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Патент USA US2404524

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vJuly 23, 1946.
J. R. NORTON
PUMPING MECHANISM
Filed April 12,1945
' 2,404,524
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sunny 23, 1946;
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J, R. NQRTQN
52349114524
PUMPING MECHANISM
Filed April 12, i945
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4 Sheets-Sheet 4
2,404,524
Patented July 23, _1946
UNITED STATES PATENTTOFFlCE;
PUMPING MECHANISM ’
Joseph R. Norton, Tulsa, Okla., assignor to W. C.
Norris, Manufacturer,_ Incorporated, Tulsa,
Okla.
Application April 12, 1945, Serial No. 587,885
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7
9 Claims.
1
This invention'relates to new and useful im
provements in pumping mechanisms.
(01. 1031-46)’
2
.
“ dle of its upstroke. However,_due to the weight
» of the column of oil or hydrostatic load, imposed
As is well-known, certain strata of the earth's
formation are pervious, while other overlying or
underlying strata are impervious and these strata
arernot planular, but are frequently warped or
folded. Since crude oil is lighter than natural
ground water, it seeks‘an elevation above the
upon the plunger,_ the rod is stretched or ‘elon
Water and, therefore, crude oil is usually found
travel. The acceleration imparted to the plunger
gated and the velocity is retarded until the inertia
of said column is overcome. ' The velocity then
exceeds thatof the harmoniomotion for a por
tion of the upstroke and is finally retarded non
uniformly by the rod reaching its upper limit of '
creates a 10W vacuum orsuction' within the work
in the uppermost portions or domes of the folded
ing barrel therebelow, thereby permitting gas
strata or, geologically, the anticlines. 'An im
to evolve from the'oil which decreases the. duality
pervious strata, known as cap rock, generally
of the latter. The down-stroke ‘of the conven
overlies the anticlines so as to prevent upward
tional plunger is substantially harmonic except
migration of the’ oil which consequently ac
cumulates in said anticlines; Due to the oil being 15 7 for deviations caused by'passingdovmwardly or
falling ‘through the accumulated oil and over
supported in this position by the pressure of the
travel of ‘said plunger, the latter being due to
ground water and the cap rock preventing mi
stretching or elongation of the rod by the down
gration of'said oil,‘the latter is necessarily'under
ward acceleration of the mass thereof.' Under‘
considerable pressure. Therefore, upon a well
any condition of conventional well pumping,‘
bore being drilled through the cap rock, there
wherein the plunger is reciprocated in a straightv
is a sudden release of pressure which causes the
oil to flow upwardly through the Well bore to‘
the surface, the ?rst cycle of most wells. How
linemotionrtranslated from rotary 'or.ciroular
tions, contains all phases from light, volatile
gases to heavy hydrocarbons and it is necessary
One object of the invention is to provide an
improved pump mechanism for efficiently and
to control the pressure exerted against the ex
economically elevating well ?uids from ap'roé
motion, the actual workingtime of the pump is
ever, as the pressure declines, the natural flow 25 substantially‘ one-half thetime‘o‘f v'a complete‘
a cycle and the remaining time is consumed in‘
ceases and the oil must be lifted artificially to
dropping said ‘plungerfor a“ return stroke.
the surface. Crude oil, under the above condi
posed surface of the producing strata, because a
pressure too low will accelerate the migration of
the oil to a velocity su?ioient to carry sand and
silt from the pervious strata and thereby clog or
sand up the well bore. Also,’ encroachment of
the ground water into the well bore is permitted,
since said water will flow from a high pressure
region to a region of low or diminished pressure.
In addition, as the pressure on the formation
or strata drops, the gases and/or lighter hydro
ducing formation inaccordance with ‘the fore
going prerequisites soas to prevent the separa
tion of ‘the well ?uids and the ‘escape’ of the val
uable lightervhydrocarbons,
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’
An importantobject of thelinvention is to pro
vide an improved pumping mechanism having
expansible means adapted to be in?ated and de
flated to lift fluids withina well bore, the con
ducting means having a, relatively small; diame
ter and volume whereby the pressure fluid mayf
carbons’ disassociate or escape from the heavier
be conducted to and exhausted'from said mem
her as rapidly as desirable withinthe limits of
hydrocarbons of the crude oil and evolve in a
gaseous condition. The evolution of these gase
goodpractice, as controlledbythe characteristics
and condition of the producing formation.
ous constituents not only reduces the quality of
the remaining oil but also tends to gas lock the 45 Another object of the invention is to provide‘
pumps employed to lift said oil.
an improved pumping mechanism, of the char
With conventional rod pumps, the reciprocal
acter described, wherein the pressurej?uid ‘may
motion of the rod is principally harmonic and
be. exhausted at a rate faster than‘ the rate of
supplying of said fluid, thereby minimizinghthe
transmits to the pump plunger or piston a re
ciprocal motion having a non-uniform velocity,_ 50 duration of the non-lifting intervals and ma
terially increasing the, duration of. ;the lifting _
the stretch of the rod further varying the velocity. During the downstroke, the plunger gath
intervals so as to permit the use of’ a ?uid~of-_rela-~
tively low pressure or volume.
