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Патент USA US2404467

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July 23, 1946.
Filed March 16', 1945
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Patented July 23,_ 1946
.- 2,404,467
‘ ' 'Hsin-Ya Tien, Calcutta, India
Application March 16, 1945, Serial No. 583,110
In China April 16, 19.44 V_
5 ('llaims'.
(Cl. 123-178)
This invention'relates to internal combustion
engines and has for its object to increase the
e?iciency of the engine.
Internal combustion engines, at present in use,
waste about a third of the heating value of the
fuel consumed from the exhaust which is due to
the fact that the expansion stroke is compara
tively short and is equal to the effective suction
A principal object of the invention is to liberate
vthe expansion ratio from the» compression ratio
by means of a combined piston whereby the power
or expansion stroke and the exhaust stroke are
'made longer than the effective suction stroke.
A further object of the invention is to use the
‘air‘of the engine itself for the purpose of cool
ing the cylinder walls and the piston and gen
erally to use this air to act as a buffer to neu
tralize the vibration and shock in the ‘engine
par-ts due to the explosion of gases within the
cylinder which is of great advantage when high
octane ‘fuel is used.
The invention may be applied to carry out the
Walker cycle in the semi-Diesel'engine, the Bray
, bustion engine compared with that in accordance
with the present invention.
Referring to the drawing:
The piston head comprises a piston core- I '
working in an'outer shell 2 ‘which in turn works
within the cylinder 3. Piston rings 4 are provided
on the outer surface'of bothth'e piston core and
the outer shell. Vents 5 and B are provided in
the outer shell, the vents 5 being’closer to ‘the
head or the closed end of, the outer shell "and are
radially disposed thereto, while the vents’ 6 are
located a little further away and are sloped away
from the cylinder head.
‘Slots ‘I preferably of larger size are provided
on the cylinder through which air is drawn into
or expelled from the space between the outer
,shell 2 and the piston core I, during its "recip
rocational movement inthe» cylinder. ‘These‘slots
‘I being located'so as tocome into‘ alignment with
the‘ vents "5 and 6 during'the movement of the
The relative positions of the vents 5 and Sin
the outer shell and the slots 1 in the cylinder? body
may be 'varied'to suit: particular conditions of
ton cycle in the full Diesel engine or it may be 25 working as desired."
applied to carry out'the new thermocycle ac
‘ The piston pin 8_ by" which the connecting rod’
cording to the invention in the Otto engine.‘
vis securedqto the piston, is extended'in' length
to pass through slots 9 in the piston shell, so
provided with a variable air cushion whereby the
that the piston shell cannot ?y off the piston'core
power or expansion stroke and the exhaust stroke 30 when the piston core is pulled back to the right.
are made longer than the effective suction stroke.
' The four strokes or cycles according to the in-.
In carrying out the invention into effect the
vention are more particularly. described ‘with ref
piston head is provided with an air cushion
erence to Fig. 2.
i ‘
' 1
formed’ by an outer shell ?tted over the piston
The suction stroke is illustrated in the two po
head or core, the outer shell being movable rel 35 sitions shown in Fig. 2A. At the beginning of
atively to both the piston head and the. cylinder,
the suction‘ stroke when the inlet valve is opened,
and air is admitted or expelled from the space so
_"the combined piston is located at the left end of
formed during'the reciprocation of the piston in
the-stroke near the cylinder head, and the piston
the ‘cylinder so‘that an'air vcushion of‘variable .
shell is in contact with the piston core. As the
size is formed ‘on said piston head, whereby the 40 core is drawn to the right by the piston rod, a
power or expansion stroke and the exhaust stroke
partial vacuum is produced between the core and
is made longer than the effective’suction stroke,
the shell; gradually the shell will move to the
‘The invention" is more particularly described
right also by the suction or the vacuum and the
with reference to the accompanying drawing,
friction between the core and the shell. The
which is of a diagrammatic nature, and in which: 45 air or the mixture of air and fuel is then sucked
Fig. l is a longitudinal section through the cyl
into the cylinder as shown in the upper portion
inder and the piston, the piston being shown in
of Fig. 2A. As soon as the vent holes 6 come
part elevation.
opposite the slots 1 air rushes in from outside to
Figs. 2A, 2B, 2C and 2D are diagrammatic
break the vacuum and fills up its space. As both’
views showing the relative positions of the com 50 the force of the impact of the air to the shell
bined piston head in accordance with the inven
and the friction between the shell and cylinder
tion at the suction, compression, power and 'ex
wall are in the opposite direction to the motion of
haust strokes respectively, and
the combined piston, the shell is stopped; but
Fig. 3 is an indicator diagram and time dia
the core still movesv to the right. as shown in the
gram of the usual or known type‘of internal com 55 lower portion of Fig. 2A and the fuel charge and
' ‘ According to the invention the piston head‘is
2,404,467 .
