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Патент USA US2404417

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-.July 23, 1946.
2,404,417
A. A. VARELA
SECONDARY MULTIPLIGATION POWER TUBE
Filed 001; . - 13,- 1941
5 Sheets-Sheet 1
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PRIMARY ELECTRON VOLTS
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Arllull' A. Varela
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Y
July 23,1946.
_
“A. A. VARELA '
2,404,417
SECONDARY MULTIPLICATION' POWER TUBE
Filed 001;. 15, 1941
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
ILE-_%
INVENTOR
'7 Arm A Varela
e
nifomvsr; 7
July 23, 1946.
A; A, VARELA
-
2,464,417
SECONDARY MULTIPLICATION POWER‘ TUBE .
Filed Oct. 13, 1941
1112:.5
I:
II
II
60* "p
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s Sheets-Sheet 5
Patented July 23, 1946
2,404,417
UNITED STATES’ PATENT OFFICE
Arthur A. Varela, Washington, D. 0.
Application October 13, 1941, Serial No. 414,771
9 Claims.
(01. 250-27)
'
‘(Granted under the act of March 3,‘ 1883, as
amended April 30, 1928; 370 0. G. 757)
1
In intermittent service at high power levels
where operation occurs for very short intervals
and during a small percentage ofthe time, a ther
mionic emitter in ultra high frequency power
tubes presents a severe limitation by reason of its
necessary large size and high heat dissipation.
It also greatly reduces‘ the overall efficiency be
cause continuous heating of the emitter is nec
essary.
'
It is a purpose of this invention to provide elec
tronic power ampli?ers and oscillation generators
for ultra high frequency operation at very high
power levels wherein the electronic current is ob
2
material results. The number of secondary elec
’
trons thus released depends upon the velocity of
the bombarding electrons and has a general funce
tion as shown in Fig. 1 wherein the ordinate o" is
the ratio of the secondaries released to the
primaries arriving and the abscissa is the voltage
of arrival of the primary electrons. It will be
necessary that the ratio ‘increases linearly with
the primary voltage up to about~400 volts after
if) which the rate‘ of increase decreases until the
ratio becomes substantially constant. The maxi
mum ratio may be as high as 10. ‘In the'tubesv
constructed according to the invention'and de
tained by bombardment and. secondary multipli
scribed hereinafter this phenomenon is employed
cation. In this ‘manner the electron source is 15 to obtain modulated electron currents of high '
operative only during ‘operating periods of the
density by shuttling the electrons back and’ forth
tube so that full advantage is taken of intermit- ‘
between two electrodes vhaving high secondary
tent operation. The tubes are "furthermore not
subject to‘the frequency limitations present in
valvular grid tubes and shouldshow good e?i
ciencyiat very high frequencies.
‘emissivity in such mannerthat multiplication is ‘
obtained during each collision cycle. '
20
.
Other purposes and objects will become appar
ent from consideration of the following descrip
tion when taken‘ with the accompanying drawings
Fig. 1 is a graph showing the relationship be
tween secondary emission and primary voltage;
Fig. 2 is a diagrammatic representation of a
tube embodying the invention together'with'its
.
i
Fig. 31s a graph showing the relation of elec
tron travel to characteristics’existing within’ the
'
tube;
treated for high secondary emission. Reference '
characters 2 and 3 indicate cylindrical electrodes
25
in which:
accompanying circuits;
In the tubes shown in Fig. 2 reference character
I indicates a disk. electrode having its surface
coaxially located‘with respect to each other and
the emitting surface of electrode 1. At the oppo
site end of the tube from electrode 1 is located .a
second emitter electrode '4 preferably having'the
shape of a truncated cone. Located behind the
electrode 4 is an electrode. 5 preferably having
30 the shape of a disk as shown and of such size as i
x to exceedthe lateral dimensions of 4. An evac
uated glass envelope \6 encloses the electrodes.
The cylinders 2 and 3 may either be outside the
,
Fig. 4 is a diagrammatic representationof .a
envelope as shown or may beenolosed in it. Sole
second form of tube embodying ‘the invention to 35 noids 1 and 1' provide amagnetic ?eld which is
gether with its accompanying circuits;
’ >
Fig. 5 is a graph similar to that of Fig. 3 but
having reference to the tube of Fig. 4;
coaxial with the tube.
