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Патент USA US2404414

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July 23, 1946,
_Original Ffiled Jan. 17, 1941
5 Sheets-Sheet 1
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_ inventor
July l23, 1946.
H. M. sU'r‘rc-JN
Uriginal Filed Jan. 17, 1941
5 Sheets-Sheet 2
July 23, 194s.
-4 2,404,414
Original Filed Jan. 17, 1941
_45 Sheets-Sheet 3
July 23, 1946.4 ,
Original Filed Jan. 17, 1941
`5 Sheets-Sheet 4
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July 23, 1946.
’ |-|„ M_ SUTTON
Original Filled Jan. 17, 1941
5 Sheets-«Sheet 5
Patented July 23, 1946
Henry M. Sutton, deceased, late of Dallas, Tex., ’
by Frank E. Wood, executor, Dallas, Tex., as
signor to Sutton, Steele & Steele, Incorporated,
Dallas, Tex., a corporation of Texas
Continuation of application Serial No. 374,920,
January 17, 1941. This application December
4, 1943, Serial No. 512,938
14 cmims. (o1. 209-467)
This patent application is a continuation of the
Henry M. Sutton pending patent application Ser.
No. 374,920, filed January i7, 1941, and bearing
like title.
This invention relates to improvements in the
facture of corn meal, flour, hominy grits, and ce
reals, these contaminations are always present in
varying degree. kMagnets are used in some in
stances to remove metal, which is magnetic but
the magnet cannot remove rock. clay balls, glass
and various metal particles which are non-mag-A
method and apparatus for the removal of heavy
objectionable material from cereals, legumes and
If this material is not effectively removed be
other food products, and the object of the pres
fore processing, damage may be caused to the
ent invention is to accomplish this with the fol
10 machinery in the mill and if it is not ñnally
lowing new method and apparatus.
‘ The present method and’apparatus can be uti
lized for the' separation and cleaning of many dif
removed before the edible product is packed, yseri
ous injury may befall the consumer.
My invention relates to lthe efficient and eco
nomical removal of these contaminations from all
understanding of the method and apparatus it is
hereinafter described in respect to the removal 15 dry food products in one operation.
' 'In the _present state of this art, there are two '
of foreign substances from peanuts or the like,
conventional pneumatic methods used. The ñrst
for which use the invention is particularly well
and most widely used is the air leg 0r aspirator
which attempts to lift the good material through
To bring out the advantages and improvements
of the present invention which constitute an ad 20 a pipe leaving the heavier stones and meta-l be
hind. The objection to this type of unit is well
vancement in the art thev methods land machines
known, namely, it is necessary to use air at high
heretofore used in connection with the harvesting
velocities‘to lift all'of the material except the
and cleaning of ` peanuts and other legumes by
stones. It is unable to efficiently remove light
separating foreign substances therefrom will be
particles of glass, small stones, etc. for this rea
The small particle caught in` a mass of
Peanuts and other legumes are harvested by
heavier particles is most likely to be drawn up
pulling Vthe entire plants with their roots and
ward and lost with the good material. A parti
passing them through a suitably constructed
lferent materials or products.
To enable a, clear
thrasher which removes the nuts or other prod
ucts from the plants orl vines. By reason'of this ~
manner of handling, rocks, balls of clay, pieces of
metal, glass and other heavyforeign material
which cling to the roots are carried through the
thrasher and although‘the vines, c'haiis and free
hulls are shaken loose and blown off, the heavy
rocks, metal particles, glass and clay remain. The
thrashed products are taken to the mill or proc
essing plant for final cleaning by 'shalier'screens
or tanning separators combining screens'. Large
cle must either go up or down.
If itis of inter
mediate weight and remains suspended in air,
other particles of the samejcharacteristics will
gradually surround it until the velocity inlthe >pipe
increases to such an extent that all of the mate
rial including stones and good product are taken
out at one time.
1t cannot cope with variation
in particle shape. A hat, light piece of glass pre
sented to the air current with its flat sideV down
will be taken upward immediately-with the good
material. If lower velocities are used,too much
good »material Vstays with the stones, glass and
sticks, clods, metal and rocks are screened out 40 metal and a practical separation- is not therefore
over a perforated screen which has openings
small enough to prevent large contaminations
from passing through but small enough to allow
passage of good stock. The material then lpasses
over a screen with smaller openings' which in
The other method which is less widely used on
account of» its cost but whichfis far more efficient
than the aspirating or suctiondevice, utilized a
pneumatic or gravity table; using the air notation
turn allows fine gravel, sand and dirt to pass but
principle. ' This equipment actually iloats mate
which retains the good material on its surface.
lrial inair as if in water. The air is used under
The sand screen is usually directly below the top
pressure and there are no high Velocity air cur-or scalping screen. Air suction on the screens'is
50 rents to disturb the separation. The heavy ma
sometimes employed to remove dust and chaff.
