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Патент USA US2404527

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July 23, 1946.
G. PoTAPENKo
l
2,404,527
ELECTRIC DISTANCE METER
Filed lay 2, 1939
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ATTORNEY.
Patented July 23, 1946
UNITEDy
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PATENT
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ELECTRICv DISTANCE> METER
Gennady Potapenko, Pasadena, Calif.
Application May 2, 1939, Serial No.‘271,300
7 Claims. (Cl.> Z50-1)
l
My invention relates to an electric distance me
ter for measuring the distance between the meas
uring apparatus and a surface capable of‘reiiect
ing electromagnetic radiation of suitable frequen
cy. The invention has a particularly valuable
application to the problem of determiningwhile
in an aircraft, the height of the aircraft above the
surface of the earth.
An object of the invention is to provide a meth
od and an apparatus for measuring the distance
between the measuring apparatus and a surface
capable of reñecting electromagnetic radiation of
suitable frequency.
_ _
OFFICE
i
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' ~
'
"Y’
2.»
tromagnetic radiation are transmitted tothe sur-'
face, the distance of which-is to'be determin'ed5l
and the pulses of electromagnetic radiation are
received after having beenI reflected from the
surface. Agmeasurement of anelectriccurren-tîkïyrv
potential difference derived from the sourcefo'f
transmitted radiation, or from» a separate source,`
is preferably made inthe interval between trans-`
mittedand received pulses by initiating the- meas
urement by one pulse and counteracting»withthel
second pulse the action of the first pulse. ' Since
electromagnetic radiation travels with'the sub-~
stantially constant velocity ¿of approximatelyA
3><10ß- meters per second'7 the duration‘of the
Another object is to provide a method andan
apparatus for measuring elevation above the sur 15 measurement is an accurate measure of the- dis-’
tance travelled by the electromagnetic radiation,v
face of the earth.
which is substantially twice-the distance fromïthe
Another object is to provide an apparatus
source of radiation tothe reflecting surface.
which measures an electrical quantity in the time
The method and apparatus of »myï invention
interval between the sending of a pulse of elec
tromagnetic radiation and its return from a re
20 should be distinguished from those >previously
flecting surface.
employed for the measurement of distance `by
pendent of the maximum amplitude of the pulses.
tance given on an electrical instrument.
form of my electric distance meter.
I provide a short wave radio transmitter lll, pref- _
means of radio waves. Other methods have ei
Another object of the invention is to provide a
ther measured the elapsed time: between .trans
method and apparatus for measuring the distance
mission and reception of the waves directly by
to a surface, in which an electrical measuring in
strument is started by an electric pulse coincid 25 means of a cathode beam tube or havemodulated ,
the transmitter frequency linearly and have de
ing with' a transmitted pulse of radio waves and
termined by a beat method the. difference-"infre
is stopped by an electric pulse coinciding with a
quency >between waves being receivedand those
reñected pulse of radio waves.
being transmitted. 'I‘he latter’ method is de'
Another object is to provide a method and ap
paratus for measuring one of two electric pulses 30 scribed in an article by S. Matsuo, Proc. I. R.. E.,
vol. 26, p. 848. The apparatus of these methods
only during that portion thereof when the other
is bulky and requires considerable attention on
of said pulses is of substantially Zero amplitude.
the part of an operator. The apparatus Vof my in
A further object is to provide a method and
vention, on the other hand, is relativelylight, vis
apparatus for producing and measuring an elec
easy to operate, and requires no attention other
tric current proportional to the time interval be
than to read `the numerical registration of A„dise
tween arrival of two electric pulses and inde
. .
The present embodiment of my invention is'
Still another object of the invention is to pro
particularly adapted to the determinationfo'f .the
vide an electric distance meter which is accurate
and dependable and requires a minimum of at 40 altitude of aircraft relative to the earth’s sure
face, and my invention will be explained in con-`
tention to operate it.
nection with this use; butl it will be understood
These and other apparent objects I attain in
that my invention may also be employed in meas
a manner which will be clear from a considera
uring the distances to surfaces other than the
tion of the following description taken in connec
surface of the earth.