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,
ers an accumulation of crude oil thereabove and
the upward motion of said plunger increases non-T
A further object of the invention is to~provlde
uniformly invelocity until it approaches the mid- 55 an improved pumping mechanism,_ of, the char
2,404,524
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acter described, wherein the expansible member is
sible member de?ated and partially in?ated, re—
elastic and is disposed Within a chamber for
spectively,
,
1
receiving and accumulating well ?uids, said
member and chamber having substantially equal
sectional view of the surface control valve in its
dimensions so that the area of the chamber is
closed, exhausting position,
Figure 8 is an enlarged, transverse, vertical,
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completely ?lled or occupied by the in?ated
Figure 9 is a reduced, horizontal, cross-sec
member, one end of said member being free so
tional view, taken on the line 9--9 of Figure 8,
Figure 10 is a view, similar to'Figure 8, with
,as to permit collapsing .thereof upon de?ation,
whereby the de?ated member occupies only a
small area of said chamber and a maximum vol-_
ume of well ?uids may be displaced upon in?a
" tion of said member without undue distortion‘ or
stretching thereof.
Still another object of “the invention is to
provide an improved pumping mechanism, of
the character described, which may include a
single expansible member and receiving cham
ber or a plurality of the same, whereby in deep
wells the ?uids may be "lifted in stages so as to
eliminate the necessity of‘ placing the lifting
?uid‘ under an excessive pressure.
the valve member in elevation and showing the
10, same in its open, ?uid admitting position, and
' Figure 11 is an enlarged, transverse, vertical,
sectional view of a moisture trap.
,
In the drawings, the numeral l0 designates a
well bore which extends to the producing forma
'
tion F and has the usual well casing ll mounted
therein. A well or casing head I2 is connected
to the upper end of the casing H at the surface
and includes the usual lateral outlets l3 and
carries a ?ow cross I4. Depending from the
20 head I2 and communicating with the cross I4
is a tubing or ?ow pipe, indicated generally at
A still further ,. object :of the invention is to
[5, which extends axially through the casing to
provide an improved pumping mechanism, of the
character described, having valve meansfor con
a point below the level of the well ?uids and in
cludes several spaced sections. The annular
trolling the admission of the pressure ?uid to 25 space between the tubing and casing is prefer
ably sealed off within the head I2 in a conven
the, expansible member and exhaustion of said
?uid therefrom, the valve means being so con
structed as to‘ open and. remain open for sup
plying the ?uid until in?ation ‘of said member
is completed, the excess pressure acting upon and
closing saidvalvemeans and opening an exhaust
port to permit escape of said ?uid and deflation‘
of the member.
1
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tional manner by suitable means (not shown)
so as to permit the holding of a desirable back- '
pressure upon the formation F. A pump cham
30 ber A is mounted on the lower end of the tubing
and is preferably disposed within the well fluids
and below the level thereof. As is clearly shown
in Figure 4, the lower end of the chamber A is '
connected by suitable coupling collars I6 and i1
an improved pumping mechanism, of the char 35 and a, swaged nipple I8 to a perforated bull plug
or. other well screen [9 which has been shown
acter described, having means for positively con‘
for the purposes of illustration as being dis
trolling, the rate of‘ exhaustion of the pressure
posed within the open well bore. In deep wells,
?uid and thereby determine the rate of entry
similar pump chambers B are connected in the
of the well ?uids into the pumping mechanism
tubing l 5 at predetermined, spaced intervals and,
from the producing formation and the vacuum
as will hereinafter be more fully explained, the
or suction exerted upon said well ?uids, due to
number of such chambers being subject to varia
the exhaustion rate' of said pressure ?uid, so
tion.
as to prevent ‘liberation of the" lighter hydro
Another‘ object of the invention is to provide
As is clearly shown in Figures 2 and 4, ‘the
trolling meansbeing adjustable in accordance 45 chamber A includes an elongate, tubular body or
sleeve 20 of greater diameter than thetubing and
1 V with ‘the characteristics and conditions of ‘the
communicating therewith. The collar 16 con
formation‘ to provide the most desirable opera
nects the lower end of the sleeve to the nipple
I A'co'nstruction designed to carry out the in 50 l8, while the upper end of the sleeve is connected
by a similar collar 2! to a swaged nipple 22 which,
vention will be hereinafter described together
, carbon constituents from‘the well ?uids; ‘the con
tion.
'
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it
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with other‘features of the invention.
‘
The invention will be more readily understood
from a reading of the following speci?cation and
in turn, is secured to a section of the tubingby. a
coupling collar 23. The external diameter of the
latter collar is enlarged so as to provide a rela- ,
tively thick wall. Thus, the well ?uids may ?ow
by reference to the accompanying drawings, 55 through
the perforations of the bull plug l9 into
wherein an vexample of the invention is shown,
and wherein:
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Figure 1 is a view, partly in elevation and
partly in section, of a pumping mechanism; con
structed, ' in
accordance with
mounted in a 'well bore,
the nipple I 8 and then into the interior of the
chamber A, the height or level attained by said
?uids being determined by the depth or position
of said chamber. For controlling'the' admission
the invention, 60 of the ?uids to the chamber, the usual standing
,
valve 24 is mounted in the lower end of the nipple
I 8 above the perforated plug l8. The valve 24
includes a conventional seat 25, ball 26, and com
bined clamping ring and ball cage 21, the clamp
the two lowermost stages,
.
