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Патент USA US2404492

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-` July' 23,v 1946. '
J. lM. HAIT
2,404,492
AMPHIBIAN
Filed Feb. l5, 1945
4 Sheets-Sheet l
July 23», 1946'.
J. M. HAlT
2,404,492 4
AMPHIBIAN
Filed Feb. '15, 1943
| Il
4 Sheets-Sheet 2
_ July 23, 194s.
2,404,492
J'. M. HAIT
AMPHIBIAN
`
_Filed ?eb. 15, 1943
4 Sheets-Sheet 3
l July 23', 1946.y
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J. M. HAITy
I
AMPHIBIAN
Filed Feb. 15, 194s
2,404,492
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4 shms-shew‘zv
Patented July 23,;1946
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V2,404,492
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~ UNITEDA STATE s NiPA'rlfztJT OFFICEÍÍ
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y2,404,492
‘AMPHIBIAN f
James M. Hait, San Gabriel, Calif., assignor to
Food Machinery Corporation, San Jose, Calif., a
Acorporation of _Delaware
Application February 15, 1943, Serial No. 475,935 Y
' 7 Claims.
(01.4115-1)
2
This invention relates to amphibians, and has *I
particular utility in cargo-carrying amphibians
employed in amphibious naval warfare.
Amphibians provided for this purpose have
track-laying belts mounted on opposite sides
thereof, and must be relatively short to permit
them to turn readily by differential driving of
these belts. The cargo-carrying compartment in
,the ship must therefore be fairly deep with its
licor well below the water level, to accommodate
the load they are designed to carry. Access to
the cargo compartment in the loading or unload
ing of cargo, is had by lifting the cargo over the
topside, and this constitutes a serious drawback
where heavy pieces of cargo are carried, as it
requires a large force of men or special equip
ment to accomplish the loading or unloading of
the ship.
Another serious handicap inherent in this de
sign is found in the hazards to which soldiers car
' ried by the amphibian are subjected when they
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equipment are’so disposed as to give the am'
phibian good balance .in the water when travel
ing loaded or light, and at the same timer leave
oneend of the amphibian free for the installa
tion of a door therein.
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The utility of cargo-carrying amphibians -in
amphibious warfare is limited by the extent to
which they are seaworthy in heavy seas and able
to pass through a high surf.
It is an object of my invention to provide an
amphibian which has a high degree of seawor
thiness.
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>
Amphibians in actual use in the present war
have the track-laying belts mountedthereon so
that the'blades on these belts, which are relied
upon to propel the craft when afloat, are lifted
out of the water and cause a considerable splash
which is visible for long distances Yand which
tends to betray the presence of the amphibian to
the enemy.
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It is an object of my invention to provide an
amphibian which' not only has excellent char
have to climb over the topside in the face of
acteristics of seaworthiness, but which operates
enemy fire, either to enter or leave the amphibian.
Without the track-laying belts producing any
It is an object 0i my invention to provide an
amphibian onto which cargo may be loaded and 25 splash.
Heretofore the ratio of the cargo capacity of
from which it may be unloaded Without passing
an amphibian to the Weight of the amphibian has
over the topside of the ship.
been relatively low.
Contrary to amphibians, the common design of
>landing boats is to make these relatively long
and shallow, with their deck disposed above the
water level, and provide an end door which may
be lowered onto the beach to serve` as a ramp
over which menV and-cargo, including wheeled
vehicles, may be transferred from the deck onto
the beach, or vice versa. However, amphibian
designers have heretofore been bound by certain
prejudices which prevented the conception of an
amphibian equipped with any such door.
z
It is yet another object of the present inven
tion to provide an amphibian which is relatively
light in weight compared to its cargo-carrying
capacity.
In order to carry out the objects of my inven
tion it is necessary that the motor for driving
the amphibian be mounted on or adjacent the
bottom of the amphibian hull. The necessity for
eliminating all excess weight in these amphibians
makes aviation motors particularly suitable for
the power plant. Some of the best aviation mo
For an amphibian to be Well balanced in the
water, either when loaded or light, it is neces 40 tors now available are air-cooled and because of
the bilge water which inevitably collects in the
sary that the heavier elements of the equipment,
space just above the bottom of any ship, such> y I
such as the engine, transmission, control cabin,
engines are likely to be quickly corroded and.
and fuel tanks be distributed about the ship in
rendered unreliable by bilge water if mounted
balancing relation with the center of buoyancy.
