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Патент USA US2404511

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July 23, 1946.
'
I
N? E,‘ MacLEAN
2,404,511
REFRIGERATING METHOD AND APPARATUS
Filed 'Jan. 18, 1944
'
. 2 Sheets-Sheet 1
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INVENTOR.
NORMA/V E. .MACLEAN
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July 23,, 1946. '
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N; E‘, MacLEAN
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2,404,511 I
REFRIGERATING METHOD AND APPARATUS
Filed Jan. 18', 1944
2 Sheéts-S?eet 2
INVENTOR.
NORMAN E. MACtEA/V
BY
'
ATTORNEYS
"
2,404,511
Patented July 23, 1946
UNITED‘ STATES PATENT " OFFICE :
2,404,511
‘
. REFRIGERATINGMETHOD ANDAPPARATUS
Norman E. MacLean, San Francisco, Calif.
Application January 18, 1944, SerialNo. 518,769
‘ 11 Claims.
(Cl. 62-915)
1
.
side theunit. The pipes l2 and I5 in the two
heat exchange units may be‘ provided with con
ticularly to a method and apparatus for produc
ing low temperatures in large and small spaces
at very low cost. The invention‘utilizes carbon
dioxide as a refrigerant and is therefore particu
larly adaptable to use‘ Where a supply of carbon
dioxide is available. It ‘is ‘current ‘practice to’
ventional ?nstspines or any other suitable device
for enlarging their surfa‘ceafor the purpose of
increasing their capacity forgtransmittingheat. ’
A liquid, in this ‘case ‘carbon dioxide in liquid
form, enters the ‘system through a pipe l8‘ and .
extract carbon dioxide “from stack gase'sso the
valve l9 and passes through a'surge chamberZO
invention is ideal for-use" on Fships‘ where carbon‘
and then through a pipe 2 I, communicating with
the heat exchanger 12 where it is’) cooled by ‘the
dioxide is commonly usedand can be easily pro
duced from stack gases for fire extinguishing and
fumigation at extremely low cost.
' Generally ‘ speaking,
'
g
refrigeration‘
Y
'
of
large
2
ing of pipes l5 and manifolds l6 and I1 just out
" This invention relates to refrigeration, and par
presence of__CO2 snow- in ‘the chamber H1. The
liquid thus cooled passes‘ through a pipe 722 and
valve 23 to the heat exchanger- I5 and ‘then
primary refrigeration in which heatv is absorbed 15 through a‘pipe24 back to the surge chamber 20.
spacesv is-accomplished in two phases'—jnamely,
A duct 25 encloses the heat exchange unit l5
and a blowerjz?iv driven by a motor 2'! draws air
from the area‘to be cooled through the'duct and
direct by therlre'frigerant"itself and ‘secondary
refrigeration in'which heat is‘transferred from '
the air of space to be refrigerated tola cooled
brine‘! This invention iutilizes carbondioxide in
tW'o’different' forms, both as-‘a primaryand-sec
ondary-refr'igerant.
'
v
‘
.
over theheat exchanger. The rear end of the
20
'
vvIt is'the object of the invention to provide a
method and apparatus‘for refrigeration inw‘nich
carbon'dioxide is utilized with a‘ high degree of
e?iciency, both as primary and secondary refrig
erant. A further object of the invention ‘is’ to
provide refrigeration by " means of a the-nno-l
siphonic ?owi of liquid carbon dioxide as ‘a brine
in ‘a closed circuit ‘which‘is. maintainedat a. low
temperature by theme of solid- carbon’ dioxide
or CO2 snow.
'
'
d
a .7
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A further object of the invention is ‘to provide‘
refrigeration utilizing :carbon ."dioxide' as.» a' brine
and as a coolant forthe brine; with carbonidioxe
idefor both‘ purposes originating‘ from the same
source! andbeing largely recoverable to prevent‘
waste.‘
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d
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I
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parent in the following speci?cation'wherein ref.
erence is-‘made to the accompanying drawings.
illustrating a particular form of the invention.
In the drawings:
Fig. 1 is a vertical sectional view taken'throu'gh"
a refrigerating apparatus embodying the present
and
‘
.
l
-
1
apparatus showing a diagrammatic circuit" for
'
. The drawings show an insulated chamberv 10»
with an access door II.
I .
When the liquid circulating system which in;
cludes the two heat exchangers l2 andl? has
been ?lled through the ‘pipe l8, the'valve ‘I9 is
30
closed and the liquid vcirculates continuously in
the closed circuit byv thermo-siphonic action.
This action’ is maintained by ‘a-quantity of CO2.
snow 'Within the chamber‘ which is‘ indicated at
29 in Fig. l'as completely covering the heat ex
» changer 12.. As the liquid in the'heat exchanger
I5 absorbs heat from the ?ow of air over this
exchanger, it is brought tov a temperature higher
rise and set up the thermoLsiphonic ?ow desired. .
Whatever vapor is created is,»of course, condensed
and cooled as it enters the refrigerating chamber
l0 and‘v is brought‘ to a very low temperature as
‘it again flows through the'heat exchanger 12
45 therein.