65 ing ring of the cage and the seat being con?ned.
‘ Figure 4 is an enlarged, transverse, vertical,
between the upper end of the perforated plug
sectional view of the upper portion of the lower
and the lower end of the nipple by the collar H.‘
most stage, showing the connection of the ex
An elongate, expansible member or tubular sack
pansible member and the check valve construc
28, of rubber or other suitable elastic material, is
tion,
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I ,
70 disposed in the chamber A and. has a closed
Figure 5 is a,v view, similar to Figure 4, of the
lower end. As shown in Figure 4, the upper open
upper portion of one of the upper stages shown
end of the sack 28 is reduced in diameter and
inFigure3,v
_
the annular wall thereof preferably thickened and 7
Figures 2 and 3 are enlarged, longitudinal,
sectional views, partly in elevation, of the lower
portion of the pumping mechanism and showing
Figures 6 and 7 are'views, similarlt'o‘i Figure 2,
of the lowermost stage and showing the expan
reinforced to provide a neck 29. A suitableclampe
ing ring or split bank 30 fastens the reinforced
2,404,524
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32 for coacting with and receiving the material
of said neck to seal off therebetween upon tighten
ing of the band; or if desired the neck of thesack
could be vulcanized on the nipple. The nipple 3|
is ofv less diameter than the bore of the swaged
nipple |8 and is screw-threaded into a reduced,
intermedial screwed counter bore 33, of the collar
23; so as to depend internally of said swaged
nipple. A partition 34 extends transversely across
the intermediate portion of the bore of the nipple
6
?uidsaccumulatedl in‘ said chamber, upwardly‘
neck 29 in surrounding relation around‘ a" short
sleeve or nipple 3| which is provided with a plu
rality of external, peripheral grooves or recesses
therein and out through the'ports 35 into the
upperiportion o'f‘the nipple 3|‘ above the par
tition 34 and‘ then through the valve 31 into the
tubing |5. As indicated in Figure 7, the in?ation
of the sack will be gradual and the lower portion
thereof will be initially in?ated so as to prevent ,
theltrapping of well ?uids below'said sack. Man‘
ifestly, the elevated well ?uids will be trapped and
‘ accumulated within the tubing due to the provi
The nipple has a plurality of ports 35 formed
sion of the valve 31. Upon the complete expansion
of the sack as shown in Figures 2 and 4, said sack
will ?ll or occupy ‘substantially the entire area
of the chamber A, whereby little or no well ?uids
remain within said chamber and also whereby a
maximumvolume of said ?uids is displaced up
therein immediately above the partition for estab
wardly. . The pressure ?uid is then permitted to
3| so as to separate the upper portion of the bore
of ‘said nipple from the lower portion thereof.
escape from the sack, as will be hereinafter de--_,
lishing communication between the interior of
the chamber A and the tubing section, I5, which
scribed, so as to'permit collapse or de?ation there'
of and the admittance of additional well ?uids
into the chamber A dueto‘ opening of the valve 24;
is connected to the upper end‘of the collar 23. ~
The lower end of the nipple projects downwardly
It is pointed? out that the small diameter of the
string 40 makes it possible to quickly in?ate and
de?ate the sack, because only the pressure ?uid
within said, sack need be replaced ‘or exhausted;
however, the sack may be more quickly de?ated
than in?ated, as will hereinafter be more fully
from the neck 29 into the sack and is reduced at
its lower end; being provided with a constricted
opening 36, whereby collapsing of the sack’ upon
de?ation thereof is facilitated (Figure 6).
For
trapping well ?uids within vthe tubing above the
chamber A, a check valve 3'1, which is substan
tially identical to the valve 24, is disposed within
explained.
38 immediately above the counter bore 33.
The sack 28 is normally de?ated or collapsed
as shown in Figure 6 so as to occupy only a small
portion ofthe area of the chamber A. However,
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Asshown in Figure 1, the macaroni string 40
the collar 23 upon an internal, annular shoulder
* is connected through one of the lateral outlets
|3 of the head |2 to a line 42 which has connec-"
tion. with the outlet side of a surface control valve
43. ' A suitable conductor or line 44, having a
upon in?ation, the sack will substantially ?ll or
conventional needle valve 45_ mounted therein,
or force well ?uids from the chamber A into the
head 5|).which are secured together by suitable
connects the inlet side of the valve 43 to a storage
occupy the entire area of its chamber‘ (Figures
tank 46, to which a ?uid, such as air or gas, is sup-_
2 and 4) and, due to said sack normally having
plied nunder pressureby a suitable compressor 41
an external diameter substantially equal to the
and pipe 48._ A motor or engine 49 is provided
internal diameter of its chamber and a-substanl
for driving the compressor.
7
tially equal length, there is little or no stretche
As shownin Figures 8 to 10,,the control valve”,
ing or distortion of the sack upon in?ation there 40
43 includes-a cylindrical block 5| and a cylindrical
of. Since the purpose of the sack is to displace
communicating tubing I5 thereabove, it is essen
bolts.
chamber and, when in?ated; to substantially ?ll
the chamber so as to elevate the ?uids. In order
‘ within the chamber therebelow, the annular wall
of the lower portion of said sack may be reduced
in thickness as shown at 39. in Figures 6 and '1.‘
If desired, the same results could be obtained by
inverting the sack.