terial sinks to the bottom of the mass and works
The so-called finished product is now free of
gradually upward4 and side-wise until it is dislarge undesirable particles and ñne dirt but it still
charged at the end along“ with» a mixture-of good
contains all of the stones, glass, metal, etc. which
heavy material. The .chief advantage 1 of- the
are of the same size as the good product.
gravity separator over the aspirator units lies in
In other milling operations such as, the manu
1 the fact that it is more ableto separate minute
the mass against the roughened surface deck by
‘ particles of glass, stone, and other heavy contam
- the weight of the over-lying stratus of lighter
` inations since it'does not usehigh velocity air’curá
elements Which by their 'pressure force the heav
‘ rents.
ier elementsinto contiguousvcontact with each
other and against the roughened surface causing
the heavy under-lying stratum to move forward
`If material to be removed is' very near the i
1 >same density vof the good vmaterial it is not nec»
` essary for it to separate immediately. It simply
, lies on the surface of the separator deck and'` " together toward the discharge. It was found in
; moves forward gradually until it is at the point of Y
experimenting that if various weight stones were
discharge. Equipment used in this process is
placed only on the deck surface the end raise
i such as described and substantially as shown in 10 could be increased to the point where no stones
Patent No. 1,710,521 granted to VSutton et al., April
l 23, 1929.
would discharge since by this end raise the con
veying action of the ~high speed shaking mech
‘ type
separator is two-fold.
of the use of
method and
removal of heavy contaminating materialfromA 15
Q the bulk of the good material is perfect, the rocks, '
I stone, metal, and glass produce contains a quan
ltity of good material which is near the Weight
`of the heavy contaminating material.
anism had been counteracted. Then wheat was
fed on~ the deck and the pressure of this grain
Ystarted the forward movement of the stones. As
soon as_the feedwas reduced, the stones again.
were stationary.
An exaggerated feed brought
all stones forward at a rapid rate'until al1 but '
a few lighter stones were discharged. These light
fingers are set to out out the stone product with 20 stones remained against the diagonal banking
ìthe loss of as little good product as possible but
rail and would continue to discharge only if ad
ditional stones were added to the feed. There
'was at times a tendency for some of the heaviest
ïmachine some of this foreign material will dis
ywheat to work forward into the discharge'. To
charge to the wrong side of the cutting finger 25 remedy this, a specially constructed bar was uti
Iand contaminate the material which is normally
lized which extends across the'heavy particle dis
§clean. For this reason it is necessary to have an
charge end which deflects air coming through
foperator watch the table carefully andV make ad
the deck surface back against the flow of ma- f
Íjustments when necessary.
' . `
terial upwards but allows stones to escape freely
1' ’ Even if the adjustments are kept perfect; there 30 under it. If light stones are blown backward by
`is always a mixture of good material which is al
this action they quickly settle and start forward
`most as heavy as the contaminationswhich re
again in contact with the other heavier elements.
:port in small quantities with the contamination.
The light material which has a tendency to move
lThis heavy and discharge stream must be either
forward on> the surface eventually builds up un
constantly retreated, or if economical, justbe 35 til it slides off the deck surface downward by
`if, _there is "a fluctuation in the quantity of rocks,
.metaL etc., contained in the feedV going, to the
‘sortedby hand»V ÍI'n most instancesthematerial
making up'this discharge stream is Vthrown away
Íwh’ichrresults in a sizable loss 'of material during
la year’s operation.
gravity toward the light end discharge.
deñector, which is designated as a skimmer, is
considered one of the chief features of the im
provements of this invention.
The other objection to the gravity or air ño 40
At the light end discharge of the deck is pro
tation table is the limitation'in capacity. VMa
vided an adjustable retaining wall extending
terial Ais comîned on two sides and it can dis
' across the discharge at right angle to the flow
charge in'only one direction. 'I'he feed therefore
of the light material. This tailing rifl‘le can be
‘cannotbe heavy.
used to regulate the pressure as above described
c The present invention overcomes the disad
when working on the removal of heavy mate
vantagesfof both the conventional aspirator and
rials which are lighter than normal. It also pre
the gravity separator. For years the apparatus
and the process used by the inventor utilized the
, vents ñaky `stone. or glass from cascading from
the feed and getting into the light material dis
well knownv eccentric and pitman for yproducing
` charge. If this material drops too far near the
the necessary reciprocation of the deck and the 50 end of the separator it is quickly held by thisl re
materialsY thereon being processed, substantially
taining wall and starts its forward motion under
as shown >in vpatent to Sutton, Steele and Steele
pressure of the lighter over-lying stratus. This '
No. 1,710,521 Y table granted April 23,1929. The ' riille, or retaining wall,r can also be used to regu
above mentioned eccentric and pitman is neces
late the capacity making the operation fully auto
sarily limited in speed. i. e., ranging in practice V55 matic. This separator does not allow an inter
from two hundred and eighty to four hundred
mediate or second grade product to be discharged.