7 '
Electrode I is at 3.1“.
ground; cylinder 2 is connected to an-R. F. tuned
circuit. 8; cylinder 3 and electrode 4 are atJR. F.
Fig. 6 is a diagrammatic representation of a
ground and electrode 5 is connected to an‘ R; F.
tube constituting a third embodiment of the in 40 tuned circuit 9 which is regeneratively coupled
vention together with the accompanying circuits;
to the circuit 8. D. C. potentials are applied by
Fig. '7 is a view of a fragment of a tube shown
source I0 such that cylinders 2 and 3 are rendered
positive relative to electrode’! and electrodes 4
and 5 are further positive; The-solenoids ‘l and
tube constituting a fourthembodiment of the in 45 1' are disposed so that the magnetic ?eld bends
vention together with its accompanying circuits;
out in the neighborhood of'4.' The operation of
in Fig. 6;
g
.
,
Fig. 8 is a diagrammatic representation of a
Figs. 9, 10 and 11 are sectional views of various
forms of electrodes which are preferred for use
this tube is as follows: ; »
1
'
‘ »
It will be seen that an R. F. ?eld exists between
in the tubes illustrated ‘in thepreceding ?gures,
electrode l and the end'of cylinder 2 and between
50 cylinder 3 and the other end of 2. ; Potentials and
Fig. 12 is a diagrammatic.representation of a
spacing are made such that the electronitransit
portion of the serrated emitting surface of the
time from a to b is approximately 90° andthe
electrode shown in Fig. 11.
~
I
sum of the transit times from b to c and that of
and
‘
'
.
When certain materials are bombarded by elec
the secondary electrons-from‘ c to b. is approxi
trons the release. of secondary electrons from the 55 mately 180°; Electrons leaving the electrode I
3
2,404,417
when the R. -F. ?eld is zero‘ and becoming nega-v
tive will arrive at b when the ?eld here is maxi
mum with a positive accelerating polarity.
‘ ' These electrons will then arrive at electrode 4
4
adjacent these disks are located steady potential
cylinders 2 and 2’ while between these cylinders
is located the R. F. accelerating cylinder 3. Be
hind the emitter disks are located screen grids
with a net velocity equal to the peak R. F. volt
age of cylinderl. These electrons will then re-'
lease a number of secondary electrons from elec
trode Li which will travel back down the tube to-‘
ward I. ,They will arrive in ?eld b 180° after the‘
II and II’ respectively and behind the grids are
at I while at the same time the R. F. voltageat 2
Dimensions and potentials are made such that
the circuit angle from b to b’ is 180° and the cir
located collector electrodes5 and 5’. T An evacu
ated glass envelope may or may not enclose the
cylinders. A series of 4 focusing solenoids l are
I- located outside the envelope coaxialar therewith.
A tunedlradio circuit 3 is connected to cylinder
passage of the primary electrons and hence this 3 and another similarly tuned circuit as is con
?eld will again be maximum and with a positive;
nected to collectors 5 and 5’. A source of D. C.
accelerating polarity. The ?eld at a will be pass
‘potential is indicated at I0. ing through zero upon the arrival of the electrons‘v
will be at its peak.
New secondaries will be re- ‘
leased from I and these will repeat the’ cycle.
Since this multiplication process isrsustained cur
' cuitiangles of the fast electrons from b’ to a’
rent densities may rapidly build up to very high
and from. b. to a plus the circuit angles of the
1 slower electrons from a to b and from a’ to b’ is
kept focusedvalong the axis of the tube by the
actionjof the magnetic ?eld. However, thisv fo
30 magnetic ?eld will be drawn by the electric ?eld
equal to 180°. Passage of an electron having
values. The multiplication cycle as just de
scribed is indicated graphically at Fig. 3. It will 20 maximum bombarding potential is indicated by
the dotted line in Fig. 5. It receives accelera
be‘ necessary that the electrons considered bear
tion bothrat b and at b’ and arrives at a’ with
the optimum phase relation for sustained multi
a velocity equivalent to twice the peak R. F. volt
pli'cation. It is apparent that electrons bearing‘
age on 3, sustained multiplication taking place as
any Qther phase relation will produce lower or‘
before. Again electrons in other phase relations
zero multiplication in accordance with the curve
will arrive with lowerv velocities or will not ar
ofFig. .1. Hence the electric current will not be
rive at all. Hence‘the ‘electronic current will be
continuous in operation but will be in the form
completely modulated.’ All current beyond the
of _' discrete clouds. These electron clouds are
cusing action is opposed by the mutual repulsion
ofthe‘electrons and can maintain only 2. lim
ited electron density depending upon its strength.