_
.
For inflating the sack 28 and permitting the
collapse or de?ation thereof, a suitable pipe or
macaroni string 49, extends through the wall of
the nipple 2,2 and into the lower portion of the
nipple 3| below the partition 34 so, as to com
municate with the bore of said nipple and the
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upper portion of the block 5| which is provided
with radial outlet and inlet ports 53 and 54 which
extend‘ from the bore and have their outer por
tions screw-threaded for receiving the outlet and
sible, when collapsed, to permit the accumulation
of a maximum volume of said ?uids within said‘
to assure initial in?ation of the lower portion oil
the sack, so as to prevent the trapping of ?uidv
,
An axial, cylindrical bore 52 is formed in the
tial that said sack occupy as little space'as pos
inlet lines42 and 44,, respectively, whereby (the
TEbore establishes communication. between said
lines.‘ An axially-aline'd, reduced counterbore 55
communicates with the lower end of the bore 52
and extends entirely through the lower portion of
the block 5| so as to be open to atmosphere. In
~ the lower‘portion of the head 50,’ a counterbore
V
55, of slightly greater diameter than the counter
bore 55, is formed and terminates short of the
upper end of said head so as to be closed against
the atmosphere. A cylindrical valve piston ‘Bl/is
slidably mounted within the cylinder 52‘ and in;
collapsed or de?ated so as to occupy only a‘small
area of thechamber A (Figure 6) and such col-U
cludes an intermediate annular'piston head‘5B
having axial, reduced shanks or plungers 59 and
63, preferably made integral with its top and, bot-'
tom and complementary to and slidably engage
lapse or de?ation will be assisted by the pressure
of the well ?uids, due to the fact that said cham
? ablewithin the counterbores 55 and 55, respec
tively." The piston 58 is of less height or'length
sack. As has been explained, the sack is normally
ber is immersed in said well ?uids which are ad?
mitted by and through the valve 24. A suitable
pressure or lifting ?uid, such as air or gas, is con»v
ducted downwardly through the string 43; which’
extends up through the casing II‘ to the casing
head l2 and delivered to the sack for in?ating
the same.
This in?ation of the sack will close
the valve 24 against downward escape of the well‘ I
?uids from the chamber and will displace orjorce,‘
than its cylinder and‘ the plungers59 and 60 are
slightly less in length, than their respective'coun
terbores, whereby said piston is freely reciprocal
within the valve block. Since the upper plunger
59 is of greater diameter than the [lower plunger
60, the top of the piston 58 has a greater effec-'
tive cross-sectional area than the bottom thereof.
For sealing off the cylinder 52 and between the
plungers and theircounterbor'es, the inneroends
‘
2,404, 524
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of the latten'adjacent' said cylinder, are counter;
in and'closes the upper ‘end of said duct.‘ The
bored or recessed as shown at’Gl and 62, .respec-'
ball 19 is held in engagement with its seat by
tively, to receive’ annular. packing members or
means of a coiled spring ‘H and "an adjusting
rings 53 and 64, of rubber or other suitable elas
screw 12 which is screw-threaded through a suit
' tic material. The upper'recess 6| and'packing
5 able packing nut or collar'13, the latter being
ring 53;_which are disposed in the head 50v above
screw-threaded into the upper end of the valvev
the cylinder, are of a diameter‘slightly greater * chamber 69 vfor closing the ‘same. A transverse
than the diameter of said cylinder so as'to project
or duct '54 establishes communication between
5 peripherally therebeyond for engaging the upper
th'evalve
‘chamber’ and the upper end of the
end of the block 5|, and sealingoff the upper end
c'ounterbore 56.
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I v of the cylinder when said'he’ad is secured to said
It is pointed out that the ball 10 is normally
block; The upper portion of the valve’ block,
seated and, the compression of the spring ‘ll is
' which is‘ engaged by the ring 63, serves as a shoul
adjusted by means of the screw 12 to hold the
der or seat for supporting and retaining said ring
The external diameter of the lower 15 valve in its seated position until the pressure
within the cylinder 52 exceeds the pressure neces
sary to completely in?ate the expansible sack
the'diameter of they cylinder, whereby said ring
28. Manifestly, since the pressure of the ?uid '
seals off around the lower plunger'iii); as well as
within
the tank 46 i‘s'in excess of the pressure
' between said cylinder "and the lower counter
in place.
