Патент USA US2404511код для вставки
July 23, 1946. ' I N? E,‘ MacLEAN 2,404,511 REFRIGERATING METHOD AND APPARATUS Filed 'Jan. 18, 1944 ' . 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 ///// OF“) TATRTHEMO‘ S Z6 ‘a 1.2; lai. v INVENTOR. NORMA/V E. .MACLEAN z” I); A 770F415 rs - July 23,, 1946. ' - N; E‘, MacLEAN . = 2,404,511 I REFRIGERATING METHOD AND APPARATUS Filed Jan. 18', 1944 2 Sheéts-S?eet 2 INVENTOR. NORMAN E. MACtEA/V BY ' ATTORNEYS " 2,404,511 Patented July 23, 1946 UNITED‘ STATES PATENT " OFFICE : 2,404,511 ‘ . REFRIGERATINGMETHOD ANDAPPARATUS Norman E. MacLean, San Francisco, Calif. Application January 18, 1944, SerialNo. 518,769 ‘ 11 Claims. (Cl. 62-915) 1 . side theunit. The pipes l2 and I5 in the two heat exchange units may be‘ provided with con ticularly to a method and apparatus for produc ing low temperatures in large and small spaces at very low cost. The invention‘utilizes carbon dioxide as a refrigerant and is therefore particu larly adaptable to use‘ Where a supply of carbon dioxide is available. It ‘is ‘current ‘practice to’ ventional ?nstspines or any other suitable device for enlarging their surfa‘ceafor the purpose of increasing their capacity forgtransmittingheat. ’ A liquid, in this ‘case ‘carbon dioxide in liquid form, enters the ‘system through a pipe l8‘ and . extract carbon dioxide “from stack gase'sso the valve l9 and passes through a'surge chamberZO invention is ideal for-use" on Fships‘ where carbon‘ and then through a pipe 2 I, communicating with the heat exchanger 12 where it is’) cooled by ‘the dioxide is commonly usedand can be easily pro duced from stack gases for fire extinguishing and fumigation at extremely low cost. ' Generally ‘ speaking, ' g refrigeration‘ Y ' of large 2 ing of pipes l5 and manifolds l6 and I1 just out " This invention relates to refrigeration, and par presence of__CO2 snow- in ‘the chamber H1. The liquid thus cooled passes‘ through a pipe 722 and valve 23 to the heat exchanger- I5 and ‘then primary refrigeration in which heatv is absorbed 15 through a‘pipe24 back to the surge chamber 20. spacesv is-accomplished in two phases'—jnamely, A duct 25 encloses the heat exchange unit l5 and a blowerjz?iv driven by a motor 2'! draws air from the area‘to be cooled through the'duct and direct by therlre'frigerant"itself and ‘secondary refrigeration in'which heat is‘transferred from ' the air of space to be refrigerated tola cooled brine‘! This invention iutilizes carbondioxide in tW'o’different' forms, both as-‘a primaryand-sec ondary-refr'igerant. ' v ‘ . over theheat exchanger. The rear end of the 20 ' vvIt is'the object of the invention to provide a method and apparatus‘for refrigeration inw‘nich carbon'dioxide is utilized with a‘ high degree of e?iciency, both as primary and secondary refrig erant. A further object of the invention ‘is’ to provide refrigeration by " means of a the-nno-l siphonic ?owi of liquid carbon dioxide as ‘a brine in ‘a closed circuit ‘which‘is. maintainedat a. low temperature by theme of solid- carbon’ dioxide or CO2 snow. ' ' d a .7 - A further object of the invention is ‘to provide‘ refrigeration utilizing :carbon ."dioxide' as.» a' brine and as a coolant forthe brine; with carbonidioxe idefor both‘ purposes originating‘ from the same source! andbeing largely recoverable to prevent‘ waste.‘ - d d > I . parent in the following speci?cation'wherein ref. erence is-‘made to the accompanying drawings. illustrating a particular form of the invention. In the drawings: Fig. 1 is a vertical sectional view taken'throu'gh" a refrigerating apparatus embodying the present and ‘ . l - 1 apparatus showing a diagrammatic circuit" for ' . The drawings show an insulated chamberv 10» with an access door II. I . When the liquid circulating system which in; cludes the two heat exchangers l2 andl? has been ?lled through the ‘pipe l8, the'valve ‘I9 is 30 closed and the liquid vcirculates continuously in the closed circuit byv thermo-siphonic action. This action’ is maintained by ‘a-quantity of CO2. snow 'Within the chamber‘ which is‘ indicated at 29 in Fig. l'as completely covering the heat ex » changer 12.. As the liquid in the'heat exchanger I5 absorbs heat from the ?ow of air over this exchanger, it is brought tov a temperature higher rise and set up the thermoLsiphonic ?ow desired. . Whatever vapor is created is,»of course, condensed and cooled as it enters the refrigerating chamber l0 and‘v is brought‘ to a very low temperature as ‘it again flows through the'heat exchanger 12 45 therein. ' ,- Fig._2 is a horizontal sectional view of the same condensing and storing recovered gases.