Theelectric ?eld of 5 will penetrate around the
edges of 4 and will attract electrons coming into
it. '‘ {This combined with ‘the curvature of the .
magnetic ?eld in the vicinity of 4 will cause vsec- _
ondaries from the outer portion of A to go to 5;
Secondary electrons leaving 4 will be much more
susceptible to the ?eld of 5 than will the oncom-v
ing primaries because the secondaries leave with
virtually zero velocity'and are readily deflected
Whereas the primaries approach with relatively
very high velocity and are not so readily de?ect¢
ed} 'I-Ience a considerably greater current may
arrive atjli than will pass down the tube from it‘.
The excess electrons which equal 0', times the our;
value which can be maintained in focus by the
of H, II’ and will pass through these grids to 5
or 5’ respectively. Assuming a multiplication
ratio of 6 then the current ?owing to anodes 5,
5' will be five times the current ?owing down the
tube. Since the anodes 5, 5"/may have much
higher R. F. swings than does 3, the power gained
may be very high. '
_
y
The embodiments described above are adapt
able to operation at frequencies of 600 megacycles
or less. For higher frequencies it is preferred to
employ con?ned ?eld resonators (resonant cavi
ties) .' A tube of this type embodying the inven
tion is shown in Fig. 6. Referring to this ?gure
a secondary emitter disk I is shown positioned at
4.5 one end of the tube with the secondary emitter
electrode 4 positioned in the opposite end and
. preferably in the form of a truncated cone as
shown. Behind the electrode 4 isa grid II pref
erably composed of radial wires as shown in detail
thelhigh D. Clpotential of 5 the electron current 50 in Fig. '7. Behind the grid is located the collector
be made to pass to'it when its radio frequen- ' anode I2 which is preferably in the shape of a
closed cylinder asshown. An evacuated glass
cy voltage is negative and hence may generate
envelope 6 encloses these elements. A con?ned
R. F. power. The power inputto 8 may be taken
.?eld resonator I3 surrounds the end of the’ tube
asequaito the a. F. voltage of cylinder 2 times
the current it accelerates. Likewise the power 55 adjacent the emitter disk I while a similar con
?ned ?eld resonator rsurrcunds the collector
outputjof '5 may be taken as the current ?owing
anode I2 and a‘portion of the glass envelope ad:
to'itjtimes its R.‘F. voltage.‘ Neglecting harmonic
jacent thereto. D. C._ insulation is provided’ at
components this is true because the current mod
I5. Focusing solenoids ‘I are employed as before.
ulation iscomplete and no steady current flows.
It is evident that the power'output may be many 60 Regeneration coupling loops I6 are employed in
rentYarriving, minus the current returning down
the tube, then ?ow to the‘anode 5. Because of
connection with resonance cavities I3 and I4 to
obtain oscillation.- The load is removed by means
of a coupling loop H. A source of D. C. potential
I0 is employed as before. An electric R. F. ?eld
Beyond this harmonic generation in
' peak.‘
creases rapidly. The miximum R. F. swing of 5 65 is produced in gap I8 by resonator I3.v The sum
of the fast and slow transit angles from I8 to i
will be limited solely by the applied D. C. poten
and back is 180°. The same is true from I8- to d
‘ v tialJ The current values will be determined by
' times the driving power and hence oscillation
1
canbe obtained. The‘maximum R. F. swing of '
' electrode 2 should be limited to about 600 volts
the strength of the magnetic ?eld. 'Modulation
of the output may be had by varying the poten
tialTo‘f cylinders -2 or 3 or both.