' recess SZ‘and‘ packing ring 64 is slightly less than
required to completely in?ate the sack, jsaid pres-v
' bore 55., l
20 sure‘will build up within the cylinder and will
‘ ‘ In order _to_ prevent the piston 58 from engag
ing the bottom of the cylinder and closing the
inlet port 54, ‘an annular shoulder 65,» which is
unseat the ball 10 and ?ow through, the cham
64, the effective area of the bottom of the piston ~
terbore will result in’ downward movement of the
piston 51 from its upper, open position to its
lower closed position (Figure 8). As has been
explained, the piston head 58 overlies or covers
ber 69 and duct. 14 into the upper counterbore
56. The combined area of the plunger 59 and
of less diameter than the upper plunger 59, is
formed at the upper endof the plunger 60 and 25 the top of the piston head 58 being'greater area
than‘ the bottom of said head, due to the pro
engages the ‘packing ring 64 when the valve piston
vision of the plunger 63 and shoulder 65, the
is‘ in its lower position (Figure‘8). .Thus, even
admission of the pressure ?uid to the upper coun
when the shoulder 65 is seated against the ring
head is greater than'that of its'top and the ad;
mission of pressure ?uid through the inlet port
54 will result in the ?uid acting- upon the bottom
‘of the piston head and lifting the piston 51 to
the outlet port 53v so as to'shut o? the flow of
the pressure ?uid to the line 42 when the piston
‘is in‘ its lower position. It is pointed out that
the position shown in Figure 10;’ Since the out
let port 53 is disposed in a horizontal plane a '
' slight distance‘ above‘ the inlet po'rat, communica
the ball valve 76 will seat and close the duct
68 upon movement of the valve element to its
lower position, since the pressure exerted against
saidball valve is no longer su?icient to with
tion between said ports is established upon this
this upward moveinent'of the’ piston. Due to this
communication, the pressure ?uid from the stor
stand the compression or force of the spring ‘ll ‘
age tank 45 is permitted to‘ ?ow through the line
and due to'the equalization of the pressure with
42 and pipes 4| and 49 to‘ the interior of the sack
in the chamber 69 with the pressure within said
28 for in?ating the same as has been ‘explained
duct. Manifestly; the seating of the’ball valve
The piston 5‘! will remain in its
will shut off the ?ow of pressure ?uid to'the
upper positionKFigure 110) until the sack'is fully
expanded or in?ated as shown in Figures 2 and 45 upper 'counterbore 56 and said'?uid will be
trapped within saidv counterbore as well asin
4. Due to the opening of the outlet port 53, the
the duct 14 and chamber 69. In order to relieve
pressure beneath the piston head 58 will be ma~
this pressure, and permit subsequent upward
terially reduced and said piston‘ head will cease
movement of the piston, an axial duct"'i5,‘of.rel
to move upwardly when its bottom is above said
7 hereinbef ore.
port. Therefore, the topof thepiston head will‘
be‘spaced below the upper end of the cylinder’
when the piston 51 is in its upper position;
For by-passing pressure ?uid to the upper end
of the cylinder abovejthe piston headland for
‘ _
50
atively small diameter extends entirely through
the‘ piston 51, establishes communication be”
tween the upper counterbore andthe atmosphere‘
and thereby permitsv the trapped pressure‘ to bleed
or dissipate itself from said'counte‘rborel'radial
constantly equalizing the pressureabove and bea 55 duct 74 and chamber 69. As soon as this" trapped
pressure ?uid approaches atmospheric pressure,
lowsaid piston head 58, a small duct 66 extends
a predetermined pressure drop occurs and the
vertically'through the piston head adjacentthe
pressure exerted against the greater area of the '
periphery thereof , This iby-passing of pressure:
bottom of the piston head will again raise the
?uid to‘the upper end of the cylinder above they
piston does not alter the operation of‘ the valve, 60 piston so as to open‘ the‘ outlet port 53 and there
bysupply pressure ?uid to the expansiblev sack 28.
as heretofore explained, due to the greater cross“
_F'or controlling the escape of the pressure
sectional area of the bottom of said'piston. In
?uid from the expansible sack, an angular by
orderlto lower the'piston 51 and shut
the vsup- ?
ply or pressure ?uid upon complete in?ation of ‘ pass duct or port 16 is formed in the valve block
5| and extends downwardly from the outlet port
the sack 28, it isnecessary to conduct said ?uid
to the upper counterboree?) whereby the pres-.1
sure ofvthe ?uid will act upon the upper’: end ‘Y
53, then diametrically or" said body immediately
and the lower packing ring
7 below the cylinder '52
l 64 and its recess 52.‘ A» manually-adjustable,
of the ‘plunger 55. Forvaccomplishing this pur
needle valve 11,. similar to the needle valve 45 is
pose, an inclined port 6? extends .from the upper
connected to the by-pass duct 16 by means of a
portion of the bore 52 to the upper end of the
short pipe 18 which is screw-threaded into the
block all and communicates with a ivertical‘duct
outer end of said duct. The lower counterbore
68 formed in the‘head 59, 'An enlarged. valve‘
55 intersects the‘b'y-pass duct 15 and said duct
chamber 169 is formed above the duct depend
closed by the‘plunger 60 when the piston is in V
houses a: spring-pressed-ball: 19 which is seated 75 is
its upper or raised position as shown in Figure
2,404,524
10, Forestablishing communication between the
two portions of the by-‘pass duct, an annular
groove or recess 19 is formed in the external
peripheryof the plunger 60 and this groove reg
isters' with said duct when the piston is in its
10
ber-,A, but is of greater length, and includes a
similar sleeve 00 having its upper end connected
to the tubing I5 by a collar 8|, a swaged nipple
82 and a coupling collar 83. As shown in Fig
ures ,3 and 5, a similar collar 84, swagedv ,nipple'
?uid pressure is cut off from the expansible sack
by the piston being in its lower position, the ?uid
85 and coupling collar 86 connect the lower end
of the sleeve to the tubing 'therebelow. The up
per coupling collar 83 has an enlarged external
and, therefore, the rate of de?ation or collapse of
ber B and has its lower'end connected to a
lowered position (Figure 8).