'
tion with the accompanying drawing, in which:
-In the disclosed embodiment of my‘invention,
Fig. l is a diagrammatic illustration of one
erably adapted to rgenerate alternating current
Fig. 2 illustrates the relations existing between
of a frequency between 10ß and 109’ cycles per
two electric pulses existing in the circuit of Fig.
1 for one particular condition.
50 second. The transmitter is keyed by means of
aV keying device generally designated by thenuà
Fig. 3 illustrates the resultant of the pulses of
meral ll to produce a »series of pulses of high
Fig. 2 and that portion thereof which is measured.
frequency alternating ' potential diiîerence’ be->
Fig. 4 shows an alternative form of a portion
tween the >conductors I2 land-I3. For theV sake of
of the circuit of Fig. l.
diagrammatic illustration, Vthe keying device ‘It
In the practice of my invention, pulses of elec
g
2,404,527
3
4
is shown a's a relay I4, the switch of which is in
serted in the conductor I2, and the coil of which
is energized by a pulse generator I5 of construc
tion well known in the art. The pulse generator
I5 generates pulses of electric current which oc
cur at regular intervals. The switch of relay I4
preferably of a length equal to one-half wave
length of the radio-frequency current desired to
be ñltered out. The incoming conductor 22 and
the outgoing conductor 21 are both connected
to the cylinder 28 and the outgoing conductor
26 is connected to the conductor 2| at a point
midway between the ends of the cylinders 28 and
passes out through a hole in the cylinder. Cyl
inders of otherl lengths may, if_ desired, be em
closes at the beginning of each pulse, conducts
the radio-frequency current from the transmit
ter II) to the conductor I2, and opens at the end
of the pulse. The conductors I2 and I3, there 10 ployed and suitable connectionsbe'made thereto
fore, have imposed a radio-frequency potential
to eifect the same result, all as described in the
difference which appears at .the beginning of a , „ above-mentioned article. Filters of this type are
pulse, continues at substantially constant ampli
"considered more desirable for very high fre
tude during the pulse, and disappearsfat the end
quencies than filters With lumped capacity and
of the pulse.
Preferably the frequency of the 15 inductance. In the embodiment illustrated in
pulses is from 103 to 104 per second, although this
Fig. 1,’afresistance 33 is connected between the
depends upon the desired range of the distance
conductors 26 and 21.
meter, as hereinafter explained. It will be seen,
A directional receiving antenna 3|, which may
then, that within a single pulse, as it exists" at
be provided with a parabolic reñector 32 to give
conductors I2 and I3, there are many radio-fre 20 it directional properties, is connected to a re
quency cycles, and since during a pulse the am
ceiver and radio-frequency amplifier 33 through
plitude of the radio-frequency variation is pref
conductors 34 and 35.-> Conductors 36 and 31.are
erably substantially vthe same in each cycle, a
connected to the outgoing side of the receiver
plot of the amplitude of the radio-frequency po
33. In series with the conductor 31 is placed the
tential difference against time would be rec 25 rectifier 38 which may be of either the half-wave
tangular in shape and appear similar to the rec
or full-Wave type and is adapted to pass current
tangles d in Fig. 2. While pulses of rectangular
away from the receiver 33; and between the con
shape are shown, it will be understood that pulses
ductors 36 and 31, beyond vthe rectifier, is pref
of-Various other suitable shapes may be employed,
if desired.
‘
erably connected a ñlter 4D, preferably of the
30 concentric line type, which is similar to the fil
It will be understood that the keying device
ter 25 and is adapted to ñlter out the radio-fre
|| is shown as illustrated in Fig. l purely for
quency component of the current in the conduc
the sake of simplicity. A switch in the conduc
tors 36 and 31, leaving in the outgoing conduc
tor I2 or within the transmitter I0 may, if de
tors 4| and 42 substantially only pulses of con
sired, be operated by a mechanical device adapt 35 tinuous direct current ofV substantially rectangu
ed to open and close it at predetermined inter
lar wave shape, designated by the lettervr in Fig.
vals.