I
Pl'jI'he'embodiment illustrated in Fig; 4 consti
tutesfa double ended variation of the tube of Fig.
and back.
Hence the electrons leaving I or 4 in I
the proper instantvwill be accelerated‘by the ?eld
in I8 and the secondaries produced arriving at
1S0°iater will likewise ‘be accelerated so- that
multiplication is maintained. Excess electrons
are’ removed from 4 by the ?eld of grid II‘ and 7
Zfw-hich‘v may give somewhat higher ef?ciency.
passed throughIII to collector anode l2 when I2
Thev secondary emitter disks I and I’ 'are'located
in 'Tth'eIoppOsite ends of thetube. Immediately 75 is atynegative R. ‘F, potential. As is the case with
2,404,417?
5.
6
the embodiment shown in Fig. 2, due to the shape
of 4 and the contour of the magnetic ?eld sur
rounding it, a greater density of electrons may
arrive ‘at 4 than can be held in focus when mov
ing in the opposite‘ direction. Hence a uni-lat
eral effect is obtained with a majority of elec
trons moVing from right to left as illustrated,
striking electrode 4 and a smaller number mOVing
through the tube from left to right.
In the embodiment shown in Fig. 8 two sym
metrical accelerating ?elds. 180° apart are em
ployed.v This results vin two space charge clouds‘
moving in opposite direction. Collisionv of these
clouds occurs in the center producing‘ a high space
.
which is greater, than unity, a pair of cylindrical
‘ coilssurrounding a line passing through the cen
ters of'said emitter electrodes, said coils being
longitudinally ‘spaced along said line and coaxial
therewith, means impressing a potential on said‘
coilsv whereby a magnetic ?eld is formed along
said line con?ning the ?ow of electrons between
said electrodes to a path coaxial with‘ said line,
a con?ned ?eld resonator surrounding a portion
10 of said path and having an annular gap sur
rounding the portion of said path lying between
said coils, and means producing radio frequency,
oscillations‘ in said resonator, whereby a radio
frequency ?eld is formed in and around said gap, .
charge density here so that the desired excess of 15 the characteristics of said ?eld and the dimen-‘
sions of said path being such that the transit
electrons passes through a cylinder grid‘l l to the
outer cylindrical anode l 2. The R, F. ?eld of the
output cavity I9 is shielded from the main beam
by the cylinder grid H;
.
.
'
angle with respect to said radio frequency of an
electron travelling said path from said ?eld to‘
one‘ of said electrodes plus the transit angle from
Focusing may be accomplished as before by the 20: said electrode to said ?eld of an electron emitted
by impact of said ?rst mentioned electron upon»
use of a magnetic ?eld but electric focusing is
said electrode, is 180°.
shown in Fig, 8. This type of focusing is obtained
2. An electron discharge device comprising'an,
by the use of parabolic or concave-shaped emitter
evacuated envelope, a pair of emitter electrodes ,
electrodes 4 and 4’. The ?eld (equal potential
lines) then follows this contour near the surface
and the slow electrons comingo? are directed
toward the focal point. 1 They are not. greatly
a?ected bythe subsequent defocusing ?elds be»
contained therein and spaced from each other,
'said electrodes having ‘facing surfaces capable,
upon impact by electrons, of emitting secondaryv
electrons at a ratio to said‘impacting electrons
which is greater than unity, a pair of cylindrical,
cause of their high velocity. The symmetrical
accelerating ?elds are. produced by means of 30 coils surrounding a line passing through the cen
con?ned ?eld resonators. l3 and I4.
These reso- .
ters of said emitter electrodes, said coils being)
nators produce accelerating ?elds at 18 and
longitudinally spaced along said line and coaxial
IS".
therewith, means impressing apotential on‘ said
coils whereby a magnetic ?eld is formed along
The
cavities .of
resonators
l3 , and
I4
are, coupled to the anode cavity l9 by means
An. evacuated glass envelope 6
. said line con?ning the ?ow of electrons‘between
encloses the elements ‘of the tube. Loop' I1
is provided for removingthe load. D. C. po
tential is supplied bysource-Hl. Circuit angles
between I8’ and 4' and those between IB and the
of loops 20.
said electrodes toa path coaxial with said line,
center of the tube and between I8’ and the cen
ter of the tube are indicated in the upper por
rounding a portion of said path and having an
annular gap surrounding the portion of said path
tion of the illustration.