twenty’strokes per minute and the length of the _. If the material lacks weight enough to climb’
stroke being three-eighths of an inch. 'I'he in
through'friction'with the roughened surface it
ventor has found this to be a comparatively slow
maintains its position on the deck of the surface
oscillatory movement. In working out the pres 60 and moves forward by contiguous contact with
ent improvement the inventor discovered thatas ` other heavier elements as above described.
the vibrations of the tables are increased,'the air
Another important feature of this invention
pressure passing through the _perforated deck to
is the increased capacity which can be obtained
lift the material thereon can be greatly dimin-y
on this separator. Except for the heavy end dis
ished-__Thisrhigher speed agitation is very im 65 charge point there is no banking rail to retard
¿rmrtantL in aiding ranid settlement'of the heavier «the movement of the light materialY in its how '
elements through the lighter materials in >the
backward and with the degree of end raise used
rnass.; To increase the frequency has the same
effect as to increase the air. Therefora'less air
` the light material flows freely and unobstructed.v
`can be used and the separation will more closely
approach true flotation as in water. thus increas
ing the range of materials of very close density
for the same working deck areaas can be ob
be separated.
Capacities were obtained live to ten times greater
tained on the standard gravity separator herein
before referred to.
yI The inventor has also discovered that an added
-friction value is given to the heavier elements 0f
'I‘he high speed longitudinally vibrating or
trembling action is regarded as an important part
of this invention. The use of a roughened sur
face which imparts a hold tothe material on the
lower stratum which combined with normal fric
tion of the heavy material aids in its up-hill
travel, is also regarded as important.
'I'he disposition of air under this blowing bar
is also regarded as another important feature in
this improvement.
Furthermore, the special construction of the
deck surface is regarded as another important
the mass between the'walls »9. The bar vIIJ oscil
lates up and down by'swinging on said eye I4. '
Attached to the upper end of the bar I0 is a
rod Il!a that carries on its ends weights Iûb that
are adjustable on said rod I0a and by these
weights the skimmer bar I0 can be balanced ac
cording to the requirements of the material
being operated upon.
Said mass is fed through a chute I8 that de
feature of this invention which will specifically 10
vclined in the direction of the flow of the lighter
be described hereinafter.
particles and said chute extends substantially
A further and modified construction is shown
clear across the deck, and it is preferably posi
and described, wherein the Yblowing bar or de
tioned nearer the end 5 than the end l.
flecting pneumatic skimmerr is automatic in its
The wall 8 at the outlet for the lighter particles
action as will be described hereinafter.
is provided with an apron I9 and a gear rack 20
Additional features of the invention will be re
and a gear wheel 2l and a hand wheel, not shown,
ferred to hereinafter.
for vertically adjusting the wall 8 and thus con
> In the drawings:
trolling the depth of the mass maintained on
Fig.A 1A is a longitudinal vertical sectional view
saidÍ deck 2.
‘ »
through the machine.
Fig. 2 is a top plan view with thedeck or cov
ering being partly broken away.
Fig. 3 is an enlarged detail View in vertical sec
tion illustrating the preferred form of
Figs. 4 and 5 are extremely enlarged detail ver
tical sectional and plan views illustrating the deck. I
Fig. 6 is a fragmentary enlarged vertical sec
tional. view showing a modified form of skimmer
Fig. 7 is a plan view showing a modified Aform of
an apparatus specially designed for separating
the meats from the shells of cotton seed. '
It-will of course be understood that the depth
of the mass on the deck depends upon the char
acter thereof that is being separated and cleaned.
Attached to the-air chest and hence with said
deck 2 is afan chest 23 that carries a suitable
fan 2‘4 that is containedin a suitable fan housing
Y 25 that has the usual air inlet 26 that is connected
by a. passage 2l with an air filter 28. The pas
sage 21 has the usual control shutter 29. The
outlet 30 of said fan housing extends outwardly
30 through the chest 23 as at 3| and is provided with
a flexible connection 32 which attaches it to the
member 33 which is connected to the air chest `I.
Carried by the lower portion of said air chest
Fig. 8 is a central longitudinal sectional view
of Fig. 7.
35 where it connects with the member 33 are a plu- '
rality of adjustable louvres 34 for directing the
Figs. 9 and 10 are schematic views illustrating
to the baflles 35 which are located below and
the hereinafter described operation of the pres
preferably separated from said deck 2. The air
ent improved method.
flows in the direction indicated by/arrows from the
Referring now specifically to the drawings the
fan to the deck 2.
deck is composed of frame-work consisting of an
Attention is particularly directed to the fact
air chest I ,which has a deck 2 which consists of
that the baffles 35 do not extend below the blowing
a suitable covering which will Vbe specifically ex
bar I0 andV that therefore the air freely flows
plained hereinafter. Said deck has upwardly
throughv the deck area 2’ into the space under
extending sides 3 and these sides converge toward
said bar I il. The purpose of this `is to blow out
the center of the deck as shown at 4. This forms
the heavy particles and thus prevent any chok
an outlet 5 through whichthe heavier particles
ing of the apparatus.