.Y Y “ .
Itr has become accepted as an unavoidable neces 45 close to the hull bottom.
A still further object of my invention is to
sity, therefore, to occupy and block each end of
provide an amphibian in which an air-cooled mo
the ship with one or more of theseheavier equip
tor may be mounted close to the hull bottom.
ment items. As the track-laying mechanisms are
Without the motor being subjected to the corro
mounted on the side walls of the ship, no Way
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has been apparent of providing a door in a hull 50 sive action of the bilge Water.
The manner of accomplishing the foregoing ob
wall of the amphibian for introducing cargo into
jects, as well as further objects and advantages,
o_r unloading it from the cargo compartment of
will be made manifest in the following description
the ship.
taken in connection with the accompanying Adraw-_ «
y„It is a further object of my invention to pro
„11;
vide an amphibian _in whichthe heavier items of ings, in which:
2,404,492
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Fig, 1 is a diagrammatic plan View _of a pre
ferred embodimentof the invention.
The transmission 5l provides suitable gears
whereby shafts 'l0 and ‘H may be driven by the
Fig. 2 is a sideelevational view of Fig. 1'.
Fig. 3 is a longitudinal vertical sectional view of
Y engine 50, at the same or different speeds and
forwardly or in reverse, and at a suitable num
ber of different gear ratios. Mounted on oppo
site ends of the shafts l0 and 1| are drive
Fig. 1, taken on the line 3-3 of Fig. 1.
Fig. 4 is a detail diagrammatic sectional View
taken on the line 4-4 of Fig. 3.
sprockets ‘l2 and 73.
' Fig. 5 is a transverse sectional. View taken on
the line 5_5 of Fig. 3. 'Y
' Fig. 6 is a diagrammatic perspective view Vof a;
. modified form-vof the invention.
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Fig. 7 is an enlarged transverse vertical sec,-V
bases 'l5 on the front end of each of which is
'^ mounted an idle sprocket 16, each base having on
1770
`Vthe top thereof a pair of idle rollers 'l1 and along v .
tional view illustrating the connection Vof a drive* , Y ` the
sprocket to the transmissionoft-»tiziaamphibian>
of my invention.
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Extending laterally from the hull- Il near the
bottom I2 thereof are running Vgear mounting
bottom thereof a series of bogie wheels-18.
Trainedabout the sprockets 'l2 and 76, the idle
Vrollers Tl ‘and thebogie wheels 'i8 on each of the
Referring specifically to the drawings, the N15 'ìmountin'g'bases 15 is a track-laying belt 85. Each
amphibian l0 shown therein includes a hull_,l li
havingY a central bottom plate I2, the stern por
tion I3’ of Which'is curved, an arcuate bow plate'
I4,V and side walls l5.
i
' ‘ Space‘d from the bottom- l2 is a floor 20, which
Ioithesebelts carries grousers 86 which rest upon
the land and provide support and propulsion for
thearnphibian Vduring land travel, and engage
the water and provide propulsion when the
amphibian-is
cooperatesu with the bottom to- forma shallow
power plantV compartment 2i. The bow of the
amphibian liì'isv providedwith a deck 25 provid
ing windows 26 and an escape hatch 2l', this deck
cooperating with a bulkhead 28 and the forwardy
portion' of the floor 2G to form a control cabin 29.
afloat.
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It> isto'be-noted that the upper nights of ’the
track-layingl belts '85» are disposed substantially
on thelevel Iof the -upper portions,N of the sprockets
~ i2y and *i6-»and are entirely submerged in the
' The rear end of the hull Il is closed by a door
35 which is attached toV the lhull by hinges 36 and '
-water when the amphibian is añ'oat; These upper
belt runs are covered-by housingstll, which serve
to prevent the developmentV of aY substantial
counter thrustvby these upper belt runs'which
is adapted to be4 closed or opened by cables 3l, 30 would negative the propulsive Ithrust of ` the
which> are ‘operated Vby ratchet *Winches> 38 mount
grousers 83 carried by the lower runs of these
ed in the side walls l5. As shown in Fig. 4, the
door 3‘5'is provided with tongues »im which extend
It is to be noted that by my invention I have
Ainto grooves'tdl" provided in the adjacent edges
provided an amphibian in which the heavier ele
of'the Yside walls ll when the door 35 is closed. 35 ments-thereof are all disposed at a relatively-low
Strips yf42‘ formed of‘yieldable packing material,
position on the craft,y these elements including
such as rubber, `are disposed in the grooves 4|
the-engine'> 53, transmission-'5l and-thertrack- ,
and between the bottom of the door 35 and the
laying belts 85 with the devices for mounting
adjacent edgeV of -the hull, so as to providel a
these Yon the hull. This disposition produces an
water-tight seal between the hull and the door 40 amphibian with a remarkably high degree-of sea
whenY thel latter is closed.