‘Electric focusing as shown in Fig. 8 may be em
ployed in any of the embodiments described and
lying between said’ coils, and means producing
radio frequency oscillations in said resonator,
whereby a radio frequency ?eld is formed in and
should be satisfactory for steady operation where
space charge. densities do not run‘ high. For
pulsing operation a combination of electric and
magnetic focusing is-probably desirable. If elec
said coils being so located as~to shield the por
tions of said path surrounded thereby from radio
frequency ?elds, a con?ned ?eld resonator sur
> around said gap, the characteristics, of said ?eld
and the dimensions of said path being such that
the transit angle with respect to said radio fre
quency of an electron travelling said path from
said ?eld to one of said electrodes plus the transit .
tric focusing were employed in the embodiment of
angle from said electrode to‘ said ?eld of an
Fig. 2 the electrodes .would be made in the shapes
electron emitted by impact of said ?rst mentioned
shown in Fig. 9. If employed in the embodiment
electron upon said electrode, is 180°.
illustrated in Fig. 4 the electrodes would be as‘
3. An electron discharge‘device comprising an
shown in Fig. 10. If employed in the embodiment
evacuated envelope, a pair of emitter electrodes
illustrated in Fig. 6 the electrodes would be as
contained therein and spaced from each other,
shown in Fig. 9.
Since the maximum number of secondaries is ' said electrodes having facing surfaces capable,
' upon impact by electrons, of emitting secondary
produced when primary incidence is about ‘70°
electrons at a ratio to said impacting electrons
corrugations in the face of the secondary emit
which is [greater than unity, a pair of cylindrical
ters illustrated above are desirable and these may
take the form illustrated in ‘Fig. 11. Fig, 12 60 coils surrounding a line passing through the cen
shows on a large scale a fragment of the surface
ters of said emitter electrodes,’ said coils being
» longitudinally spaced along said line and coaxial .
of Fig. 11 illustratingthe correct angular rela
therewith, means impressing a potential on said
. tions‘hip of the faces.
coils whereby a magnetic ?eld is formed along
, , The invention described herein may be manu- ‘
said line con?ning the flow of electrons between
factured and used by or for the ‘Government of
said electrodes to a path coaxial-with said line, '
the "United States of America for governmental
said coils being so located as to shield the por
purposes without the payment of any royalties
thereon ortherefor. .
‘I
claim:
~
.
>
Y
I
>
‘
.
- 1. An electron discharge, device comprising an
evacuated envelope, a pair of emitter electrodes
contained therein and spacedfrom each other,’
said electrodes having facing surfaces capable,
upon vimpact by, electronsLof emitting secondary
electrons at a ‘ratiov to’ said impacting electrons
_ tions of said path surrounded thereby from radio
frequency ?elds, a con?ned ?eld resonator sur- ,
rounding a portion of said pathand'having v.an
- annular gap surrounding the portion of said path
lying between said coils, said resonator being so
formed and located as to shield a portion of said
path from radio frequency ?elds, and means pro
ducing radio ‘frequency, oscillations, in said ress
2,404,417
7
8
onator; whereby a radio frequency ?eld is formedv
tion of the electrons travelling. in said path. will,
in and around said gap, the characteristics of
be: collected; by- Said collector electrode.
,
6. An..electron. discharge devicezcomprisin‘gan'
said ?eld and the dimensions of, said path being
such that the transit angle with respect tosaid
radio frequency of an. electron travelling.“ said
path from ‘said ?eld to one of said electrodes plus
evacuated envelope, a pair of emitter electrodes
contained therein and spaced from‘ each other,_
the transit‘ angle from said-‘electrode to .said
said electrodes" having. facing surfaces capable,
upon impact by electrons, of emitting. secondary
?eld‘ of ‘an- electron emitted by impact of said
?rst mentioned electron upon said electrode, is
electrons at ,a ratio' to said impacting electrons
which is greater than unity, a pair of cylindrical
180°‘.