6 of the mass escape from the deck 2. ‘ The
opposite end 'l of this deck is provided with> a
vertically extending wall 8 that spans said end 1.
The air chest I and the deck 2 carried thereby
are attached to a chassis or member 3E. One end
37 of said member 36 is hinged at 38 to the said
This end 1 will for convenience be referred to as 50 air chest, and its opposite portion 36 is adjustably
an outlet for the lighter particles of the mass S',
connected with the air chest I by a vertical screw
while the opposite converged end 4- will for con
39 which carriesa suitable handle e9. The pur
venience be termed the outlet for the heavier
« pose of this adjustment is
to increase or decrease
particles. Said end 4 is formed by the short
the inclination of the deck 2.
parallel walls 9. and a skimmer bar 0r deflect
Suitable vertical spring metal rods 40’ have
ing pneumatic skimmerv Il) .is vertically movable
between said walls 9. The bar I B is broadly termed
their upper ends connected with said member 36
and their lower ends connected with the chest
as a skimmer bar for the Want of a better term.
23, whereby said partsrl, 2 and 36 are longitudiH
It might be called` a blowing bar because itjdi
nally movable. These parts will hereafter be
rects the air below it through'said outlet 5 and 60 again referred to.
to some extent controls the air passing, or blow
>Attached to the member 36 is what may be
ing through said outlet passage. Said bar is in
termed a high-speed longitudinally vibrating or
the form of a square bar as shown in Fig. 2.
trembling mechanism 31. This trembling is lon
This bar Ill has its bottom II curved as shown
gitudinal of the deck I', and its purpose is to cause
and its inner end I2 is. attached to and supported“ ' Athe said deck to vibrate or tremble longitudinally.
by an oscillating movable member I3 which carries
The spring rods 40 are set at an inclination
at its upper extremity an eye I4 which is en
toward the wall 8 whereby the said movement
gages by a rod l5 that has its ends'ls fastened
lifts the mass 9’ slightly. This causes the heavier
particles to fall through the lighter particles and
or clamped to the side walls 9. As shown by
thus finally reach the deck and the heavier par
arrows the air is divided and caused to ñow in
ticles arev carried toward and escape through the
opposite directions from about the center of said
outlet passageway 5.
skimmer bar l0. Therefore the air is controlled
the movement of the
by said bar and' it controls also the speed of and
heavier particles on said deck I, said‘deck hasits
the amount of escaping heavier particles 6 -of
top surface 4I slightly roughened to increase the
. frictional coeñicientcf the heavier particles of the
ï mass therewith. The deck is- composed of woven
wire, and it has the warp strands M’ thereof
‘ crimped over the weft strands
, very rough upper surface as
42 thus producing a .
compared with the
` ordinary weaving of wire screening which has
Therradius _of .the curved under side of the
skimmer bar shouldrbe thesegment'of a true
circle because the construction shown in Figs. 1
and 3 operates better when so shaped. Placed at
the extremity of the skimmer or blowing bar IU, a
suitable skirtk rail 52’ is provided, said rail being
preferably declined.
both strands of the wire in the same plane which
In Fig. 6 is shown a modified form of skimmer
produces a comparatively smooth surface. As
bar which consists of a bar |0° having its under
previously stated my screen is preferably addi 10 side lûe curved from its outer end a to its inner
tionally roughened substantially as shown at 43.
end b. This curve is preferably formed on the
In the accompanying drawing Fig. vl, the power '
for operating the devices is derived from a driv
ing element-preferably electrical-_which has a
belt 44 that passes around the shaft 45 and a belt
46 from said shaft 45 to a shaft 41 and a belt 48
to a shaftêg. This device carries weights 5D and
5| which are so geared up together that when
arc of a true circle, and the outer end a is at
wall c which slides in ver- ,
tached to a member or
tical grooves d formed in the inner side of the
wall c.r Attached to the wall c is a vertical rack
f `which engages a gear wheel g. The end of the
shaft h that carries said gear g is provided with a
hand wheel-_shown in dotted lines-_which is lo
cated outside of the wall c.Y By this construction
mechanism, the weights are out of balance with 20 said skimmer bar Hic is adjusted vertically- ac
cording to the material being processed. `This
each other in the horizontal line of movement,
rotated‘rapidly by means vof a suitable driving
but are in perfect balance in a perpendicular line
of the same. There are many devices of this kind
on the market for the purpose of causing a rapid
trembling or vibrating movement, for instance the
skimmer bar is not automatic in its vertical move
ment, as is the skimmer bar Ill illustrated in the
well known AjaX-Shaler shaker made by Ajax
matically illustrate` and describe the present
method. No attempt has been made to properly
illustrate the disposition of the particles in Figs.