Thus, when the
diameter to provide a relatively-thick‘ wall and
within said sack may exhaust by ?owing up
wardly through the pipe 40 into the line 42, port 10 the bore of said collar has its lower portion en
larged to form a recess or socket 81 for receiv
53, duct 16, groove ‘I9 and pipe ‘I8, and then out
ing the upper end of the swaged nipple 82. As
through the valve ‘I1. Since the upward move
shown by. the numeral 88, the bore of the upper
ment of the piston to its open position moves the
end‘or neck of the nipple is substantially equal
groove 19 out of registration with the by-pass
duct, ?ow through said duct ,is prevented and 15 to the external diameter of the tubing I5, where
by a short pipe sleeve89, of substantially the same
there will be no escape of the ?uid ?owing
diameter as said tubing, may extend throughsaid
through the valve 43 to the expansible sack.
nipple neck'and be screw-threaded within’ the
The needle valve '11 is conventional and merely
internal ‘lower portion of the collar 83. The short
meters or regulates the rate of ?ow of the pres
sure ?uid exhausted from the expansible sack 20 sleeve 89 depends a short distance into the cham
swaged nipple Siiby a special coupling collar 9|
which-is substantially identical to the collar 23
and which includes an internal,'annular shoul
out that the valve 11 may have its outlet or dis
charge opening connected to the intake of the 25 der 92 and a reduced, screw-threaded counter
bore or socket 93 therebelow. vA check ‘valve 94,
compressor 4'! or may, as shown be open to the
substantially identical. to the valves 24 and, 31,
atmosphere. The valve 45 is substantially iden
is mounted within the collar BI and is held in
tical to the valve 11 and is provided for the pur
said member as well as the rate of entry of the
well ?uids into the chamber A.
It is pointed
pose of controlling the rate of ?ow of the pres—
sure, ?uid supplied through‘the valve 43 to the
sack 28. The adjustment of these needle valves
is subject to variation and said adjustments may
bedissimilanwhereby the pressure ?uid may be
position ‘by. being clamped between the shoulder
92;;and‘14the lower end, of the short sleeve 89 for.
trapping well ?uids thereabove, as will be here
inafter more fully explained. The vcounterbore
93 receives the-upper end of a tapered nipple
exhausted from the sack at a different or faster
95 which extends'throughthe upper endor neck
of said ?uid, whereby the actual working or lift
ing time may be of prolonged duration.
partition 06 with radial ports 51 thereabove. for
rate than the admittance of said ?uid thereto. 35 of the swaged nipple 00 to a point slightly below
said neck. The nipple '95 is substantially iden
It is desirable to exhaust the pressure ?uid at a
tical to the nipple 3 Iand has a similar transverse
rate much more rapid than the vadmittance rate
Due to the relatively largevolume of the cham
ber A, a sizable quantity of well ?uids'maybe
lifted upon each in?ation of the expansible sack
and such in?ations may be infrequent so as to
establishing communication between the-upper
40 portion of said nipple 95 and the exterior thereof.
As is-clearly shownin Figure 5, an expansible
member orsack 88, substantially identical to but
of a le'ss‘diameter and greater length. than'the
sack 28, has its reduced, reinforced upper end
or neck 99 engaging aroundand fastenedto the
permitlthe use of a lifting fluid of relatively‘ small
volume or low pressure. Since the ‘exhaustion 45
lower portion ofthe inner'nipple 95 above its
rate of the pressure ?uidicontrols the rate of
tapered or constricted throat I02 by a suitable
entry of the well ?uids into the chamber A as
clampingband or ring I00. External, peripheral
grooves,‘ I'0I are-formed in the inner nipple for
from the formation F, separation and escape of 50 receiving the material of the tube neck v99 upon
tighteningof the band I00. 'I'hepressure ?uid is
the lighter hydrocarbon. constituents from the
Well as the vacuum or suction exerted upon said
well'?uids and the Velocity of the same in ?owing
conducted to the sack 98 from the pipe 40 by a
well ?uids may be prevented by properly adjust- '
branch pipe I03, which extends from said pipe,
ing the exhaust needle valve 11 inaccordance
through the swaged nipple 82, then through the
with the characteristics and condition of the pro
ducing formation. Of course, this valve is ad 55 swaged nipple 00 into the lower portion of the
nipple 95 below its partition 96 so as to communi
justed to provide a maximum rate of exhaustion
without creating an undesirable or excessive
vacuum or velocity of flow. Also, a desirable
cate with the interior of said sack.
which seals off the space between the casing H
of’ a suitable collar I05.
An elongate, '
cylindrical sleeve I04, of less diameter than the
sleeve 80, surrounds the sack 98 and depends from
back-pressure is held upon the formation by the
means‘ (not shown) within the casing head I2 60 the nipple 90 to which‘ it is connected by means
and tubing I5. In order to provide a relatively
slow admission of the pressure ?uid, the needle
valve 45 may be suitably adjusted so as to admit
said ?uid at the desired rate.