Or any one of the keying devices well
2. In the embodiment of Fig. l, a resistance 43
known in the art may be employed to open and
is connected between the conductors 4| and 42
close the circuit from the transmitter or to pro
and the conductors 21 and 4| are connected to
vide “o ” and “o ” periods of the current from 40
gether.
the transmitter at predetermined intervals. The
In the embodiment of Fig. 1, conductors 44 and
45 are connected, respectively, to the conductors
26 and 42. A rectiñer 46 is connected in series
with the conductor 44 and is adapted to pass
current away from the conductor 26. An electric
measuring instrument 41 preferably of relatively
high resistance compared to the resistances 30
transmitter may, if desired, be modulated in a
well-known manner by means of electronic de
vices to eiîect this result.
A directional transmitting antenna I6 is con
nected by means of conductors I1 and I8 to the
conductors I2 and I3, respectively, the antenna
being connected with the conductors in a manner
and 43, and preferably of ballistic character, is
well-known in the art to provide efficient direc
connected between the conductors 44 and 45 be
tional transmission of short-wave radio waves DI) yond the rectifier 46, and is adapted to measure
therefrom. While various arrangements known
the average current in the conductors 44 and 45
in the art may be employed to provide directional
or the average potential difference therebetween.
transmission, a parabolic reflector 20 is shown
When the conductor 42 is positive with respect
herein for that purpose.
to the conductor 26 current is prevented by the
Conductors 2| and 22 form continuations of
rectifier 46 from passing through the instrument
the conductors I2 and I3, respectively. In series
41, and it is only when the ,conductor 26 is more
with the conductor 2| is placed a rectiñer 23
positive than the conductor 42 that the instru
which may, for example, permit current to pass
ment 41 is operative. It is understood that var
along the conductor 2|,away from the conductor
ious‘bridge circuits and other connections of the
I2. Instead of the half-wave rectiñer s_hown, I 60 electrical measuring instrument may be made to
may, if desired, employed a full-wave rectiñer.
accomplish similar results.
A ñlter 25 is connected between the incoming
As employed on an airplaneto measure the
conductors 2| and 22 and outgoing conductors
elevation of the airplane above thev surface of
26 and 21, and is adapted to filter out substan
the earth, the antenna I6 is preferably located
tially all of the radio-frequency component of 65 under one wing with the reilector 2U positioned
the rectified current through conductors 2| and
so as to direct the radiation downwardly. The
22, leaving in conductors 26 and 21 substantially
antenna 3| is preferably located under the other
only pulses of continuous direct current, of vsub
wing on the opposite side of the fuselage from
stantially rectangular wave shape, designated by
d in Fig. 2. The filter 25 is preferably of the
concentric line type such, for instance, as that
described in an article lby Leeds, Proceedings of
the Institute of Radio Engineers, vol. 26. pp.
576-589. A :filter of this type comprises a cylin
der 28 concentric with the incoming line 2| and
the antenna I 6 so as to minimize direct reception
by the antenna 3| of the radiation from the an
tenna I6, and the reilector 32 is so positioned as
to cause the antenna 3| to receive radiation pre
dominantly coming from below. It will be under
stood, however, that any other `suitable arrange
ment of the antenna may be employed.
2,404,527
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time Lts 4and end at time At8 Íwhereithe intervals ists
In operation, the conductors I1, .IB .and 2I, 22
are subjected to pulses of high frequency electro
and tata are both equal to theláintervals titz ‘and
motive force. At the time t1, in Fig. 2., a pulse
£3154.
tromotìve force is impressed upon the conductors
I1 and I8 and also upon the conductors 2| and
22. During this interval, therefore, high fre
.