Flexible Coupling Co., Westfield, N. Y. In the
' present invention it is necessary that this device
be set so that the out of balance is in a
other figures of the drawings. .
Figs. 9 and 10 of the drawings serve to sche.
1 and 2 of the drawings. Obviously the bed of l
light particles will have an upper surface which'
nal line with the deck.
30 is parallel vto the horizontal with the result that
As clearly shown in Fig. l, below the deck 2
the bed of light material is of tapered depth with
under the skimmer bar ll) at 2",the bañies 3'5 are
the deep end yof the bed at and against the re
omitted topermit'the air at that point free to
taining wall orgate at the lower end of the table.
blow the lighter particles back, and the baffles
In Figs. 'l and 8 is shown another modification
35 are omitted> throughout that part which ex
of the machine illustrated in Figs. 1 to 5 inclu
- tendsbeyond the wall which permits the air to
freely blow the heavy particles from the outlet
to prevent any clogging of the outlet by them and
sive. This modiñcation consists in lowering the
banking bars shownl in the other figures of the
drawings, and preferably increasing therheight
they flow freely over the skirt rail 52’.
It will be observed that the baflies 35 deliver 40 somewhat of the walls 4, and instead of placing
the feed I8’ intermediate the ends of the machine
y the air diagonally against the under side of the
as shown in Fig. .1,A it is preferably placed at the
deck 2 in the direction of the flow ofthe lighter
Y receiving end as shown at I8’ of Figs. 7 and 8;
particles, while the heavier particles engagethe
rough surface of the deck and they are propelled
This modification is to, adapt th'e machine to
the separation of meats from the hulls of cotton
` by the high-speed movement of the deck into the 46 seeds. It will be observed that in thismodi?ica
narrow outlet opening in which the skimmer bar
tion the machine utilizes the skimmer bar I0 and
lll is located;
It will also be observed that the converging
it works to remove the meats--the heavy parts
walls d form banking bars between which the
heavy particles are crowded and against which
they bank. The action of the skimmer or blow
ing bar is very different from prior devices known
banking bars A, the lighter particles-_the hulls
of the seed from the hulls and by lowering the
flow over thebanking bars A, while the meats
the heavy particles-'flow under said skimmer
bar Ill. In operation the cotton seed are previ
ous/ly acted on in the well known method, which
makes a mass composed of mixed shells and
skimmer or blowing bar and the intensity of the 55 meats. This mixed mass is fed to the machine,
draft increases as the distance between its'under
and the heavy particles are separated from the
to the inventor. In the present instance is used
anrexpanded draft of air at the outer edge of the
side and. the deck diminishes. The feature of the ‘
skimmer or blowing bar I0 and the converging
walls 4 are important. The proper regulation of
light particles, and these two particles flow to
different places.
In this modification the skimmer bar may or
’the distance the blowing bar I0 is spaced above 60 may not be provided with weights, according to
the deck surface is such that nothing but the
the character of seed being processed. As here
heavy elements pass under it and are discharged
shown the weights are omitted. The deck 2a has
through the opening, while the lighter particles
its rear end provided with a wall B for holding
are crowded back and finally are discharged over
65 the( mass being separated thereon.
the wall 8 at the opposite end of the deck.
Itwill be observed that the table or deck has `
It should be understood that the separation of
aperfectly blank surface from end to end which
the material in the manner described is accom
is essential because any form of riilie crossing the
plished by the high-speed longitudinal movement
surface of the table will act to break up the for
alone which enables the vsmall amount of air to
mation of these heavier particles so that their
cause Ythe mass to become extremelyy liquid
contiguous contact with each other would be bro
throughout the entire mass without the necessity
ken up into smaller units by means of riîlies,
of varying the relative size of the air openings in
which would prevent their concentrated. move-l
the deck. This is a novel construction, operation,
and method in separators. It makes the process
of controlling the air automatic.
ment in a mass.
This ¿new method causes them
to concentrate along the sloping bars and as they
rial 0f the kind beine fed in with the stock they
gradually accumulate enough friotional Value>
sageway, and separate means for permitting the e
escape of lighter material from said table.
with the deck owing to the fact that the impetus
of one stone is continually being added to the
3. A construction such as defined in claim 2,
wherein, the lighter material escapes from the
next, so that finally the forward line of stones or
other heavy element overcomes the blowing back
action Of the skimmer b_ar and report out under
it. This is, in brief, the process of separation
here defined. If there is no material fed to the
end of said table at opposite'sides of the outlet
passageway for the heavy material.