~ ‘to direct-this air to any desired point. than its boiling point which in the‘ case of carbon dioxide is —l09,3° F. This causes the liquid to Further objectsand advantages aremade ap invention; duct H25'is spaced from the chamber it and sup ported‘by straps 28 toadmit the air to be cooled. The air, after’ being so cooled, is ejected from the exhaustend of the blower 26, as indicatedby arrowsin Fig.2. The exhaust of the blower may. of course be directed with suitable conductance A closed circuit liquid circulating system' isv disposed. partially Within and partially without the chamber Hi. :This sys— tem includes a heat exchange unit consistingiof, a plurality of pipes I2 betweenmanifolds l3 andv l4 lwithinthe chamber and asimilanunit consist_~. The surge chamber-2'0 which is included in the circulating system is only. partially ?lled with ' liquid and allows-space for the ebullient action . resulting from the increased- temperature of'the _ liquid in the heat exchanger I5. A gas expan; sion drum 30 communicates with the surge'cham her through ‘a pipe 3| and permits expansion in ‘the system in the event that the supply '0f_;CO.i snowlis depleted duringfthe operation‘,'or while ' the-system is notoperatingi .Asafety valve 3'2!’ 2,404,511 5 with the system to accommodate expansion of the carbon dioxide due to increase in tempera ture when the supply of snow in the refrigerating chamber is depleted. ‘ 6 posed heat exchanger outside the chamber, means to supply liquid carbon dioxide to the system, an expansion nozzle within the chamber, and valve controlled by-pass means to admit a > quantity of carbon dioxide to said nozzle to pro 5. Refrigerating apparatus comprising a cham duce a covering of carbon dioxide snow on the her, a circulating system disposed partially in heat exchanger within the chamber. side and partially outside of said chamber, a sin 10. Refrigerating apparatus comprising a re gle source of carbon dioxide underpressure to supply liquid carbon dioxide to said system, and ' frigerating chamber, a fluid circulating system means arranged to cooperate with said source 10 including a heat exchanger disposed inside the refrigerating-chamber and a heat exchanger dis and with said system to deposit carbon dioxide posed outside the refrigerating chamber, means snow within the chamber. to supply liquid carbon dioxide to said system,’ 6. Refrigerating apparatus comprising a cham means controllable to release a quantity of said her, a circulating system disposed partially inside and partially outside of said chamber, a single 15 carbon dioxide to deposit snow on ‘the heat ex changer inside the refrigerating chamber, means source of carbon dioxide under pressure to sup to close the system wherebyheat absorbed by ply liquid carbon dioxide to said system, means the heat exchanger outside the refrigerating arranged to cooperate with said source and withv chamber will set up a thermo-siphonic ?ow of said system to deposit carbon dioxide snow with in the chamber, and means to vent ‘the ?ash 20 liquid carbon dioxide in the circulating system, an expansion chamber in communication with gas and product of sublimation from the snow ' -' ‘ the system to accommodate expansion of the . > 7 carbon dioxide due to increase in temperature '7. Refrigertaing apparatus comprising a cham when the supply of snow in the refrigerating ber, a circulating system disposed partially in side and partially outside of said chamber, a sin 25 chamber is depleted and a precooler expansion drum in communication with the system inside gle source of carbon dioxide under pressure to the- refrigerating chamberto increase the; yield ' supply liquid carbon dioxide to said system, within the chamber. of expanded carbon dioxide snow. means arranged to cooperate with said source 11. A refrigerating apparatus comprising a closed chamber, a liquidgcirculation system in-' snow within the chamber, and means to vent and 30 and with said system to deposit carbon dioxide recover the ?ash gas and product of sublimation I from the snow within the chamber. 8. A refrigerating apparatus comprising anor cluding a horizontallysdisposed plurality of pipes / connected to headers as a heat exchanger within r the chamber adjacent its bottom and a verti 1 cally disposed heat exchanger outside the cham-i carbon dioxide, means to form carbon dioxide 35 her, means to supply liquid carbon dioxide under vpressure to the system, an expansion nozzle with mally closed system for the circulation of liquid snow and deposit a quantity of the same on a > portion of said system, a single source of supply of carbon dioxide under pressure, means for di recting carbon dioxide from said source to said system, and means for directing carbon dioxide 40 from said source to said snow forming means. 9. A refrigerating apparatus comprising a chamber, a liquid circulating system including a horizontally disposed heat exchanger within the chamber adjacent its bottom and a vertically dis 45 in the chamber, means to admit a quantity of carbon dioxide liquid to said nozzle to produce a covering of carbon dioxide snow on the heat ex changer within the chamber and a thermostat ically controlled valve to regulate the thermo-si phonic ?ow of the liquid carbon dioxide in said system. i ‘NORMAN E. MACLEAN.