Y*
`
Y
ence .exists across lthe resistance 30 proportional
to the-current Id and substantially no potential
> difference exists .across the resistance 43.- The
quency radio waves are radiated from the an
tenna
tween
exists
tween
-
During the `time interval t-itza Apotential differ
may begin and may continue until a later time
t3. During this interval .a high frequency elec
conductor 125 is therefore ypositive with respect to
the conductor 42 and a potential diiïerence exists
I6 toward the earth. In the interval be 10 across the instrument 41 proportional to the cur
rent Id. 'In the interval tzta the current Ir through
the times t3 and te no potential diiïerence
the resistance »43 counteracts the effect of the
between the conductors I1 and I 8 or be
current Id through the resistance 3D and there eX
the conductors 2| and 22. Between the
«ists a potential difference between theconductors
times t5 and tv another pulse .of radio-frequency
electromotive force is impressed .upon the con 15 42 »and-*243 yproportional to the diiierence -Is vbe
tween Ir and Id,` with the conductor 42 positive
ductors I1, I8 and upon the conductors 2i, 22.
with respect to the conductor 26. Since, under
During the pulses between times t1 to ts and t5
these conditions, the rectifier 46 does not permit
to t1 the radio-frequency potential difference be
any current to pass, there is `no potential diiïerà
tween the conductors 2i and `22 is rectified by
the rectifier 23 and varying direct current tends 20 ence across the instrument 41 during the interval
tats. During the interval 'tati no potential differ
to flow through the filter 25 and the resistance
ence exists across the resistance 30 anda poten
30. The filter 25 removes substantially all of the
tial -difference exists across the resistance 43 pro
high frequency component of the current in the
portional to the current Ir, the conductor-42 be
circuit, leaving substantially a continuous direct
current which varies similarly to the rectangle d 25 ing positive with respect to the conductor '26. No
potential diiîerence, therefore, exists across the
in Fig. 2.
instrument `41 during the period titi. During the
The radio-frequency waves radiated from the
period> tits no current flows through either ofthe
antenna I6 pass downwardly to the earth’s sur
resistances 30 and 43 and nopotential diñerence
face from which they are reflected upwardly and
are received on the antenna 3| at a time follow 30 exists vacross the instrument 41, Upon the vstart
of another pulse the instrument again .registers
ing their radiation from the antenna I5 by an
a potential difference proportional to Id duringÍ
interval depending upon the distance traveled by
the interval ists and is idle 'until the succeeding
the waves. The airplane makes very little prog
pulse d occurs.
'
ress in the short interval between radiation and
In Fig, 3 is‘plctted the potential diiîerence be
reception of the waves and the elapsed time in 35
tween the lconductors 26 >and 42, with those in
seconds is substantially equal to two times the
tervals during which measurement takes place
elevation in meters of the airplane above the sur
being cross-hatched. For a given frequency of
face of the earth divided by BXlOS, the velocity
pulses it Vwill be evident that, since the value. of
of light in meters per second. The radio-fre
quency waves impinging upon the antenna 3l 40 Id is constant, the reading of the instrument 41
will be proportional to IdXAt where At equals
are translated by the receiver and ampliñer 33
into a radio-frequency potential difference across
the conductors 33 and -31 which is rectified by the
rectifier 38 and tends to produce a varying direct
current through the íilter 40 and the resistance
43. The ñlter 46 removes substantially all of the
radio-frequency component and leaves a contin
uous direct current of amplitude Ir through the
resistance 43 which varies similarly to the rec
tangle r in Fig. 2. Since the effect of the current 50
Ir in the measuring circuit is opposed to that of
the current Id, the current Ir is, for illustrative
purposes, shown on the opposite -side of the O line
in the chart of Fig. 2. The amplification of the
amplifier 33 is preferably adjusted so that the
potential diiierence across the resistance 43 dueto the passage of the current Ir therethrough is
greater than the potential difference across the
the time ’between `t1 and t2.