4. A construction such as defined in claim 2
wherein, means is provided -rox-crowding and con
deck, there is no discharge of heavy elements out
under the skimmer bar notwithstanding there
may be quite a collection of them along the slop
ing banking bars. Therefore, in a way, the sepa
ration depends on the volumetric pressure that 15
is developed by theweight of the material being
fed in, which continually adds to the frictional
value of the heavier materialA underlying the
‘wayA cover being curved to present a convex
shaped surface opposed to the bottom of said pas
are ,continually beingjadded to from fresh mate
centrating the heavy material toward and` in
front of the inlet end'of said outlet passageway.
5. A construction such as defined in claim 2
wherein, the deck longitudinally is vertically in
clined and at its lower _end is provided through
out its Width with a vertically disposed wall
mounted for vertical adjustment to selectively
`create on said deck a bed of material of prede
termined depth, and the upper end of said deck
This apparatus and method is merely a clean 20 having inwardly converging walls- to crowd ,and
concentrate the heavy material toward the inlet
up separator either to follow and re-.wcrk over
end of-said heavy material outlet passageway.
part of the product from a regular table, or _to
6. An apparatus for separating from an inter
' be used as a receiving separator at the head of a
mill, or to be used as a separator on a mill refuse
mixed mass of material made up of particles hav
where usable products can be salvaged from waste
materials. Concretely this _is its ñeld of opera
ing different specific gravities the lighter particles
What is claimed is:
from the heavy particles comprising, an elon
gated deck having its longitudinal axis disposed
at an inclination to the vertical, means vfor rap
idly and smoothly longitudinally reciprocating
1- An apparatus for separating from an inter
miXed mass 0f material made up 0f. particles hav
said deck to avoid imparting `a jerking motion
to an abrupt stoppage of> movementof vsaid deck,
ing different speciñc gravities the lighter particles
from the heavy particles comprising, an elon
gated deck having its longitudinal axis disposed
at an inclination to the ver-ticahmeans for _ra-pid
ly and smoothly longitudinally reciprocating said
deck to avoid imparting a jerking motion to an
abrupt stoppage of movement of said deck, said
deck being porous, means for forcing air upward
ly through said deck, walls of considerable height
extending upwardly from the longitudinal edges
said deck being porous, means forforcing air up
wardly through saidr deck, .walls of considerable
height-extending upwardly from the longitudinal
edges ofrsaid deck, a wall. extending- acros's' the
lower end of said deck and mounted for vertical
adjustment to prevent the escape of vI_naterial
from the lower -end of said deck until a bed of
predetermined >depth has been’created »on said
deck,»wa1ls convergingtowards the center of said
deck adjacent the upper end >thereof and ter--
of said deck, a wall extending across the lower
end of said deck and mounted yfor vertical adjust
ment to prevent the escape 0f material from the
minating in an outlet opening, a yclosed outlet
passageway communicating with said outlet open
_lower end o_f said deck until a bed of predeter
ing with said porous deck constituting the bot
>mined. depth has been created onsaid deck, walls 45 tom of said passageway, said passageway at the
converging towards the center of said deck adja
upper `eind of said deck being open to permit ma
cent the upper end thereof and terminating in
terial traveling through said passageway to escape
an outlet opening, walls extending from seid out
from the upper end of the> deck, the topvclosure
let opening to provide an outlet passageway vter
of said passageway being in the form `0f Aa skim
minating in an open end at the upper edge of said 50 mer bar the inner end of which is horizontally
deck, the bottom` of said passageway being pervi
pivotally mounted, the bottom `face of said gbar
ous for the upward passage therethrough of some
being formed to present a convex surface to the
of the air delivered for upward passage through
air entering upwardly through the porous bottom
the deck, a skimmer bar in said passageway and
of saidpassageway, and means to feed the in
extending entirely Vthere-across and vbeing freely
movable vertically in respect to the bottom of said
passageway, and the bottoni face oi said bar be
ing formed t0 direct the air which enters up
wardly through the porous bottom of said pas- i
sageway horizontally bothv outwardly and in
wardly in respect to said passageway.
2. An apparatus for separating light _from
termiXed material'to said Vdeck _at a point inter
7. A construction such as defined in claim 5
wherein, means is >provided for directing all Aof the
air which passes through said deck other than
through the bottom of said outlet passageway in
' a direction toward the lower end of. said deckQ and
said skimmer bar suspension and curyature being
heavy particles of an intermixed mass of mate
such that the under side _of said barA is disposed ,
rial comprising, an elongated pervious deck,
nearest the bottom of said passageway ata point
means for longitudinally reciprocating said deck 65 adjacent but short of the open outer end thereof.
in a manner to prevent any bumping or jerking
8. Alconstruction such as definedV in claim 6
action, means for forcing air upwardly through
wherein, the .suspension and curvature of» the
said deck,'an elongated narrow walled and-cov
skimmer bar is such that »for thegreater` portion f
ered outlet passageway at one end of said deck
of the length .of the outlet passageway Asaid skim
for the discharge of heavy material, the cover 70 mer‘bar causes theair entering vsaid passageway
of said passageway being movably mounted to
swing upwardly Afrom the bottom of s_aid pas
sagcway, the bottom of said passageway being
pervious to permit the passage of air >upwardly '
’ .through the bottom thereof to be deflectedtoward
the inlet end of thepassagewaywith the force of
said air progressively _íncreasingin a direction to.
