Патент USA US2404467код для вставки
July 23, 1946. HSlN-YA TIEN _ 2,404,467 INTERNAL- COMBUST I _ON ENGINE Filed March 16', 1945 ‘4546 \ '7 21 " Ni“ He 24 ‘H625. . “COMMON ENG/NE T/E/vs ENG/NE. Hsin - )2: Ticn Patented July 23,_ 1946 2,404,467 "-r .- 2,404,467 - INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINE ‘ ' 'Hsin-Ya Tien, Calcutta, India Application March 16, 1945, Serial No. 583,110 In China April 16, 19.44 V_ 5 ('llaims'. . (Cl. 123-178) 1 This invention'relates to internal combustion engines and has for its object to increase the e?iciency of the engine. Internal combustion engines, at present in use, waste about a third of the heating value of the fuel consumed from the exhaust which is due to the fact that the expansion stroke is compara tively short and is equal to the effective suction stroke. - , ' g Y ‘ - A principal object of the invention is to liberate vthe expansion ratio from the» compression ratio by means of a combined piston whereby the power or expansion stroke and the exhaust stroke are 'made longer than the effective suction stroke. _ A further object of the invention is to use the ‘air‘of the engine itself for the purpose of cool ing the cylinder walls and the piston and gen erally to use this air to act as a buffer to neu tralize the vibration and shock in the ‘engine par-ts due to the explosion of gases within the cylinder which is of great advantage when high octane ‘fuel is used. a - The invention may be applied to carry out the Walker cycle in the semi-Diesel'engine, the Bray , bustion engine compared with that in accordance with the present invention. ’ Referring to the drawing: The piston head comprises a piston core- I ' working in an'outer shell 2 ‘which in turn works within the cylinder 3. Piston rings 4 are provided on the outer surface'of bothth'e piston core and the outer shell. Vents 5 and B are provided in the outer shell, the vents 5 being’closer to ‘the head or the closed end of, the outer shell "and are radially disposed thereto, while the vents’ 6 are located a little further away and are sloped away from the cylinder head. _ ~ ‘Slots ‘I preferably of larger size are provided on the cylinder through which air is drawn into or expelled from the space between the outer ,shell 2 and the piston core I, during its "recip rocational movement inthe» cylinder. ‘These‘slots ‘I being located'so as tocome into‘ alignment with the‘ vents "5 and 6 during'the movement of the -shell2.' ' _' 1 - ' j The relative positions of the vents 5 and Sin the outer shell and the slots 1 in the cylinder? body may be 'varied'to suit: particular conditions of ton cycle in the full Diesel engine or it may be 25 working as desired." ' ' " . ‘ ' applied to carry out'the new thermocycle ac ‘ The piston pin 8_ by" which the connecting rod’ cording to the invention in the Otto engine.‘ vis securedqto the piston, is extended'in' length to pass through slots 9 in the piston shell, so provided with a variable air cushion whereby the that the piston shell cannot ?y off the piston'core power or expansion stroke and the exhaust stroke 30 when the piston core is pulled back to the right. are made longer than the effective suction stroke. ' The four strokes or cycles according to the in-. In carrying out the invention into effect the vention are more particularly. described ‘with ref piston head is provided with an air cushion erence to Fig. 2. i ‘ ' 1 formed’ by an outer shell ?tted over the piston The suction stroke is illustrated in the two po head or core, the outer shell being movable rel 35 sitions shown in Fig. 2A. At the beginning of atively to both the piston head and the. cylinder, the suction‘ stroke when the inlet valve is opened, and air is admitted or expelled from the space so _"the combined piston is located at the left end of formed during'the reciprocation of the piston in the-stroke near the cylinder head, and the piston the ‘cylinder so‘that an'air vcushion of‘variable . shell is in contact with the piston core. As the size is formed ‘on said piston head, whereby the 40 core is drawn to the right by the piston rod, a power or expansion stroke and the exhaust stroke partial vacuum is produced between the core and is made longer than the effective’suction stroke, the shell; gradually the shell will move to the ‘The invention" is more particularly described right also by the suction or the vacuum and the with reference to the accompanying drawing, friction between the core and the shell. The which is of a diagrammatic nature, and in which: 45 air or the mixture of air and fuel is then sucked Fig. l is a longitudinal section through the cyl into the cylinder as shown in the upper portion inder and the piston, the piston being shown in of Fig. 2A. As soon as the vent holes 6 come part elevation. _ ‘ ‘ opposite the slots 1 air rushes in from outside to Figs. 2A, 2B, 2C and 2D are diagrammatic break the vacuum and fills up its space. As both’ views showing the relative positions of the com 50 the force of the impact of the air to the shell bined piston head in accordance with the inven and the friction between the shell and cylinder tion at the suction, compression, power and 'ex wall are in the opposite direction to the motion of haust strokes respectively, and the combined piston, the shell is stopped; but Fig. 3 is an indicator diagram and time dia the core still movesv to the right. as shown in the gram of the usual or known type‘of internal com 55 lower portion of Fig. 2A and the fuel charge and ' ‘ According to the invention the piston head‘is 2,404,467 . 