'
,- Fig._2 is a horizontal sectional view of the same
condensing and storing recovered gases.~
‘to direct-this air to any desired point.
than its boiling point which in the‘ case of carbon
dioxide is —l09,3° F. This causes the liquid to
Further objectsand advantages aremade ap
invention;
duct H25'is spaced from the chamber it and sup
ported‘by straps 28 toadmit the air to be cooled.
The air, after’ being so cooled, is ejected from the
exhaustend of the blower 26, as indicatedby
arrowsin Fig.2. The exhaust of the blower may.
of course be directed with suitable conductance
A closed circuit liquid
circulating system' isv disposed. partially Within
and partially without the chamber Hi. :This sys—
tem includes a heat exchange unit consistingiof,
a plurality of pipes I2 betweenmanifolds l3 andv
l4 lwithinthe chamber and asimilanunit consist_~.
The surge chamber-2'0 which is included in the
circulating system is only. partially ?lled with '
liquid and allows-space for the ebullient action .
resulting from the increased- temperature of'the _
liquid in the heat exchanger I5. A gas expan;
sion drum 30 communicates with the surge'cham
her through ‘a pipe 3| and permits expansion in
‘the system in the event that the supply '0f_;CO.i
snowlis depleted duringfthe operation‘,'or while '
the-system is notoperatingi .Asafety valve 3'2!’
2,404,511
5
with the system to accommodate expansion of
the carbon dioxide due to increase in tempera
ture when the supply of snow in the refrigerating
chamber is depleted.
‘
6
posed heat exchanger outside the chamber,
means to supply liquid carbon dioxide to the
system, an expansion nozzle within the chamber,
and valve controlled by-pass means to admit a
>
quantity of carbon dioxide to said nozzle to pro
5. Refrigerating apparatus comprising a cham
duce a covering of carbon dioxide snow on the
her, a circulating system disposed partially in
heat exchanger within the chamber.
side and partially outside of said chamber, a sin
10. Refrigerating apparatus comprising a re
gle source of carbon dioxide underpressure to
supply liquid carbon dioxide to said system, and ' frigerating chamber, a fluid circulating system
means arranged to cooperate with said source 10 including a heat exchanger disposed inside the
refrigerating-chamber and a heat exchanger dis
and with said system to deposit carbon dioxide
posed outside the refrigerating chamber, means
snow within the chamber.
to supply liquid carbon dioxide to said system,’
6. Refrigerating apparatus comprising a cham
means controllable to release a quantity of said
her, a circulating system disposed partially inside
and partially outside of said chamber, a single 15 carbon dioxide to deposit snow on ‘the heat ex
changer inside the refrigerating chamber, means
source of carbon dioxide under pressure to sup
to close the system wherebyheat absorbed by
ply liquid carbon dioxide to said system, means
the heat exchanger outside the refrigerating
arranged to cooperate with said source and withv
chamber will set up a thermo-siphonic ?ow of
said system to deposit carbon dioxide snow with
in the chamber, and means to vent ‘the ?ash 20 liquid carbon dioxide in the circulating system,
an expansion chamber in communication with
gas and product of sublimation from the snow
' -' ‘
the system to accommodate expansion of the
.
>
7 carbon dioxide due to increase in temperature
'7. Refrigertaing apparatus comprising a cham
when the supply of snow in the refrigerating
ber, a circulating system disposed partially in
side and partially outside of said chamber, a sin 25 chamber is depleted and a precooler expansion
drum in communication with the system inside
gle source of carbon dioxide under pressure to
the- refrigerating chamberto increase the; yield '
supply liquid carbon dioxide to said system,
within the chamber.
of expanded carbon dioxide snow.
means arranged to cooperate with said source
11. A refrigerating apparatus comprising a
closed
chamber, a liquidgcirculation system in-'
snow within the chamber, and means to vent and 30
and with said system to deposit carbon dioxide
recover the ?ash gas and product of sublimation I
from the snow within the chamber.
8. A refrigerating apparatus comprising anor
cluding a horizontallysdisposed plurality of pipes
/ connected to headers as a heat exchanger within
r the chamber adjacent its bottom and a verti
1 cally disposed heat exchanger outside the cham-i
carbon dioxide, means to form carbon dioxide 35 her, means to supply liquid carbon dioxide under
vpressure to the system, an expansion nozzle with
mally closed system for the circulation of liquid
snow and deposit a quantity of the same on a
>
portion of said system, a single source of supply
of carbon dioxide under pressure, means for di
recting carbon dioxide from said source to said
system, and means for directing carbon dioxide 40
from said source to said snow forming means.
9. A refrigerating apparatus comprising a
chamber, a liquid circulating system including a
horizontally disposed heat exchanger within the
chamber adjacent its bottom and a vertically dis 45
in the chamber, means to admit a quantity of
carbon dioxide liquid to said nozzle to produce a
covering of carbon dioxide snow on the heat ex
changer within the chamber and a thermostat
ically controlled valve to regulate the thermo-si
phonic ?ow of the liquid carbon dioxide in said
system.
i
‘NORMAN E. MACLEAN.
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