As previously ex
plained, _the time intervalnt required for the radi
ation to travel to the earth’s‘surface and 'back is
proportional to the elevation H of the airplane
above the surface of the earth. It will be evident
then that ‘the reading vof the instrument 41 will
be proportional to IdXH. The instrument 41
may, therefore, lbe calibrated directly in terms
of H.
'
Itis important that the durationltits of each ’
pulse be at least as `long as the interval titz cor
responding to the greatest distance desired to be
measured, -and that the interval tats be at least
as long as >the interval tits.
Preferably the in-V ~
terval tats is made equal to that of tits and the
duration tits of the pulse is varied .by varying the
pulse frequency. The invention contemplates the
possibility-.of supplying any of several different
resistance 30 due to the passage of the current Id
therethrough. It will be understood that it is 60 `pulse frequencies and of operating at'that fre
quency .best .suited to the distance range in which
not necessary that the resistances 30 and 43 be
.one is interested. The »instrument «41, df course,
of the same value but it is assumed here that this
condition exists so that the potential differences
requires :a separate calibration for each pulse fre
across the respective resistances are proportional
quency employed.
to the currents flowing therethrough.
Due to vdirect coupling between thetransmitting
For a particular elevation of the airplane above
and receiving antennas vit may be that a small
the earth’s surface, the interval oi time elapsing
current will flow through the resistance 43 co
between the radiation and reception of a pulse
incident-ally with the passage of the current ld '
may be tltz. The pulse d of current Id through
through the resistance 130, but since it will start
resistance 30 will` then, start at the time ti‘wh-ile
and stop at the same times as the current Id it
the pulse T of current Ir through the resistance
will
beevident that the only eiîect will beto
43 will not start until the time t2, and whereas
counteract some of the current Id. Since the
the pulse d will end at t3 the pulse r will not end
»amplitude of this current due to direct coupling'
until t4, the interval t1t2 being equal to the inter
is constant, its eiîectupon the reading ofthe ïin- n
75
val tati. Likewise, the next pulse r will start ¿at
2,404,527
7
strument 41 will be taken account of in calibra
tion of' the instrument.
The circuit of Fig. 4 has only ohmic resistances
An alternative form of measuring circuit is il
lustrated in Fig. 4. Two vacuum tubes 50 and 5|,
each with two grids, are preferably employed.
Heaters 52 and 53 of the tubes 5U and 5|, respec
and inter-electrode capacities which Yare small.
The time constants of various parts of the circuit
are therefore Very small, and by proper choice
of tubes, resistances, and batteries it is possible
to make the circuit operate at extremely high
tively, are connected in parallel and are supplied
speed so that the time interval titz can still be
by a battery 54. The cathodes 55 and 56 of the
recognized even though it is only of the order
tubes 50 and 5|, respectively, are connected to
of a small fraction of 1 microsecond. When the
gether and to the negative side of a battery 51 10 circuit of Fig. 4 is 'employed the filters 25 and 40
and to the conductor 21 and 42. The anode 58
may be eliminated, if desired. While I have, in
of the tube 50 is connected to the positive side cf
Fig. 4, shown a particular circuit and tubes with
the battery 51 through a resistance 60, and the
two grids it will be understood that the same prin
anode'6l of the tube 5| is preferably connected
ciples may be applied to provide other vacuum
to the positive side of the battery 51 through a 15 tube relay circuits employing tubes as described
resistance 62 and a current measuring instrument
or tubes of other well-known types.