,
The " sleeve I04 is of
greater length than the sleeve 20 of the chamber
A, but of less length ‘than the sleeve 80, so as to
terminate above the lower end thereof and is con
65 nected ‘by. means of. a collar I06, a swaged nipple
I0'I-and a special coupling collar I08 to a per
forated bull plug I09, which ispreferably ,dis
before is limited as to the depth of its installa
tion/below the surface, due to the fact that it ‘ posed within the reduced or neckvportion of the
would be uneconomical to employ an operating . lower~swaged .nipple85. qA‘check valve IIO is
?uid having an excessivelyhigh pressure; There 70 mounted in the coupling ‘collar I00 by being
clamped between the nipple I01 and plug I09 and 7
fore, in wells relatively deep, it is desirable to
this valve as well as the other parts 'are sub
employ a plurality of lifting stages and each stage
stantially videntical to .the valve 24; plug 25, '
includes one of the chambers B as shown in Fig
"A pump of the construction described herein
ures 1,, 3 and 5.
‘
‘ --Each chamber B is very similar to the cham
swaged nipple I8 and collars I6 and’ I1 of the
chamberlA. The sleeve ‘I04 and the elements
2,404,524
ll
' 12
1 connected thereto provide an accumulating
; chamber C‘ of substantially vthe same capacity as
size, shape and materials, as well as in the details
of the illustrated construction may be made,
within the scope of the appended claims, with
out departing from the ‘spirit of the invention.
j thechamber A for receiving the well ?uids lifted '
from said chamber A by the sack 28. n
~
explanatory thereof and various changes in the
M
Upon in?ation of the‘ sack 28 as shown in
, Figure 2, the well ?uids lifted from the chamber
What I claim and desire to ‘secure by Letters
‘ A through the valve 31 will build up or accumu
Patent is:
'
'
‘ late within the tubing I 5 thereabove and within
‘ the chamber B. Although the chamber VB and
3
1
1
‘
1
‘
1. In a well pumping apparatus, the combina
tion of, an accumulating chamber adapted to be
its sleeve 80 have substantially the same diam "10 immersed in the liquid in a well,an elongate ex
eter asthe chamber A and its sleeve 26, the
pansible sack mounted in said chamber and free
former are of. greater length so as to have sub
to collapse, av conductor f‘or supplying pressure
stantiallythe same capacity or volume for ac
?uid to the upper ‘end of the sack and for ex
cumulating the lifted well ?uids. The sack 98
hau'sting such pressure ?uid therefrom connect
‘is actuated in exactly the same manner as the
edto said sack and adapted to extend to the top,
sack 28 and is preferably in?ated and de?ated
of a well, the lower end of the sack being free
simultaneously therewith. As soon as the Well
and unsupported, an automatic valve for alter;
?uids commence to accumulate within the cham
hating supplying pressure ?uid to the conductor
her (2, said ?uids will ?ow through the per
and exhausting such ?uid therefrom,'means for
forations of the plug I09, past the valve IID into 20 ‘supplying ?uid under pressure to said valve, a
well tubing extending from the upper end of said
: thechamber C upon exhaustion of the pressure
?uid and de?ation of the sack 98. Initially no
I well ?uids are present within the chamber 0 to
chamber, means for discharging well liquid from
the chamber to the tubing, means for controlling.
the supply ,of pressure fluid to the ,valve, and
means forico'ntrolling the exhausting of pressure
resist in?ation of its sack 98 and, therefore, said
I sack will be in?ated prior to the in?ation of the '
‘
. 1
I
I
sack '28 so as to prevent said ?uids when subse
quently elevated into the chamber B by said sack
98 from entering said chamber C. Thus, the
lifted‘ well ?uids will substantially ?ll the cham
?uid from the valve, whereby the pressure ?uid
may be exhausted from the sack at a higher rate
than that at which it is supplied'thereto.
_
2. In a well pumping apparatus, the combina
ber C upon ?rst entering said chamber and will 30 tion of, an accumulating chamber adapted to be
immersed in the liquid in a well, an elongate ex
1 actuation'of the sack 28;. Upon in?ation of the
pansible sack mounted in said chamber and free
I continue to ?ll the same uponeach subsequent
‘ sack 98, the valve I III will be closed and the Well
to collapse, a conductor for supplying pressure
?uid to the upper end of the'sa'ck and for ex
?uids within'the chamber Cv will be forced or
‘ lifted upwardlythrough the space between the
hausting such pressure fluid therefrom connect-'
ed to said sackand adapted to extend to the top
nipples 90 and%, then through ‘the ports 91,
'3 the upper portion vof said nipple 95 and valve 94
into the short sleeve Y89 and tubing I5 thereabove
of a well, the lower end of the sack being free
and unsupported, an automatic valve for alter
1 (Figure 75)..‘ As has been explained,>the valve 9d
' nating supplying pressure ?uid to theeonductor
functions, in the same manner as the valve 31 of I andv exhaustingsuch ?uid therefrom, means for
‘:the (chamber A for ‘trapping and preventing the
. supplyingr?uid under pressure to said valve, a
1vescapebfjwell?uids lifted therethrpllgh. , With
well tubing extending from-the upper end of said
I the surface control valve 43 in the position shown,
chamber, means for discharging well liquid from
the chamber torthe tubing, a control valve com
nected in the ?uidpressure supply, and a control
7 valve connected with the pressure ?uid exhaust
1inl'g‘igu‘re 8,, the pressure ?uid within the sack
98 will‘ exhaust. through the pipe I03 into the pipe
' 4.0: and, will be conducted together withithe pres
sure ?uid from, the sack 28fto the surface so as, f oi the valve.