worthiness, inasmuch as the center `of >gravity is
' rMour'it'ed' inthe compartment> 2i on thej bottom
a maximum distance below the center'v of buoy
l2 isa/«relatively ñat'opposed-cylinder engine 50,
ancy. It is also to‘--be noted that lby disposing
and' a differential drive-gear transmission 5l, the
both'the motor äû-and the transmission 5I below
latter being driven by said engine through a drive
the fioor 26, I have freed "an-end off the hull H
shaft '52. The engine 5E! is preferably an .air
vsowas to make possible the provision‘therein vof
cooled, aircraft type'engin‘e, the engine illustrated
a door 35, which, whenin its lowermostposition,
`being a Continental S-cylinder engine Vwhich de
indicated by broken Vlines 92 or Fig. 3, will form
velops F75-horsepower; Fuel‘for the engine is
a ramp greatly assisting in the loading or unload
provided inl tanks ìiâ'whichV are disposed in the
ing of cargo'from the Yamphibian and rendering
compartment 2i on oppositesides of the shaft 52.
unnecessary the liftingrof cargo- over the topside
The engine 58 is preferably covered by a hous
of the craft when the latteris onland. .
ing 5.8", and has a fan unit 59 built integral there
It is also to* be noted that the amphibian of`
with to suck air through tlfiehousing` 58 to cool
my invention - combinesY splashless- propulsion
the engine. Air is deliveredto the housing 5S by 55 with the advantages aforesaid, by causing the
belts.
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a conduit> F55 which connects with the atmosphere
grousers 86 to operate at all times beneath the
through` a screened openingV 66. ’Air discharged Y
surface of the water sustaining the amphibian.l
The engine 50' and transmission 5I are, ofcourse,
from the' fan unit 59 passes through a conduit S'l
and' out into the atmosphere through a'screened
Vcontrolled from the cabin 29-by suitablecontrol
' opening V68. 'The conduits 6T' and S5 preferably il) devices, some of which are diagrammatioaliy-
'pass upwardly throughv opposite rear corners of
the'control cabin-59 to theopenings 65 and E8,
which> are provided in the highest portion of the
control cabin deck 25. Any suitable water trap'
-ping means (not shown) may be provided in the
lconduitstt and s1 to divertito' the bugepump
(not shown) any sea water'which might' enter
the openings’ 66 and 68,
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"Thehousing'âß completely encloses the engine
50 soas to protect the motor from contact 'with
'any bilge water which may accumulate in the
compartment 2|. 'This' housing is Vprf-zierably
madejof monel metal or some> other material
which is resistant to the
Water.
,corrosive _ action Yof sea Y
shown, but `which it. is unnecessary tddisclose
in detail, as these are> well’ï known _in the-art.V
Although'` the door’3‘5‘ is shown -as‘rcontrolle'd
by Winches 38; itis to' be understood that this
V door may' be"v operated by> power" or any other
suitable means.
_The provisi-çml of anon-corrosive housing ’58'
for enclosing the air-cooledjengine‘äü, contributes
substantial-ly to Y making ‘ practicaljthe mounting"
of this motor- in what isordinarily »considered
dead bilge `space inj'a ship'.- i. >This' housingfnot’only
protects the enginen from the bilge water; :main-f
taining it in good running condition, butcon
ducts air :about the cylinders ofthe: .engine l,which g
75 keeps these >from overheating.