63. One of the grids 64 of the tube 56 is con
When a vacuum tube relay circuit such as that
nected to a point ‘between the resistance 62 and
of Fig. 4 is employed the pulse duration tits may
the meter 63 while the other of the grids 65 is
be made as short as desired so long as it is long
connected to the conductor 26, One of the grids 20 enough to operate the relay. With this lcircuit
66 of the tube 5| is connected to the anode 58
it is not necessary that the interval tits be as long
and the other of the grids 61 is connected to the
as t1t'2. This will be evident from the fact that
conductor 4|. A resistance 68 is preferably con
current I2 starts to now at time t1 and will, by
nected between the conductors 26 and 21 and an
reason of the resulting bias on the grid 64, con
other resistance 10 is preferably connected be 25 tinue to flow even if current Id stops ñowing and
tween the conductors 4| and 42.
the bias on grid 65 is removed. The current I2
The Passage of plate current I1 through the re
will continue to flow until pulse r arrives at the
sistance 60 places a negative bias on the grid 66
time t2. It is still necessary, however, for the
of tube 5| and the passage of plate current I2
interval tate between pulses to be equal to or
through the resistance 62 places a negative bias 30 greater than the interval At corresponding to the
on the grid 64 of the tube 50. The resistances
greatest distance desired to be measured. One
60 and 62 and the voltage of the battery 51 are
possible arrangement is to make the intervals
made such that the biases resulting from passage
tits, tet?, etc., always substantially equal to the
of the currents I1 and Iz are beyond the cut-01T
interval At. This result may be automatically
points of the tubes 5| and 50. The resistances 35 secured by arranging the transmitter keying relay
68 and 10\are of such Values th'at when the cur
to be operated by the pulse generator to key the
rents Id and Ir, respectively, pass through them,
transmitter “on” and to be energized by the po
the negative biases produced on the grids 65 and
tential difference between the conductors 4| and
61 are suiiicient to reduce the currents in the re
42 to key the transmitter “oíî” when the pulse 1'
spective tubes to substantially zero.
40 arrives at t2. But, in practice, it is preferable to
The operation of the circuit is, then, as follows.
operate the apparatus, as previously described,
Assume that in the interval prior to t1 the tube
wherein the intervals tits, tstv, etc., are independ
50 is conducting and plate current I1 is flowing.
ent of At and the effect 0f the pulse coinciding
The grid 66 is biased beyond cut-oir and no cur
with
the transmitted pulse is counteracted by
rent ñows through the meter 63. At time t1 the
the pulse coinciding with the pulse received after
current Id starts to flow through the resistance
reflection, the counteraction being eiTected in a
68, the grid 65 is biased beyond cut-oiî, and the
circuit totally separated from the keying relay,
current I1 ceases to flow. The bias on grid 66
as shown in Figs. 1 and 4. Under such circum
then no longer exists and the tube 5| immediately
the keying of the transmitter and the
becomes conducting, the current I2 passing 50 stances,
load on it are independent of the operation of the
through the meter 63 and the resistance 62. The
rest of the apparatus and the stability of the
passage of the current Iz still further biases the
transmitter is more easily maintained.
grid 64 of the tube 56. The current I2 continues
It will be seen that the apparatus disclosed is
to ñow until time t2 when the passage of current
adapted to function within wide limits of the in
Ir through the resistance 10 biases the grid 61 to
tensity of the radiation received after having
such an extent that the current I2 is stopped.
been
reflected from the distant surface, for the
During the interval tzta both tubes are non-con
operation of my apparatus depends not upon the
ducting. At the time t3 the bias on the grid 65
intensity of the received radiation but upon its
is removed due to stopping of the current Id and
time of arrival relative to the time when it was
the current I1 starts flowing, biasing the grid 66. 60 sent.
Another great advantage of my apparatus
When the bias on the grid 61 is removed at t4
is that a definite numerical registration of dis
due to stopping of the current Ir the bias on the
grid 66 still prevents current from flowing through
tance is continuously given without the necessity
of any setting or adjustment operation to obtain
the meter 63 and the tube 5|. The current I1
the measurement.
continues to flow through the tube 50 until an 65
It will be understood that various changes and
other pulse starts at t5 and the entire cycle is re
modiñcations in the apparatus disclosed may be
peated. It will be seen that current flows through
made by those skilled in the art without depart
the meter 63 only during the time intervals titz,
ing from the spirit and scope of the invention as
tsts, etc. Since the current which i-lows is con
deñned in the appended claims.
stant while it flows and is independent of the in 70
I claim as my invention:
tensity of the radiation received on the antenna
3|, the reading of the meter 63 will vary only
with the length of the time interval At, which
is proportional to the height of the apparatus
above the surface of the earth.
