вход по аккаунту


Патент USA US2404428

код для вставки
July v23, 1946.
Filed JanfSl, 1944
2 Sheets-Sheet Kl
0 60
BY .>
July 23, 1946-
Filed Jan. 51, 1944
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
Fm. 7‘
Emly. _n!
FIG. 6
DONALD Bmosukr
Patented July 23, 1946
2,404,428 ‘
2,404,428 .
Donald Bradbury, Prospect Park, Pa,v assignor to
Westinghouse Electric Corporation, East Pitts
burgh, Pa., a corporation of Pennsylvania
Application January 31,1944, Serial No. 520.565
(CI. 60-41)
1 Claim.
tional speed of a gas turbinevand to prevent the
motive ?uid entering the turbine from. exceeding
This invention relates to power plants and par
ticularly to a control system, for protecting ,a gas
turbine power plant from overspeeding and from
a predetermined safe value.
These and other objects are effected by vthe
excessive temperatures, and it has'for an object
to provide an improved device of the character
invention as will be apparent from the- follow
ing description and claim taken in connection
with the accompanying drawings,:forming apart
The present invention, while not limited there~
to, isyparticularly adapted to be. used=to control
of- this application, in which;
Fig. 1 is a side elevational view of a gas turbine
a gas turbine power plant like that ‘disclosed
power plant inwhich the present invention has
in the copending application _of Stewart Way, l0 been
incorporated, a-portion. of the outer- casing
Serial No. 482,533, ?led April 10, 1943 and as~
structure being broken away toshow certain de_
signed to the assignee of the presentv invention.
tails of construction;
A power plant of the type disclosed in the men
Fig. 2 is an enl-argedview of the controlape
tioned Way application includes an axial-flow air
paratus, the parts thereof being shown insec
compressor, an air heating apparatus, a gas tur 15
tion for the sake of clear-ness; .
blue, and a propulsion jet nozzle all'housed in
Fig. 3 is averticalsectional view taken sub-.
line within a streamlined tubularcasing. A plant
on the line III..—-III of Fig.- 2;
of this character is particularly suitable for pro
Fig. 4 is an elevational view ;of a camfor-ining
pelling aircraft at high speeds and operates gen
a part of the control valve;
erally as follows: Air enters the forwardvend of
Fig. 5 is a developed side elevational. view of-the .
the tubular casing, which is pointed in the direc
in Fig. 4;
tion of ?ight, and is compressed in the compres
Fig.6 is a vsidelelevational view of the. control
sor, the compressed air is then heated in the
valve looking from the right of Fig. 3;
heating apparatus by the-combustion oi?v fuel sup
ported by the compressed air. The resulting 25 ‘Fig. 7 is an enlarged ‘vertical sectional View
taken substantially onthe line VII—-VII of Fig. 1
motive ?uid comprising the products of combus
and showing in detail the temperature-respon
tion and the excess compressed air drives the
sive device; and
turbine and is then discharged through the pro
Fig. 8 is a sectional view of aportionwof the
pulsion nozzle as a jet, the reaction of .which
control valve. illustrating. a, modi?ed ‘construction
serves to propel the aircraft. The turbine ex 30
tracts at least sufficient power from the motive
The power plant shownin Fig. 1 comprises in
?uid to drive the compressor and auxiliaries.
general an outer tubular casing structureJll,
The fuel is supplied to the air heating apparatus,
open from end to end and having a centralv core
under the control of a throttle valve-by means
of a positive displacement pump which is pref 35 ll providing with the casing an annular‘?ow
passage I42 which, if the plant is to be usedfor
erably driven by the turbine.
propelling an airplane, is adapted to extend fore
In the copending application of Donald Brad
bury et al., Serial No. 520,564, ?led January 31,
and aft with respect to theairplane. The cen
supplied to the air heating apparatus and which
?ow compressor E8, the ?xed blades of which are
tral core structure H is supported by the outer
1944 and assigned to the assignee of the present
casing structure along its longitudinal axis and
invention, there is disclosed a control which auto iii)
‘a hollow fairing cone I3 de?ning with
matically prevents dangerous overspeeding of the
the forward or left end, asviewedin Fig. 1_, of
turbine by limiting the rate at which fuel is sup
the casing l0 anairli-nlet l4. The fairing cone
plied to the air heating apparatus. However, it
l3 houses a fuel pump, generally indicated I5,
is important also to prevent the temperature of
other auxiliaries (not .shown) and is sup
the motive ?uid entering the turbine from ex
ported fromthe casing ID by hollow compressor
ceeding a safe value. In accord-ance'with the
guide vanes [6.
present invention, a single control valve is pro
The core I I also includes a rotor ll of an axial
vided which regulates the rate at which fuel is
is actuated to reduce the rate of flow of fuel in _
response to overspeeding of the turbine and ex
cessive temperature of the motive ?uid entering
the turbine.