2,404,492
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While the control cabin 29 is preferably pro--A
track-laying belts trained about said sprockets;
means cooperating with said drive sprockets for
vided in one end of the amphibian H) a'modii’ied
mounting said track-laying belts on said hull so
form of amphibian 95 is shown in Fig. 6 in which
that said amphibian is supported on the lower
the entire interior of the amphibian is left free
runs of said belts at a height to give adequate
Ul
for the carrying of cargo and a control cabin 96
clearance for said bottom to pass over obstacles
is mounted over one of the track-laying belts 91
encountered in land travel, and to entirely sub- n
in one of the ~side Walls 98 of the hull 99.
merge said belts beneath the surface of the water
What I claim is:
whenever said amphibian is afloat; and means
1. In an amphibian, the combination of : a hull
for housing over the upper runs oi said belts to
having a bottom and side walls; two track-laying 10 substantially prevent the development of a coun
belts; means for mounting said belts on said side
walls of said hull, said belts being equipped with
means for p-ropelling said amphibian when afloat,
and for supporting and propelling the same when
ter propulsive thrust by said upper runs.
transmission disposed in said power plant com
partment; means for connecting said engine to
said transmission, and means for connecting said
transmission to said track-laying belts.
door;4means for integrating said door with the
balance of said hull when saiddoor is closed; and
4. A combination as in claim 1, in which a door
is provided in one end of said hull and hinged
at its lower edge substantially on the level of said
traveling on land, and at a height to give ade 15
floor; means for opening and closing said door,
quate clearance for said bottom to pass over
said door when open forming a ramp for loading
obstacles encountered in land travel; means forî
and unloading said amphibian; and means form
closing opposite ends of said hull; a floor cooper#
ing a water-tight seal between said door and said
ating with said side walls and said hull end clos
hull when said door is closed.
20
ing means to provide a cargo compartment in
5. A combination as in claim l, in which a
said amphibian, said floor being spaced from said
control cabin is provided at one end of said hull
hull bottom to form a shallow power plant com
and a door provided in the opposite end of said
partment between said bottom and said floor;
hull; means for opening said door so that the
a relatively flat‘ internal combustion engine
latter will form a ramp to assist in loading or un
mounted in said power plant compartment; a 25 loading said amphibian, and for closing said
means for forming a water-tight seal between
said door and said hull when said door is closed.
6. An amphibian comprising: a‘hull having a
bottom and side walls, and means closing the
ends of said hull; two track-laying belts; an en-`
gine mounted on said bottom; a differential
speed drive transmission mounted on said bot
2. An amphibian comprising: a hull having a
bottom, side walls and means for closing opposite
ends of the hull; a floor spaced from said bottom
to provide a shallow power plant compartment;
a relatively flat engine disposed in said compart
ment; a differential speed drive transmission dis
posed in said compartment on the opposite side
tom and connected to said engine; said engine
and transmission being disposed about the center
of buoyancy in balancing relation therewith;
`drive sprockets disposed outside said hull on sub
of the center of buoyancy of said hull from said
engine; means for transmitting power from said
engine to said transmission; shafts connecting
with said transmission and extending laterally
through said hull; drive sprockets on said shafts;
a pair of track-laying belts trained >about said
sprockets and means cooperating with said drive
sprockets for mounting said track-laying belts
40
stantially the same level` as said engine and
transmission and connected to opposite sides of
said transmission; two track-laying belts trained
about said drive sprockets; means cooperating
with said drive sprockets for mounting said belts
on said side walls of said hull, said belts beingV
on Said hull so that said amphibian is supported 45 equipped with means for propelling said am
on the lower runs of said belts at a height to giveV
phibian when afloat and for supporting and pro
adequate clearance for said bottom to pass over
pelling the same when traveling on land, and at
obstacles encountered in land travel.
a height to give adequate yclearance to permit
3. An amphibian comprising: a hull having a
said bottom to pass over obstacles encountered in
bottom, side walls and means for closing opposite
land travel; a floor covering said engine and'
ends of the hull; a floor spaced from said bottom
transmission; and a control cabin provided in
to provide a shallow power plant compartment;
one of said side walls and overlying one of said
a relatively fiat engine disposed in said compart
belts.
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ment; a differential speed drive transmission dis
A combination as in claim 6, in which> a door
posed in said compartment, said engine and 55" is 7.provided
in one end of 'said hull; and means transmission being disposed about the center of
for closing said door or opening the same rso that
buoyancy to counterbalance each other; means
the latter forms a ramp to assist in loading or
for transmitting power from said engine to said
unloading said amphibian.
,
transmission; shafts connecting with said trans
JAMES M. HAIT.
mission and extending laterally through said 60
hull; drive sprockets on said shafts; a pair of
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