particles i move up the deck to thereby promote crowding and contiguity of the heavy particles, and there gravities in a mass comprising, an inclined air pervious deck mounted for uniform and rapid re 40 after permitting the heavy particles to discharge at deck level from the upper end of said deck ciprocation in line .with said deck inclinatiomsaid as, they reach said deck end by travel upwardly deck being provided withra roughened surface of the deck in response to the reciprocatory devoid of riiiles, conñning walls at and extending movement thereof through their frictional en along the sides of said deck, said walls at _the gagement with one another and with the deck. ' upper end of said deck slanting inwardly and con 12. The process'of separating the light from verging but having their endsstopping Short of the heavy particles of a mass of intermixed di meeting, said wall construction being for the pur vided materials the particles of which are'of dif poser ofrpromoting contiguity of the heavy Apar ferent speciñc gravities comprising, continuously ticles of the mass and to define between the sep; arated ends of said inwardly slanting Walls a f feeding to a longitudinally inclined pervious deck the upper surface of which is free ofany obstruc restricted throat discharge, said'throat disch-arge tion extending in a direction transverse vthe deck being elongated and having substantially parallel a stream of said mass at a point intermediate the side walls and 4a pervious bottom, means for pro length of said deck, conñning said material jecting a continuous air current upwardly through , said deck and said throat discharge bottom, an "against escape from the sides of said deck, agi tating and stratifying the material on said `deck arcuate shaped automatic particle and air con trolling plate pivotally disposed between said throat Vdischarge side walls for vertical movement in respect thereto andragainst which air pass ing through the bottom of said throat discharge is directed and divided into two separate streams one of which moves outwardly through said throat discharge to facilitate the expulsion there through of the lower stratum of the mass and the other of which moves longitudinally over said deck toward the lower end thereof, whereby the mass of mixed particles on 'said deck will be by simultaneously rapidly reciprocating said’deck inthe direction of its inclination and forcing air upwardly through said deck and the material thereon, permitting the upper strata of light ma terial to move down said deck inresponse'to the `force of gravity but positively obstructing the passage ofV any of said material from the lower end of said deck until a bed of predetermined thickness vof said material is established on'that area of the deck between the point of material feed andthe lower end of said deck with said bed being deepest at the lowermost end of the deck and tapering in thickness upwardly of said most stratum, against other than movement down Flo deck to the point of material feed to the deck, the inclined deck towards the lower end thereof, making the inclination of said 'deck and the speed and vertically adjustable means carried by said of reciprocation thereof and the amount of airv deck and oppositelyarranged in Arespect to said forced upwardly through the deck such that the ' throat discharge for 'controlling the depth _ofthe 4» f heavy'underlying strata composed of heavy par stratified and constrained, except for theÍ lower mass'on said deck to attain a predetermined pres- -« ticles will not -move up said deck until they are 13 2,404,414 14 forced into close relationship with one another and into frictional engagement with the deck by material making of said mass, continuously di . the force and weight exerted upon them by the point intermediate the ends thereof and simul recting the feeding of the mass to said deck at a said bed composed of thelighter particles, pro~ taneously rapidly longitudinally reciprocating Vgressively narrowing the width-of the stream oi (il the deck, forcing air from the bottom side of heavy particles on said deck as said particles move up the deck to thereby promote crowding and contiguity of the heavy particles, and per- , mitting the heavy particles to discharge at deck said deck upwardly therethrough, confining said. Vmaterial against escape from the side edges of said deck and preventing the discharge of mate rial from the lower end of said deck until the level from the upper end of said deck as they 10 mass on said deck has created a bed of a prede reach said deck end by travel upwardly of the termined thickness, continuing the feed of the deck in response to the reciprocatory movement mass to said deck and the reciprocation thereof thereof through their frictional engagement with until the heavier materials of the mass have set one another and with the deck. y tled into contact with the deck and ar-e moved up 13. A process for pneumatically separating a 15 the incline of the deck due to said deck recipro mass consisting of heavy refuse particles and lighter particles by feeding said mass on a rapid ly reciprocating wide pervious bed through which cation, crowding the heavy material adjacent the upper end lof the deck to place the particles thereof‘into close and contiguous relationship, air is forced upward through said mass to cause the separation of part of said heavy refuse from the lighter particles, and separating the remain kcausing said heavy crowded particles to escape ing unseparated heavy refuse particles by pass ing them through a transversely contracted pas~ entry of said outlet opening a current of air trav eling in a direction inward from said opening, continuing the feed of the mass to the deck and on the upper end of said deck through a re- Y stricted elongated outlet opening, creating at the sageway in respect to said wide bed and simul taneously forcing air upwardV in said passageway and causing the air to simultaneously flow in two directions within the passageway, one in the di , rection of the outlet end of the passageway to force said refuse out of the passageway and the other air inwardly within said passageway to 30 and thereby enter said outlet opening, aiding the discharge of the heavy material after it has to mix with said mass, whereby a clean mass of it to the force of an outwardly moving current force inwardly the lighter particles causing them lighter products is the ñnal result. 14. The process of separating from a mass those materials having different specific gravi ties comprising, feeding said mass on to a per vious deck inclined longitudinally at an angle to the horizontal and having a roughened surface of a character to provide no obstruction or dis ruption to the free passage over the deck of the the reciprocation thereof until the weight of the ~ crowded heavy material by its frictional contact with the deck is moved upwardly with suiiicient force to overcome the force of said current of air passed through said outlet opening by subjecting of air, and throughout said operations permitting the lighter material to flow down said deck in re sponse »to the force of gravity and to discharge from the top of said .bed over. the lower end of the deck. ' _ i `FRANK E.wooD, ` Executor of Estate of Henry M _ Sutton, Deceased.