Wards the open `outlet `end of said pa'ssagewaxnand
therethrough, andthe under side of said passage y75 said yskimmer bar deflect-ing. the'air entering said
passageway adjacent-the open outlet end thereof ' ‘ sure uponand rate _of discharge offthe1~>10wë?
stratum upwardly of said deck and through?said
in a _direction toward said open end to assist in the
discharge Vof material from said Vopen end.
`atelynçollecting particles in a mass in accordance
_11. The process of separatinglthe light from'the I
heavy particles of a mass ofintermixed divided
with their differences in 'speciñc gravities, an in
materials the particles of which are of different
specific gravities, comprising, continuously >feed- .
9. kIn an apparatus forseparatingV and sep
clined porous deck devoid of riffles on its surface,
means to reciprocate said deck in line with its in
ing to alongitudinally inclined pervious> deck a
clination, walls extendingalong the sides of said
stream of said mass at a point intermediate >the
deck and‘at the upper endvof the deck converg 10 length of said deck, conñning >said material
against escape Vfrom the sides of said deck, agi
tating and stratifying the- materialen saidy deck
ing'to define a restricted discharge throat- and
Iacting to concentrate the heavier particles, of
said vmass under volumetric- mass pressure to
by simultaneously rapidly reciprocating >saiddeck
jcause their»Y movement up said deck toward and
in the direction of its inclination andlforcingf'air
through saidthroat discharge in response to deck
impetus, _an automatically operable curved plate
upwardly through said deck andthe material
thereon, permitting the upper'strata of light ma'
overlying a porous portion of said deck and piv
terial to move down said deck in-re'spons'e to the
otally mounted for vertical movement in respect'
thereto, said plate confining saidthroat discharge
force of gravitybut positively Vobstructing the
by being‘positioned so that the heavier particles
of the mass must passv beneath the plate to dis
‘ passage of any of said material from the Vlower
end of said deck until a bed of predetermined
thickness of said material is established on that
said deck to stratify _Saidfmass and to impinge
against the curved surface of said plate, said plate
area of the deck between the point of material
feed and the lower end of said deck with said
bed being deepest at the lowermost end of the
deck and tapering in thickness upwardly of said
curved surface acting todivide the air current
i deck to the point of material feed to the deck,
charge through said throat, means for maintain
ing a continuous-air current upwardly through
which is directe-d against it into two'streams one
of which moves in a direction to facilitate4 the
making the inclination of said deckand the speed
lighter particlesaway from said throat discharge,
ticles will not move up said deck until they are
forced into close relationship-with one another
of reciprocation thereof and the amount of ‘air
forced upwardly through the deck such that the
discharge of heavy particles through the throat
discharge and the other _of which acts'to propel 30 heavy underlying strata composed of heavy par
and vertically adjustable means at the lower end
of said deck acting tomaintain a predetermined
depth of stratified _mass on said deck and to con
trol thedischarge' of the lighter particles o_f said`
mass from the lower end of said deck.