'
c
.
V
.
10 coils surrounding a line passing through the cen
4.- Arrelectronv discharge device comprising.‘ an
evacuated envelope; a pair. of emitter electrodes
contained therein and spaced from’ each other,‘
ters of said. emitter electrodes, said coils beingv
longitudinally spaced along said line and coaxial
therewith, means impressinga potential on .said
coils whereby a magnetic ?eld is formed along '
said. electrodes having, facing surfaces capable,1
upon impact by electrons, of emitting secondaryv 15 said line con?ning the flow of. electrons between
electrons at a ratio to said impacting electrons
said electrodes to a path coaxial with saidv line,
a ?rst con?ned ?eld resonator surrounding a por
which is greater than unity, a pairi of cylindrical‘
- coils surrounding a» line passing‘through the cen
tion of said path andv having an annular‘ gap sur
rounding the portion of said path lying between‘
ters of said. emitter electrodes, said cells being
longitudinally spaced along said line and coaxial 20 saidv coils, a second con?ned ?eld resonator sur
rounding a portion, of said envelope, a collector’
coils whereby a magnetic ?eld is formed along‘
electrode enclosed in saidsecond resonator and
extending within said envelope'adjac'ent one of
said li-ne‘ con?ning the flow- of electrons between
said emitter electrodes, means producing synchro
saidelectrodes- tov a path coaxial} with said line,
a con?ned ?eld resonator surrounding a portion 25 nized radio vfrequency oscillations in said reso
nators, whereby a radio frequency-?eld isv set up- '
of said path and having-anannular' gap sur
along said path adjacent said gap and between
rounding the portion of said path lying between
said collector electrode and the one ofl'said emitter
said c'oi-ls, means producing radio frequency oscil
electrodes adjacent thereto,ya grid positioned-be
lations-in. said resonator, whereby a ‘radio fro?
quency ?eld is'formedl in and around said gap, 30 tween said collector electrode and said one of
said emitter electrodes means,_said grid being
the characteristics of said ?eld and the dimen-,
therewith, means impressing a potential on said
sions of 1 said- path being such that» the transit
maintained at a positive potential with respect to _
angle with respect to‘ said radio frequency of an
electron-‘travelling said‘ path from_ said ?eld to
said one of said emitter electrodes and said col
lector electrode being'maintained" at a positive
one of said? electrodes plus the transit angle from i 35 potential with respectto said grid, the character
said electrode to said ?eld of an electron emitted
by impact of' said ?rst>mentioned electron upon‘
said electrode, is 1801”, and means to collect a
istics of said ?eld adjacent said gap and the di
mensions of said- path being such that the transit‘
angle with respect to said‘ radio frequency of an
electron travelling said path from said ?eld to
5. An electron discharge device comprising an 34c one of said electrodes plus the transit angle from
portion of‘ the electrons travelling saidypath.
said electrode torsaid ?eld of an electron emitted
evacuated envelope}a pair of emitter electrodes
contained thereiii: and‘ spaced from each other,’
said' electrodes " having‘ facing surfaces capable,
upon impact‘ by electrons, of- emitting secondary
electrons at a ratio to said impacting electrons '45
which is greater than; unity, a pair of cylindrical
plication will be maintained in said device and a‘
portion of. the electronsv travelling in said path
will be collected by said collector electrode.
coils surrounding a linepassing through the cen
ters of said emitter electrodes, said coils being
7-. An electron discharge'device comprising an
evacuated envelope; a pair of emitter electrodes
longitudinally spaced» along said line and coaxial
therewith, means impressing apotential on said
coils whereby a magnetic ?eld is formed along
containedv therein and spaced ‘from each other,
said electrodes having facing surfaces capable
upon impact by electrons, of emitting secondary
said line con?ning the‘ ?ow of electrons between
said electrodes‘ to a pathncoa-Xial with said line,
electrons‘ at a ratio to said impacting electrons
whichis‘ greater than unity, means causing elec
by impact'of said ?rst mentioned electron upon
said electrode, is 180°, whereby secondary multi
a' ?rst con?ned ?eld resonator surrounding a por
tronstravelling betweenv said electrodes tolfollow a
tion of said path ‘and having‘ an annular gap sur- ‘
prescribed path, a pair of con?ned ?eld resonators
rounding the portion of said path lying ‘between
said coils; a second con?ned ?eld resonator sur
therewith, saidv resonators being so located as to
surrounding portions‘ of saidv path and coaxial
shield portions'of said. path; ,each'of said-‘reso
nators having an annular‘ gap formed therein
and surrounding said path, a tl'ln'rdv con?ned ?eld?