It is, accordingly, a further object of the in
vention to provide means for limiting the rota
carried by the casing 10, a rotor IQ of a gas tur
bineZl and a longitudinally adjustable conical _
tailpiece 22 which de?nes with the rear end of
the casing Ii] an adjustable propulsion nozzle 23.
The intermediate portion'of the core structure
between the compressor l8 and the turbine. 2| "
2,404,428 7'
comprises an inner tubular wall structure 24
which houses a shaft 25 connecting the turbine
rotor I 9 and compressor rotor H. The inner wall
structure 24 de?nes with the casing in an annu
lar chamber26 connecting the compressor blade
pressure between the inlet andrthe throat of a
Venturi tube 44 interposed between the outlet of
the pump | 5 and the throttle valve 42 and is also
actuated by a temperature-measuringdevice gen
erally indicated, 45.v It is to be understood that
the control valve 43 may be actuated by the pres
sure difference between the throat and exit of
passage and the turbine blade passage. I
The chamberri? is provided with suitable air
heating means, such‘ as shown, in the copending
application of Way et a1. SerialNo. 511,468; ?led
November 23, 1943 for heating the air compressed
by the compressor. In the embodiment shown,
a plurality of perforated, tapered burner- tubesZ‘l
the Venturi tube 44, if desired.
*- 1
' The rate of flow of fuel to the burners is de
termined by the pressure drop across the atomiz
ing nozzles 32. This pressure drop is controlled
by the total resistance to ?ow of the constant
are mounted in the annular chamber 26 with
volume of fuel output of the pump I5 and is de
their large open ends 28 directed‘ downstream.
termined bythe area of the nozzles plus that of
Fuel is supplied to the burner ‘tubes 21 from‘ a 15 the throttle valve by-pass. Absolute pressure in
manifold 29,.connected to a fuel supply as here
the combustion chamber varies widely depending
inafter described, and is fed through branch
on operating’ conditions, i. e. pressure ratio and
pipes’ 3| to atomizingnozzles 32 extending into
atmospheric pressure. Thus the pressure in the
1 the ‘burner tubes. Suitable means, including
fuel ‘supply system ?uctuates over a range from
spark plugs 34 extending into the burner tubes,
near atmospheric pressure to the rated pressure
are provided'for igniting the air-fuel mixture in
of the pump. In the particular embodiment
the burner tubes.‘
shown, the maximum pressure necessary for max- ‘
Thepresent invention is not concerned with
imum flow through'the burner nozzles, atmaxi
the speci?c‘ design of the apparatus thus far
referred to, although itris preferably constructed
mum pressure in the combustion chamber, is the
maximum rated ?ow of the pump. Thus the
present control device as it relates to limiting the
rotational speed of ‘the turbine must have a very
small total pressure drop as well as be independ
in accordance with the disclosure of the men
tioned Way and Way et al. applications.
The power plant operates substantially as fol
' Air enters the casing I 0 at the inlet I4, is com
pressed by the ‘compressor l8, and flows into the
, ent of the pressure level.
annular chamber 26 which may function as‘ a
di?user to effect further compression. The com
pressed air then passes through the‘ openings in V
the walls of'the burner tubes 21 and mixes with
the atomized fuel supplied by the nozzles 32.