10. An apparatus for separating andseparately
collecting mixed particles of different speciñc
` and into frictional engagement with the deck
by the force and weight exerted upon them by
35 the said bed composed of the lighter particles,
progressively narrowing the width of the stream
l of heavy particles on said deck as said particles
i move up the deck to thereby promote crowding
and contiguity of the heavy particles, and there
gravities in a mass comprising, an inclined air
pervious deck mounted for uniform and rapid re 40 after permitting the heavy particles to discharge
at deck level from the upper end of said deck
ciprocation in line .with said deck inclinatiomsaid
as, they reach said deck end by travel upwardly
deck being provided withra roughened surface
of the deck in response to the reciprocatory
devoid of riiiles, conñning walls at and extending
movement thereof through their frictional en
along the sides of said deck, said walls at _the
gagement with one another and with the deck. '
upper end of said deck slanting inwardly and con
12. The process'of separating the light from
verging but having their endsstopping Short of
the heavy particles of a mass of intermixed di
meeting, said wall construction being for the pur
vided materials the particles of which are'of dif
poser ofrpromoting contiguity of the heavy Apar
ferent speciñc gravities comprising, continuously
ticles of the mass and to define between the sep;
arated ends of said inwardly slanting Walls a f feeding to a longitudinally inclined pervious deck
the upper surface of which is free ofany obstruc
restricted throat discharge, said'throat disch-arge
tion extending in a direction transverse vthe deck
being elongated and having substantially parallel
a stream of said mass at a point intermediate the
side walls and 4a pervious bottom, means for pro
length of said deck, conñning said material
jecting a continuous air current upwardly through ,
said deck and said throat discharge bottom, an "against escape from the sides of said deck, agi
tating and stratifying the material on said `deck
arcuate shaped automatic particle and air con
trolling plate pivotally disposed between said
throat Vdischarge side walls for vertical movement
in respect thereto andragainst which air pass
ing through the bottom of said throat discharge
is directed and divided into two separate streams
one of which moves outwardly through said
throat discharge to facilitate the expulsion there
through of the lower stratum of the mass and
the other of which moves longitudinally over said
deck toward the lower end thereof, whereby the
mass of mixed particles on 'said deck will be
by simultaneously rapidly reciprocating said’deck
inthe direction of its inclination and forcing air
upwardly through said deck and the material
thereon, permitting the upper strata of light ma
terial to move down said deck inresponse'to the
`force of gravity but positively obstructing the
passage ofV any of said material from the lower
end of said deck until a bed of predetermined
thickness vof said material is established on'that
area of the deck between the point of material
feed andthe lower end of said deck with said
bed being deepest at the lowermost end of the
deck and tapering in thickness upwardly of said
most stratum, against other than movement down Flo deck to the point of material feed to the deck,
the inclined deck towards the lower end thereof,
making the inclination of said 'deck and the speed
and vertically adjustable means carried by said
of reciprocation thereof and the amount of airv
deck and oppositelyarranged in Arespect to said
forced upwardly through the deck such that the
' throat discharge for 'controlling the depth _ofthe 4» f heavy'underlying strata composed of heavy par
stratified and constrained, except for theÍ lower
mass'on said deck to attain a predetermined pres- -«
ticles will not -move up said deck until they are
forced into close relationship with one another
and into frictional engagement with the deck by
material making of said mass, continuously di
. the force and weight exerted upon them by the
point intermediate the ends thereof and simul
recting the feeding of the mass to said deck at a
said bed composed of thelighter particles, pro~
taneously rapidly longitudinally reciprocating
Vgressively narrowing the width-of the stream oi (il the deck, forcing air from the bottom side of
heavy particles on said deck as said particles
move up the deck to thereby promote crowding
and contiguity of the heavy particles, and per- ,
mitting the heavy particles to discharge at deck
said deck upwardly therethrough, confining said.
Vmaterial against escape from the side edges of
said deck and preventing the discharge of mate
rial from the lower end of said deck until the
level from the upper end of said deck as they 10 mass on said deck has created a bed of a prede
reach said deck end by travel upwardly of the
termined thickness, continuing the feed of the
deck in response to the reciprocatory movement
mass to said deck and the reciprocation thereof
thereof through their frictional engagement with
until the heavier materials of the mass have set
one another and with the deck.
tled into contact with the deck and ar-e moved up
13. A process for pneumatically separating a 15 the incline of the deck due to said deck recipro
mass consisting of heavy refuse particles and
lighter particles by feeding said mass on a rapid
ly reciprocating wide pervious bed through which
cation, crowding the heavy material adjacent the
upper end lof the deck to place the particles
thereof‘into close and contiguous relationship,
air is forced upward through said mass to cause
the separation of part of said heavy refuse from
the lighter particles, and separating the remain
kcausing said heavy crowded particles to escape
ing unseparated heavy refuse particles by pass
ing them through a transversely contracted pas~
entry of said outlet opening a current of air trav
eling in a direction inward from said opening,
continuing the feed of the mass to the deck and
on the upper end of said deck through a re- Y
stricted elongated outlet opening, creating at the
sageway in respect to said wide bed and simul
taneously forcing air upwardV in said passageway
and causing the air to simultaneously flow in two
directions within the passageway, one in the di
rection of the outlet end of the passageway to
force said refuse out of the passageway and the
other air inwardly within said passageway to 30
and thereby enter said outlet opening, aiding
the discharge of the heavy material after it has
to mix with said mass, whereby a clean mass of
it to the force of an outwardly moving current
force inwardly the lighter particles causing them
lighter products is the ñnal result.
14. The process of separating from a mass
those materials having different specific gravi
ties comprising, feeding said mass on to a per
vious deck inclined longitudinally at an angle to
the horizontal and having a roughened surface
of a character to provide no obstruction or dis
ruption to the free passage over the deck of the
the reciprocation thereof until the weight of the ~
crowded heavy material by its frictional contact
with the deck is moved upwardly with suiiicient
force to overcome the force of said current of air
passed through said outlet opening by subjecting
of air, and throughout said operations permitting
the lighter material to flow down said deck in re
sponse »to the force of gravity and to discharge
from the top of said .bed over. the lower end of
the deck. '
`FRANK E.wooD,
Executor of Estate of Henry M _ Sutton, Deceased.
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