1. Distance measuring apparatus, comprising:
an antenna adapted to radiate toward a sur
face;
means
including
a
radio
transmitter
adapted to periodically energize said antenna,
75 whereby pulses of radio waves are radiated to.~
2,404,527
9a;
wardrsaid surface; an electric circuit energized
by said transmitter coincidentally withsaid an
tenna; a. rectifier in said circuit,v and a filter in
said circuit for ñltering out radi'o-frequencycom
ponents of the current in said circuit, whereby
pulses of continuous direct’ current correspond
ing substantially intime with said transmitted.
pulses pass. through said electric circuit; means
1,0`~
said receiving means.; a rectifier in said second
electric circuit, anda ñlter in said second electric
circuit for filtering out radio-frequency coni
ponentsof the current in- 'said circuit, whereby
pulsesA of continuous directl currentl corresponding
substantially‘in time with said received pulses
pass through said second circuit, said receiving`
means being sov adjusted that said direct current
pulses in said second circuit are or greater ampli
pliner for receiving said pulses of radio waves 10 tude than said direct current pulses in' said-first
circuit; and an electric circuit connected> to said
after having been reflected from said surface;
first and second circuits> andr including measur
a second electric circuit connected to said re
ing means responsive to> the current iii-said ñrst
ceiving means; a rectifier in said second circuit,
circuit when it is greater than >the ,currentr in
and a filter in said second circuit for ñltering
said second circuit.
,
Y
.
out radio-frequency components of the current
4:. Distancey measuring apparatus, comprising:
in said second circuit, whereby pulses of con
including an antenna. and a radio-frequency am
>tinuous direct current corresponding substantial
ly in time with said received pulses pass through
an antenna’adapted to radiate toward a surface;
means including a radio transmitter adapted to
periodically energize said antenna, whereby
said second circuit; an electrical measuring in
strument; and an electric circuit connected with 20 pulses of radio waves are radiated toward said
surface; an electric circuit energized by said
said instrument and with said iirst and second
transmitter coincidentally with said antenna; a
circuits and adapted to energize said instrument
rectifier in said electric circuit, whereby pulses
substantially only in response to a pulse pass
of direct current corresponding substantially in
ing in said first circuit corresponding substan
tially in time with one of said transmitted pulses 25 time with said transmitted pulses pass through
said circuit; means including an antenna and a
and in the absence of any pulse passing in said
radio-frequency amplifier for receiving said
second circuit corresponding in time with a re
pulses of radio waves after having been reflected
from said surface; a second electric circuit con
an antenna adapted to radiate toward a surface; 30 nected to said receiving means; a rectifier in
said second electric circuit, >whereby pulses of
means including a radio transmitter adapted to
direct current corresponding substantially in time
periodically energize said antenna, whereby
with said received pulses pass through said sec
pulses of radio waves are radiated toward said
ond circuit; a ñlter in eachA of said circuits for
surface; an electric circuit energized by said
transmitter coincidentally with said antenna; a 35 iiltering out the radio-frequency components of
the currents in said circuits; and an electric i
rectifier in said electric circuit, and a filter in
ceived pulse.
2. Distance measuring apparatus, comprising:
said electric circuit for iiltering out radio
frequency components of the current in said
circuit, whereby pulses of continuous direct cur
rent corresponding substantially in time with 40
said transmitted pulses pass through said electric
circuit; means including an antenna and a radio
frequency ampliñer for receiving said pulses of
circuit connected to said ñrst and second cir
cuits and including measuring means responsive
to the current in said first circuit when it is
greater than the current in said second circuit.