The air and fuelmixture is ignited by the spark
plugs 34 andburns steadily thereafter. The mo
The Venturi tube 44 satis?es both of these last
mentioned requirements. The total output of the
pump passes through the Venturi tube and by
measuring the pressure drop from the inlet to
the throat thereof, which is a function only‘ of
the volume of the fuel ?owing therethrough, a
measure of the speed of the turbine shaft is ob
tained since the speed of the turbine determines
_ the pump output. This pressure drop in the Ven
tive ?uid comprising the products of combustion
turi' tube is used to control the flow of fuel to the
and the'excess air flows from the burner tubes 21‘ 40 burners, so that when the speed reaches a pre
and is directed by ?xed guide vanes or nozzles 35
determined maximum, fuel is by-passed by the
into the blade passage of the turbine rotor I9.
control valve from the outletof the pump to the
The tu‘rbineZl extracts at-least suf?cient energy
inlet thereof and in this Way prevents the ture
from the motive fluid to drive the compressor l8,
bine from exceeding this predetermined speed.
7 pump l5 and other auxiliary apparatus that may
Similarly, the control valve is actuated by
be housed in the fairing cone I4. The spent gases
means of a suitable temperature-responsive
leaving the turbine are discharged through the
mechanism to reduce the amount of fuel ?owing
propulsion nozzle 23Vat 'a'high velocity so that
7* to the burners in the event that the motive ?uid
the remaining energy in the motive ?uid is avail
discharging from the burners attains a tempera
able to propel ‘the aircraft. The tailpiece 22 is 50 ture which might causedamage to the turbine.
preferably axially movable with respect to the
By reducing the rate of flow of fuel to the burners
‘ casing I ll so'that the back pressure on the turbine
under this condition, a corresponding 1owering of
and the jet effect produced by the nozzle may be
the temperature'of the motive fuel is obtained.
The fuel, such as gasoline, for the burner tubes ‘
The present invention is particularly concerned 55 ZT?ows
from‘ a suitable tank (not shown) car
with maintaining the turbine speed and the tem
ried by the aircraft into a main supply pipe 45
perature of the motive fluid entering the turbine
to the inlet side of the pump [5. The outlet or
within safe limits by regulating the fuel supplied
discharge side of the pump is‘ connected by means
to the burners 21.
of a pipe 47 to the Venturi tube 44, which in turn
ratus which regulates the. fuel supply may con, 60 is connected to inlet 43 of the four-way, rotary
throttle valve 42. One outlet 49 of the valve 42
veniently, be housed within‘ a tunnel 4| formed in
_ .The speed and temperature controlling appa
the top of the casing in, which tunnel also houses
lubricating and fuel oil pipes and ignition wires.
Thejfuel supply system for the burner tubes
is connected by a pipe 5|.to the manifold pipe 29
of the burner tubes.
7 ,
Manual regulation of the rate of flow of fuel
comprises the pump l5, which is of the constant 65 to the burner tubes to vary the speed of the tur
bine is effected by adjusting the throttle valve
displacement type and driven by the turbine so
42 to by-pass more or less of the fuel ?owing-into‘
that its output is independent of pressure and
the inlet 48to the inlet of the pump by means
depends only on the rotational speed of the tur
of a pipe 52 leading from a second outlet 53 of the
bine shaft, a manually adjusted throttle valve 42, 70
of the'by-pass type, and a control valve 43 which.
when open, also by-passes fuel to the inlet side.
of the pump l5 to reduce the amount of fuel go
ing to theburners. As will appear later, the con
trol valve 43 is actuated. by the differential in 76
throttle valve to the pump inlet pipe 46.
The'throttle valve 42 comprises‘ a valve ‘body
in which a rotatable valve member 54 is received.
The valve member is manually rotated,rtol regu
late the amount of oil?owing to the burners and
through the by-pass pipe 52 by suitablemeans,
such’ as the wheel 55z?xed-rtheretoandeeonnected
by - a cable '56 to a > pulley 'li‘L-to which 1 is ?xed .a
' handv throttle-lever 58. The throttle lever£58¢is
located for-convenient manipulation by the pilot
of - the‘ aircraft.
In Fig.2, the throttle valve“ isshown in closed
position so that all of the iueliis by~passedor re
turned tothe pump I15 through ‘ pipe .52 .. ' 1In=this
any one. .01. a .pluralityzzof notches" a2 ,providedin
an .externalr?ange £3- otthe nut.
The outer pointed end 940i the member 85
isadaptedgtoxengage a stem .95. on the valve mem
' ber lZ-sothat movement of the piston ‘II is trans
mitted to the .valve member.