60 resonator positioned between said?rst two reso
said’ emitter electrodes, means producing synchro-I l
nators and insulated therefrom, said third reso
’ nize'di radio frequency oscillations in said reso_-’
nator being coaxial with said path, and! the third
nators, whereby a radio frequency ?eld is set up
rounding a portion of said. envelope, a collector
electrode enclosed i'n'sai'd' second» resonator and‘
extending withinv said envelope adjacent one of
along‘said path adjacent-"said gapand between
resonator, having an annular gap formedv therein,' 7
said collector electrode and the one of said emitter 65 said gap surrounding said path, and being. located
at the center thereof, a cylindrical grid positioned
electrodes adjacent thereto; the characteristics of
said'?'e'ld adjacent ‘said gap and the dimensions
in said gap, means coupling saidv resonators-said
j’ ofv said path being such'that the transit angle
' ' with respect to said radio frequency of‘ an elec
tron travelling said path- from- said ?eld to one
of'said electrodes plus the transit angle from said
electrod'e'to said ?eld of an electron emitted by
> impact ofs'aid ?rst mentioned‘ electron- upon said
electrode, is _ 1801",’, whereby secondary multiplica- -
tion will he maintained in said? device-‘and a por~
?rst mentioned gaps being symmetrically located
with respect to the center of said path, theid'imen
sions of _ "said; resonators being such; that the
transit angle with respect to'sai'd' radio frequency‘
of an'electronc travellingin said path from one
of the ?rst two of said gaps to the adjacent one'
of, said emitterielectrodes; plus vthe transit'angle
with respect to‘ said radio-frequency from‘ said’
2,404,417
9
10
e'ectrodes to said ?eld of an electron emitted by
impact of said ?rst mentioned electron on said
electrode, is 180° and the transit angle of an elec
tron travelling between said ?elds is 180°.
8. An electron discharge device comprising an
evacuated envelope, 9, pair of emitter electrodes
contained therein and spaced from each other,
of said'path, the coupling between said resonators
being such that said periods of acceleration of
said electrodes having facing surfaces capable
upon impact by electrons, of emitting secondary
electrons at a ratio to said impacting electrons
which is greater than unity, means causing elec
trons travelling between said electrodes to follow
a prescribed path, a pair of con?ned ?eld reso
electrons travelling from each of said electrodes
toward the center of said path will occur simul
taneously, and means to collect a portion of said
electrons at the center of said path.
'
9. An electron discharge device comprising an
evacuated envelope, a pair of emitter electrodes
contained therein and spaced from each other,
said electrodes having facing surfaces capable,
upon impact by electrons, of emitting secondary
electrons at a ratio to said impacting electrons
which is greater than unity, means causing elece
trons travelling between said electrodes to follow
nators surrounding portions of said path and co
axial therewith, said resonators being so located . a prescribed path, means establishing a pair of
synchronized radio frequency ?elds along said
as to shield portions of said path, each-of said
path, said ?elds being symmetrically located with
resonators having an annular gap formed therein
respect to the center of said path, means shield
and surrounding said path, means shieldingsaid
ing the remainder of said path against the occur
path between said resonators, means coupling said
resonators, the location of said gaps being such 20 rence of radio frequency potentials therealong
and means to collect a portion of said electrons
that the ?elds formed in and around each during
travelling said path, said collecting means being
the oscillations of said resonators will periodically
located at the center of said path.
,
accelerate the flow of electrons from the adjacent
ARTHUR. A. VARELA.
one of said emitter electrodes toward the center
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