5. Distance measuring apparatus, comprising:
an antenna adapted to radiate toward a surface;
means including a radio transmitter adapted to .
periodically energize said antenna, whereby
radio waves after having been reliected from
said surface; a second electric circuit connected 45 pulses of radio waves are radiated toward said
surface; means including> an antenna and a
to said receiving means; a rectifier in said second
radio-frequency amplifier for receiving said
electric circuit, and a ñlter in said second elec
pulses of radio waves after having been re
tric circuit for iiltering out radio-frequency com
-
flected from said surface; an electric circuit
ponents of the current in said circuit, whereby
pulses of continuous direct current correspond 50 energized by said transmitter coincidentally with
said antenna; a second electric circuit connected
ing substantially in time with said received
to said receiving means; a rectiiier in each of
pulses pass through said second circuit; and an
said circuits, whereby pulses of direct current
electric circuit connected to said ñrst and second
corresponding in time substantially with said
circuits and including electrical measuring
transmitted and said reiiected pulses pass re
55
means responsive to said pulses of direct current
spectively through said iirst and said second cir
in one of said circuits during the periods when
cuits; an electrical measuring instrument; and
said pulses of direct current in the other of
means in connection with said instrument and
said circuits are not passing therethrough.
with said first and second circuits for starting
3. Distance measuring apparatus, comprising:
an antenna adapted to radiate toward a surface; 60 a `predetermined current through said instrument
means including a radio transmitter adapted to
periodically energize said antenna, whereby
pulses of radio waves are radiated toward said
at the Vstart of each pulse in said first circuit v
and for stopping said current at the start of each
pulse in said second circuit.
6. Distance ‘measuring apparatus, comprising:
surface; an electric circuit energized 'by said
transmitter coincidentally with said antenna; a 65 means for transmitting pulses of electromagnetic
radiation to a surface; means including an elec
rectiñer in said electric circuit, and a filter in
tric circuit associated with said transmitting
said electric circuit for filtering out radio
means for producing continuous direct current '
frequency components of the current in said
pulses in said circuit substantially coinciding in
circuit, whereby pulses of continuous direct cur
rent corresponding substantially in time with said 70 time with said transmitted pulses of electro
magnetic radiation; means for receiving said
transmitted pulses pass through said electric
pulses of electromagnetic radiation after having
circuit; means including an antenna and a radio
'been reflected from said surface; means includ
frequency amplifier for receiving said pulses of
ing a second electric circuit for translating saidv
radio waves after having been reflected from said
Surface; a second electric circuit connected to 75 received pulses into-continuous direct current
2,404,527
pulses in said second circuit substantially coin
ciding in time With said received pulses; an
electrical measuring instrument; and means in
cluding an electric circuit connected with said
instrument and with said first and second cir
12
pulses in Said circuit substantially, coinciding in
time with said transmitted >pulses of electro
magnetic radiation; means for receiving said
pulses of electromagnetic radiation afterli’aving
been reñected from said surface; .means including
cuits and responsive to the direct current pulses
a second electric circuit for translating said, re
in said first and second circuits for energizing
ceived pulses into continuous direct current
said instrument only during time intervals de
pulses in said second circuit substantially coin
termined by the time lag between the direct
ciding in time .with said received pulses;V4 and
current pulses in said ñrst circuit and the direct 150.7 means, including an electrical measuring instru
current pulses in said second circuit.
ment and an electric 'circuit connected with said
'7. Distance measuring apparatus, comprising:
instrument and with said first and second cir--v
means for transmitting pulses of electromagnetic
cuits, for measuring the time lag between said
radiation to a surface; means including an elec
direct current pulses in said first circuit and
tric circuit associated With said transmitting
said direct current pulses in said second circuit.
means for producing continuous direct current
GENNADY POTAPENKO.
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