'
' '
‘to escapeby means ofthe line 42, angular duct
3. A well pump including acylinder adapted to
well
‘It, groove
?uids within
19, pipethe
13 chamber
and needle
B will
vvalve
then
TI,’ again
,_ The "' be immersed in a well, awell ?uid inlet valve at
the bottom of the cylinderpa well ?uid outlet,
?ow iritothe chamber 0 so as to assistv in, col
' valve at the top of the cylinder, a well tubing
7 ila'psing or de?ating the sack 98 and to substan
connected with'the top of, the cylinder, an ex
itially ?llvsaid chamber, whereby said Well ?uids _ pansible sack in the cylinder disposed to expand 7
‘willbe lifted or forced upwardlyupon subse
iquent in?ation of said sack,
V "
r V _'
'
f '7
55
‘ In order to prevent the creation of an undesir
able pressure within the chamber B and to per
:mit the escape of, any excess well ?uidsfwhich
might accumulate therein, a plurality of vent
openings I I I are formed in the swaged nipple 82 -:
which is disposed at the top of the chamber above
its sleeve 80. "A moisture trap I I2 (Figure 11)
may be connected in the macaroni string 40 ad
to the full internal cross-sectional area of said
cylinder, the upright wall of; the cylinder being
imperforate, means for- suspending thersack' in
the cylinder, and means for supplying a pressure
?uid to the sack through its support.
" '
4. A well pump as set forth in claim 1, and a' '
moisture trap connected in the pressure supplyf
,mean's adjacent the chamber.
'
-5. A well pump includingga cylindrical chain;
‘oer adapted to beimmersed in the liquid in a well
jacent the point at which said string 40 extends
‘through the swaged nipple 22 of the chamberA. ~ ' and having a well ?uid inlet valve at itsbottom,
a nipple mounted at the top of the chamber and
3 ffrhepipe is ‘divided‘in the trap and the ends
, extending only into the upper end iof said ‘chamthereof 'oiifset 'in'the usual manner.’ A spring-7
her, an in?atable elastic sack suspended from said
‘pressed. downwardly ’ opening dumping valve ‘I I 5
nipple and- depending into ‘said chamber, said
‘engages afs'eatiIl‘II in the bottom of ‘the'trap.
:iPeriodically increasing the pressure of the ?uid
flowing through the string 40 will exertsu?i
cien't’press'ure upon" the liquid accumulated’ in
{the trap to open the valve and discharge such
liquid".
‘
'
r‘ ' The.foregoingxdescription.of the invention is’
, ‘
sack being free to collapse,‘ 'mea-ns'for, supplying
a pressure ?uid‘ to and exhausting such ?uid from
the nipple for said sack to in?ate the latter to
the inner annular wall of the cylinder and to»
collapse said sack, means for conducting ‘well 7‘
?uid displaced by the sack from the'cylinder, and
2,404,524
13
~
14
a well tubing connected to said conducting
means.
the pressure ?uid passage connected with the
6. A well pump as set forth in claim 5, and a
' back ?ow valve connected with the tubing above
pressure ?uid passage of the nipple for supplying
and exhausting pressure ?uid, and a well tubing
connected with the ?uid discharge passage in
chamber, a single conductor connected with the
said nipple.
7. A well pump including, a cylindrical cham
ber having an inlet valve at its bottom, an elas
ticvsack suspended in the chamber, and means
said nipple.
ness to cause ‘initial expansion thereof, whereby
the trapping of well ?uid in the chamber is pre
connected with the top of the cylinder, an ex
pansible sack in the cylinder disposed to “expand
I
9. A well pump including, a cylinder adapted
' to be installed in a well, a well ?uid inlet valve
for supplying a pressure ?uid to'vthe sack, the ' at the bottom of the cylinder, a well ?uid outlet
lower wall of the sack being reduced in thick 10 valve at the top of the cylinder,, a well tubing
vented.
to the full internal cross-section area of said cyl
t. A well pump including a cylindrical cham
inder, the upright wall of the cylinder being im-_' ~
ber adapted to, be immersed in the liquid in a 15 perforate, means for‘ suspending the sack in the“
well and having a well ?uid inlet valve at‘ its ~ cylinder, means for supplying a pressure ?uid to
bottom, a nipple mounted at the top of the cham
ber and extending only into the upper end of said
chamber, an in?atable elastic sack suspended
from said nipple and depending into said cham 20
ber, said nipple having a pressure ?uid passage
and a well ?uid discharge passage separate from
the sack through its support, and-a larger ‘cylin
der surrounding and spaced from the ?rst named
cylinder and communicating therewith throug
the well-?uid inlet Valve thereof.
.
,
JOSEPH R. NORTON.
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