3 4 ’ for the third time, it will commence the suction outside air will continuously enter the combus stroke again. tion chamber and the vacuum space respectively Having now particularly described and ascer until the end of the stroke is reached when the tained the nature of» my said invention and in ‘suction. stroke is completed. It is to be noted that either air or a mixture of fuel gas and air 6 what manner the same is to be performed, I de 1 clare that what I claim is: ‘ may be ‘drawn into the cylinder during the suc 1. An internal combustion engine in which the tion stroke. In some types of engines air is ad mitted alone and is compressed while the fuel ' piston head comprises an outer shell and an inner the outer shell havingvent holes ‘which com ‘charge is injectedinto'the cylinder under p-pres- m -.co'r,e_; :mu'nicatewith slots formed in the cylinder body sure. . . _ . . . , , whereby air is admitted into or expelled from the The compression stroke is illustrated in the two positions shown in Fig. 2B. When the compres} 1 Ispacev between the outer. shell and the inner core, sion stroke is started, the piston core is at first ‘, during-the reciprocation 'of'the‘piston in the cyl pushed to the left by the crankshaft, but this ' _ "inder so that an‘air cushion of variable size is movement of the core only pushes -out the air“):v formed on said piston head whereby the power or expansion stroke and the exhaust stroke are made ‘within the piston shell through the vent holes 6. longer than the e?ective suction stroke of the en and slots 1. (This air can be used to supercharge gine. * p ‘the combustion chamber by means not shown.) 2. An internal combustion» engine in which the ;The shell still has'no motion and the suction ef ' ,fect in'the combustion chamber still continues as 20 piston‘ head comprises an outer shell and an in :ner core which. work one within the other:in the shown in the upper portionof Fig. 2B, untilthe cylinder body, the outer shell having two sets of vents, one set located near the end' of the outer the air is now compressed forming a. cushion be vshell and directed radiallyoutwards while :the itween the core and the shell. The inlet valve will ,lnow close and'then the core will push the shell 25 second set of ventswhich-are located at a short core closes the vent holes 6. Theremainder of forward by means of the cushionedair which‘ acts ,asa buffer asshown in; the lower portion of Fig. i2B and the air or fuel charge is compressed up 1‘ to the endof the‘stroke. The power stroke is illustrated in the tworposi- 30 ltions shownin-Fig. 2C. -At the end of the com-7 lprfession stroke owing to the injection offuel oil ior to ignition, the explosion occurs: the high pres lsurenow produced the, cylinderrpresses against tthe shell and the cushioned air :and causes the 135 core to move to the right. The thicknessof the air cushion is also reduced by thehigh pressure in '. lthe. cylinder. At‘ this stage,- due to the;position of ,‘the core. I, the vent holes Bhave no'chance to . distance from the end'of the outer shell aresloped away from the cylinder head; the said vents com municating with slots formedin the cylinder body whereby an air‘ cushion of variable size is formed on the piston head. ‘ ‘ V . _ 3. An internal combustionengine in which the piston head comprises an outer-shell and an in ner core, the outer shell having vent holes which communicate with slotsformed in the cylinder “body whereby air is admitted into, or expelled from the space'betweenithe outerv shell and the inner core during movementof the said piston head, the a relative position of,the said vent holes in the outer .shell and the, slots in the cylinder being varied to ‘ communicate with the slots], and only when the o suitparticular conditions ‘as maybe desired. 4; An internalcombustion enginein Whichjthe ‘ vents 5 pass slots 1, can the compressed cushioned piston head comprises an outer shell and an in .air escape through the vents‘ 5~and>slots ‘I to the ner core adapted to reciprocate in said-outer shell, 1 outside. Owing'to the shell ,an'd'the core. obtain ing thevsame velocity and the same direction'in motion, even though they may-contact each-other, no impact will occur as shownin thelower'por the outer shell having vent holes which communi cate with. slots formed in the cylinder body where vby air is admitted into or expelled from the space between the outer shell‘ and'the inner core during movement of the said piston'head, the relative tion of Fig. 2C; The fact that the powerstroke is longer than the effective suction stroke is one of :the important features .of this invention, from 50 sizes, of said vent holes in theouter. shell and the . : slots in the cylinder body vbeing varied to suitpar :which more power is obtained. . =ticular.conditions as?may‘ be desired. Theexhaust stroke is illustrated in the posi _5. An internal combustion engine in which the ‘ tions shown in Fig. 2D. When the combinedpis piston head comprises an outer shell and an in ‘ton returns to the left for the second-time, the ‘ exhaust'valve opens, the burnt'gas isapushed out ner core adapted to reciprocate in said outer by the piston up to the end of the str0ke,~as shown 5.5 shell, the outer shell having two series of vent .holes which communicate with slots formed in the ‘cylinder body whereby'air is admittedinto or ex has tendency: still to'move, to the left by'the in-, _ pelled from the space between the outer shell and ertia. Due to the resistance of burnt gas at the‘ I .the‘inner‘core during movement of thesaid :pis front and by the vacuum forming‘at the back it 60 ton'head, said two series 'of vent holes being so spaced anddirected that they communicate one willbe impossible for the piston shell to strike the after the other'with the slots in the cylinder body. cylinder head. The four strokes or cycles are now 'I-ISIN-YA 'TIEN. complete and when the core returns to the right in the lower portion of Fig. 2D. When, the piston core begins to return to the rightagain, the shell ‘ ‘ ‘ .