’ for the third time, it will commence the suction
outside air will continuously enter the combus
stroke again.
tion chamber and the vacuum space respectively
Having now particularly described and ascer
until the end of the stroke is reached when the
tained the nature of» my said invention and in
‘suction. stroke is completed. It is to be noted
that either air or a mixture of fuel gas and air 6 what manner the same is to be performed, I de
1 clare that what I claim is:
‘ may be ‘drawn into the cylinder during the suc
1. An internal combustion engine in which the
tion stroke. In some types of engines air is ad
mitted alone and is compressed while the fuel ' piston head comprises an outer shell and an inner
the outer shell havingvent holes ‘which com
‘charge is injectedinto'the cylinder under p-pres- m'r,e_;
:mu'nicatewith slots formed in the cylinder body
whereby air is admitted into or expelled from the
The compression stroke is illustrated in the two
positions shown in Fig. 2B. When the compres} 1 Ispacev between the outer. shell and the inner core,
sion stroke is started, the piston core is at first ‘, during-the reciprocation 'of'the‘piston in the cyl
pushed to the left by the crankshaft, but this ' _ "inder so that an‘air cushion of variable size is
movement of the core only pushes -out the air“):v formed on said piston head whereby the power or
expansion stroke and the exhaust stroke are made
‘within the piston shell through the vent holes 6.
than the e?ective suction stroke of the en
and slots 1. (This air can be used to supercharge
‘the combustion chamber by means not shown.)
2. An internal combustion» engine in which the
;The shell still has'no motion and the suction ef
' ,fect in'the combustion chamber still continues as 20 piston‘ head comprises an outer shell and an in
:ner core which. work one within the other:in the
shown in the upper portionof Fig. 2B, untilthe
cylinder body, the outer shell having two sets of
vents, one set located near the end' of the outer
the air is now compressed forming a. cushion be
vshell and directed radiallyoutwards while :the
itween the core and the shell. The inlet valve will
,lnow close and'then the core will push the shell 25 second set of ventswhich-are located at a short
core closes the vent holes 6. Theremainder of
forward by means of the cushionedair which‘ acts
,asa buffer asshown in; the lower portion of Fig.
i2B and the air or fuel charge is compressed up
1‘ to the endof the‘stroke.
The power stroke is illustrated in the tworposi- 30
ltions shownin-Fig. 2C. -At the end of the com-7
lprfession stroke owing to the injection offuel oil
ior to ignition, the explosion occurs: the high pres
lsurenow produced the, cylinderrpresses against
tthe shell and the cushioned air :and causes the 135
core to move to the right. The thicknessof the
air cushion is also reduced by thehigh pressure in
'. lthe. cylinder. At‘ this stage,- due to the;position of
,‘the core. I, the vent holes Bhave no'chance to
. distance from the end'of the outer shell aresloped
away from the cylinder head; the said vents com
municating with slots formedin the cylinder body
whereby an air‘ cushion of variable size is formed
on the piston
3. An internal combustionengine in which the
piston head comprises an outer-shell and an in
ner core, the outer shell having vent holes which
communicate with slotsformed in the cylinder
“body whereby air is admitted into, or expelled from
the space'betweenithe outerv shell and the inner
core during movementof the said piston head, the a
relative position of,the said vent holes in the outer
.shell and the, slots in the cylinder being varied to
‘ communicate with the slots], and only when the o suitparticular conditions ‘as maybe desired.
4; An internalcombustion enginein Whichjthe
‘ vents 5 pass slots 1, can the compressed cushioned
piston head comprises an outer shell and an in
.air escape through the vents‘ 5~and>slots ‘I to the
ner core adapted to reciprocate in said-outer shell,
1 outside. Owing'to the shell ,an'd'the core. obtain
ing thevsame velocity and the same direction'in
motion, even though they may-contact each-other,
no impact will occur as shownin thelower'por
the outer shell having vent holes which communi
cate with. slots formed in the cylinder body where
vby air is admitted into or expelled from the space
between the outer shell‘ and'the inner core during
movement of the said piston'head, the relative
tion of Fig. 2C; The fact that the powerstroke is
longer than the effective suction stroke is one of
:the important features .of this invention, from 50 sizes, of said vent holes in theouter. shell and the .
: slots in the cylinder body vbeing varied to suitpar
:which more power is obtained.
=ticular.conditions as?may‘ be desired.
Theexhaust stroke is illustrated in the posi
_5. An internal combustion engine in which the
‘ tions shown in Fig. 2D. When the combinedpis
piston head comprises an outer shell and an in
‘ton returns to the left for the second-time, the
‘ exhaust'valve opens, the burnt'gas isapushed out
ner core adapted to reciprocate in said outer
by the piston up to the end of the str0ke,~as shown 5.5 shell, the outer shell having two series of vent
.holes which communicate with slots formed in the
‘cylinder body whereby'air is admittedinto or ex
has tendency: still to'move, to the left by'the in-, _ pelled from the space between the outer shell and
ertia. Due to the resistance of burnt gas at the‘ I .the‘inner‘core during movement of thesaid :pis
front and by the vacuum forming‘at the back it 60 ton'head, said two series 'of vent holes being so
spaced anddirected that they communicate one
willbe impossible for the piston shell to strike the
after the other'with the slots in the cylinder body.
cylinder head. The four strokes or cycles are now
complete and when the core returns to the right
in the lower portion of Fig. 2D. When, the piston
core begins to return to the rightagain, the shell
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