The overspced control operates-as follows:
Whent-he rate. of ?ow of fuel-zthroughthe .ven- ,
turi reaches a value resultingin a;pressure drop
position, a 'pin‘519 ea-rriedlby the wheel 155<engages 1.0 fromtheinlet to tthegthroat thereof Su?icient to
a stop BI ?xed-on the valvebody. Thervaliveiis
displace the piston .11 to the right against ‘the
fully opened when the pin 59~engages¢a~second
force ‘exerted :by the compression spring 8.6 and
stop ?62 on the valve body. ‘It will be-noted that
the basing. spring 1.5,thevalvestenn95 is engaged
fromelosed position to‘fullyopen position of the
by the pointedend Mot. member "=85ncausing the
throttle valve, a'thi-rd outlet 13-3 of the valve body
1.5 valve, member 5112 to be shifted to the rightand
always remains open.
gradually uncover the ‘ports v14. Thisprovidcs
The outlet 634s connected by axpipe 64 to the
direct communication between the .byepass pipes
control valve 43, which, in turn, communicates
84 and 6.6, thusreducing the amountof fuel-?ow
th-roug‘h'a pipe ‘66 ‘and pipes Bland“ tothe inlet
ingtothe burners and; thereby effecting. a-reduc
of vpump I5.‘ If desired, the outlet 63-may be. dis
tion . in . the: speedof . the: turbine since‘: its speed ‘is
pensed‘ with and'the pipe ‘Ell connected to the out 20 dependent upon the energy‘ added. to the come
let of the Venturi tube ‘M. ‘Thercontrol valve”
pressed air by the burning fuel.
is normally closed but is opened, as will appear
later, to by-pass vfuel ?owing vinto the throttle
valve“ and thereby re'ducethe ‘amountof fuel
?owing to the burners in the-event-overspeeding
of the turbine or excessivetemperature of the
The valve ‘member-:1 25is=a1soa shifted to the right
to uncover the ports 'Mintheevent the tempera
ture. of the motive .?uid. enteringithe. turbine sex-i
ceeds .a predetermined value.
This is accom
The valve .43 comprises a .valve body '61 having
plished by :means of suitable temperature-re
sponsive meansrwhichmay be located between; the
an annular chamber“ into‘rwhich’the'pipe 6.4
Any suitable temperature-‘responsive ~means
motive ?uid occurs.
discharges and a second annular chamber "H
which communicates with ‘ the outlet 'pipe 66.
Communication between the chambers 168' ‘and ‘II
and, therefore, between the'inlet and outlet pipes
64 and 66‘is controlledbyrmeanszofa valve mem
ber'l-Z which is-slidable ina2 sleeve 173.11‘! a central
bore of thevalve body'?l. Thezs‘leeve :13 is pro
vided with ports ‘14 and ‘I15 connecting. the ‘cham
her-s68 and ‘H, respectively, with theinterior of
the sleeve.
burner‘tu‘bes 2.1 and the turbineizl .
may be employed. which will .a‘ctuate'the. control
valve .43 and, .therefore,:the invention is not toibe
construed - as limited. to "the particular type dis
closed. Referring particularly: tofFig."'-7,jthere is
shown a temperature-responsiveidevice, generally
indicated 91, which comprises ~a*high tempera
ture metal tubei98' having a. quartz rod” ‘received
therein. ‘The tube £8 and rod‘ 98~ aresuspended
from ‘the outer casing I10 , the upper. end I0 I ofzthe
The valve ‘member ‘I2 is biased to
valve-closing position by means of ‘a compression 40 sleeve '98 ‘being threaded and received in a
threaded hole in ‘the casing. "The’invention "is
spring 16 so that itnormally closes‘ ports '14.
not restricted‘tostheiemployment of ‘a. metal tube
The valve member '12 is adapted to :beshifted
andquartz rod since any‘hightemperature re
to the right, ‘as-viewed in ‘Fig; 2,‘to»gr.adually un
sisting materials having di?'erent. coefficients of
cover the ports ‘I4 and thereby‘bymassrfuellirom
expansion may be vemployed.
the-Venturi tube to theinlet side of: thepump and 45 ‘ The-upper end 'ofrthe'quartz rod=l99 is ‘engaged .
reduce the amount of fuel ?owing tothe burners
by .a 'freelyrsliidable ‘member I502‘ having a pointed
in the event of over-speeding of 1 the .turbineor
upper --end‘I'034 providing a'lcnife edge on which a
overheating of the-motive'?uid enteringxthe tur
lever 150:4 ‘is fulcrumed. "The *lever I04, member
intend-quartz rod59'9-are biased downwardly, so
Overspeeding ' of the turbine is controlled by 60
that-the quartz rod engages the bottom I05 of
means of a piston "I7 housed within-a cylinder 18
the tube £98 bymeans ofia compression‘ spring’IOB
mounted on a base ‘I9'common to the valvebody
disposed ‘within a housingv I01 secured to the ‘up
61. The pistori‘l‘l: is shiftedrto the right, as viewed
per ‘end of ther'tube- 98. .A .second'knife- edge I00
in Fig. 2, when-the rate of flow of fuel through
the Venturi tube exceeds a ‘predetermined value. 05 spaced laterally ifrom theikn'ife ‘edge -' I 03 engages
tn; lever I04 at the sideoppositethe knife edge
Pipes ~81 and Y82 extendirom the inlet :and
throat, respectively, of the Ventnri tube M and
‘The outer end of = the lever IMiis connected by
open into the cylinder 18 on opposite sides of the
‘link "39 toac-rankarm I II carried'by a torque
piston TI. The piston-is provided .witha stem
83 having a pointed end 184. adapted to engage a 60 tubevl I52 fextendingi'from thetemperatureeresponp
sive device to the con-trolvalve43.
spring-biased memberxBiwhich is slidable in the
‘As the quartz rod 199 andmetal tube 98 ‘are
cylinder block. Themember 85 isbiasedto‘the I0
heated, the tube, having a higher ~‘coei‘licient- or
left, as viewed in Fig. 2, by means of a compres
expansion ‘thanthe rod, increases in length at a
sion spring 86, one end of which engages a ?ange 65 greater rate than the quartz rod so that the rod
81 on the member 85 while the other end engages
moves downwardly intQ the tube, and the lever
an internally-?anged nut 88 which is adjustably
I04, maintained in engagement therewith by the
threaded into the cylinder block. From this
spring I06, swings in a counterclockwise direction,
structure, it will be clear that by turning the nut
as viewed in Fig. 7, about knife edge I08. Thus,
88 into or out of the cylinder block, the amount 70 under the conditions mentioned, the lever I04
of pressure acting on the piston 11 and necessary
will cause the crankarm III to turn the torque
tube H2 in a clockwise direction as viewed in
to shift it to the right may be readily varied. The
Fig. ‘I.
nut 88 is locked in adjusted position by means
This rotation of the torque tube is transmitted
of a dog 09 removably secured to the cylinder
block and having a ?ange 9| adapted to engage 75 to the control valve ‘43 by means of mechanism
shown in Figs; 2 to 6, inclusive.‘ Theforward end
of the torque tube-is journaledrin'brackets H3
carried by theibase' 19 of the control valve 43.
The end of the torque tube has ?xedly secured
starting position with'the'slide rod I26 pulled ‘out
~ , so that thelow surfaces I25 ,of the cam are in a
position to be engaged by the cam-follower-?n-i I
thereto an arm ‘I I4 to which'is ?xed a tension '
spring H5 attached to the bracket H3 at H6. 7
The spring H5 cooperateswith the compression
gers H9.
Afterthe turbine: hasybeen started;
the cam is manually'shifted by meansv of:the
slide rod I26 to bring the high surfaces_I24 into
controlling position: A spring-pressed detent- I29
spring I96 to bias the ‘quartz rod 99 against the
mounted in one, of the brackets‘ I I3_may»be~pro
bottom of tube 98.
vided for selective, engagement with=notchesI3I
A second arm H1 is rigidly clamped to the 10 provided in the'rslide rod to maintain the slide 7
torque tube between the brackets H3 .asishown
The arm H1 is bifurcated providing
cam in either
is shown
of=its positions.
a slight modi?cation
- a
arms H8, the lower ends of which straddle the
valve stem 95 and terminate substantially at an
of ‘the ‘control valve 43 in Whichthe piston 11
is replaced by a piston 11' to which is secured
in-Figl 3.
axial plane of the stem. The face of the lower 15 ?exible bellows I32. The bellows’ I32 together
ends of these arms I I8, at the side opposite that
with the piston 11’ and the‘ end walls of the
visible in Fig.v 3, is provided with cam follower
cylinder 18 de?neexpansible chambers into which
?ngers H9 as shown by dottedlines' in Fig. 2,
the pipes -8I and/82', leading from the inlet; and
adapted to engage the face of a cam' I2I. The
throat respectively of the Venturi tube, discharge.
cam I2I isin the form of a disc and is threaded 20 Except for this difference, the modi?edcontrol
onto an externally-threaded sleeve ‘I22 which is
valve is identical with and operates like'that
?xed by means of “a set'screw I 23 to the'valve
stem 93; The'cam I2I is adjustable along the
. While the invention has been shown in sev
sleeve I22, so that its position with respect to the
eral forms, it will be obvious ‘to those skilled in
camfollower ?ngers I I9 may be changed in‘ cali
the art that it is not so limited, but is susceptible
brating the temperature control apparatus.
of various other changes and modi?cations with:
Referring to Figs. 4 and 5, it .will be noted
out, departing from the spiritthereof, and it is
that the cam I2I is provided with diametrically
desired, therefore, that only such limitations shall
opposed high surfaces I24 and low surfacesl25.
be placed thereupon as are speci?cally set forth
In" normal operation, the cam is positioned so 30 in the appended claim. 2_
that the ?ngers 'I I9: of the arm H1 are aligned
Whatisclaimedis: I
' with and adapted. to engage the high surfaces
I24.» The apparatus is calibrated so that" when
a' predeterminedtemperature is reached in the
A system for controlling the supply of fuel
to the combustion ‘apparatus of, a gas turbine or
the like, comprising a constant displacement
annular chamber96, the arm I I1 is moved to a 35 pump, a throttle valve having an inlet and a
position to engage the high surfaces I24 and ef-'
plurality of outlets, means including a Venturi
fect movementof the valve member 12, to the
tube connecting the outlet of the pump to the '
right as viewed in Fig. 2, to uncover the ports
of the throttle valve, means for connecting
15 and ‘thereby provide by-passing of the-fuel
one of said valve outlets to the combustion appa
around the burners. For example, in'gas tur— 40 ratus
for supplying" fuel thereto, means for con
bines as now known,»the temperature-responsive
necting a second valve outlet to the inlet of the
device may be calibrated to effect opening of the
pump, said valve including an adjustable valve
ports '14 when the temperature’ in the chamber
member ‘for ‘by-passing a selectable amount of
96/reaches 1200“ Fr
However, it was found necessary to. change the
temperature limit at which thetemperature-re
sponsive device opened the control valve when
starting the'gas turbine so that at starting and
fora short interval thereafter, the temperature
of the-motive ?uid will reach a higher value such
as 1500° F. before thetemperature-responsive de
vice 45 opens the control valve 43. This is ac:
complished by. shifting the cam I2I to bring‘ the
low surfaces. I25, in line with the cam follower
?ngers II9 so that greater travel of the arm I I1
is required before the temperature-responsive‘ de
vice begins to open the ports 14.
As shown particularly in Fig.3, this adjust
fuel through said second outlet to the. pump inlet
' for varying the rate of ?ow of fuel to the com
bustion apparatus, a controlvalve communicat
ing with the discharge end of said Venturi-tube
and opening to the inlet of said pump, ‘said con
trol valve including a valve member for regu
lating'the ?ow of fuel therethrough, means for
positioning said valve member in accordance with
the pressure differential between the inlet and
throat of said. Venturi tube and arranged so that
an increase in the pressure diiferential between
the inlet and throat of the Venturi tube tends to
open said control valve, and means responsive
tothe temperature of the motive ?uid generated
by said combustion apparatus for positioning said ‘
V ment of the cam for the starting period of the
valve member 'in'accordance with the tempera
' gas turbine is e?‘ected by.means of a slide rod 60 ture of 'said motive ?uid and arranged so that
I25 having an‘opening I21 therein which‘re
(an increase in temperature of said ?uid above a
ceives a’ lug I28 projecting from the periphery
of the cam:I2I.
In Figs. 2 and‘ 3, the apparatus is shown in,
~ predetermined
value tends to open said control
Без категории
Размер файла
853 Кб
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа