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July 23, 1946‘
2,404,568
O. E. DOW
7 AUTOMATIC FREQUENCY CONTROL
Filed July 21, 1942
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ATTORNEY
July23,1946.
o. E. DOW
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2,404,568 '
AUTOMATIC FREQUENCY CONTROL
'
Filed July 21-, 1942
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ATTORNEY
July 23, 1946.
0.1:. Dow
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2,404,568
AUTOMATIC FREQUENCY CONTROL
Filed July 21, ' 1942
3 ,Sheeis-Sheet 3~
INVENTOR
+ 0.6.
ORV/a5 E. Dam
BY )z?é gm
ATTORNEY
2,404,568
Patented July 23, 1946
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,404,568
AUTOMATIC FREQUENCY CONTROL
Orville E. Dow, Port Jefferson, N. Y., assignor to
Radio Corporation of America, a corporation of
Delaware
Application July 21, 1942, Serial No. 451,717
21 Claims. (Cl. 250—3.6)
1
2
This invention relates to automatic frequency
control and more particularly to automatic fre
quency control for generators operating at fre
quencies above 500 megacycles.
One method presently employed to control the
frequency of a generator generating waves hav
age generated by the modulating or continuously
varied tuning condenser. Heretofore, with the
commutator arrangement, a synchronous voltage
for use in detecting frequency departures has
been generated by means of an alternator mount
ing a frequency above 500 megacycles is to com
ed on the same shaft as the modulating or tuning
condenser. In accordance with my present in‘
pare the operating frequency of the generator
vention, this alternator is eliminated and the syn
with the resonant frequency of a, low loss or high
chronous voltage used in my detector system is
“Q” circuit. In accordance with this method 10 derived in a much more satisfactory and practical
some of the energy from the generator is im
manner.
pressed on the high “Q” circuit. Part of the os
Other objects, advantages and features ormy
cillatory energy is then taken from the circuit,
present invention will be apparent as the more
detected and the amplitude of the detected out
detailed description thereof proceeds. The latter
put is observed. Variations in the amplitude of
the detected output represent changes in fre
quency away from the frequency of the resonant
circuit. This arrangement, however, leaves much
to be desired since it indicates only the amount
of frequency change and not the direction of that
change.
will be given with the aid of the accompanying
drawings wherein:
Figure 1 illustrates one modi?cation of my pres
ent invention;
direction, of the frequency change would be by
'
graplhs used in describing the operation of Fig
ure
One way of determining the extent, as well as
-
Figures la, 1b, 1c and 1d are voltage-time
;
Figure 2 is a variation of Figure 1;
Figure 3 is a modi?ed form of Figure l and is
the use of two high “Q” circuits, one tuned above
characterized by the fact that a voltage is
and one tuned only below the desired operating 25 changed in order to correct the frequency of os
frequency of the generator. Since such low loss
or high “Q” circuits must be very stable, they
cillations generated by a generator rather than,
as illustrated in Figure 1, change the tuning 'of
are quite expensive in view of the precision re
a generator in order to correct the frequency of
quired in their construction.
oscillations generated thereby; and
In order to avoid the use of two such low loss
circuits, and thereby reduce the cost of the ap
paratus, it has been proposed to continuously
and cyclically vary the tuning .of a single low
loss or high “Q” circuit about the desired operat
ing frequency. This can be done by means of
a properly shaped rotating condenser plate cou
pled to the low loss circuit.
Heretofore, a detector coupled to the output of
this resonant low loss circuit, whose tuning is
varied as indicated, fed its resulting output volt
Figure 4 is still another modi?cation or varia
tion of Figure 1 in which a reversible motor for
frequency control is operated directly from elec
tronic tubes.
~
Referring to Figure 1, I have illustrated at
I a low loss high “Q” resonant circuit accurately
tuned to a desired operating frequency. Low
loss circuit I consists of a cylindrical outer con
ductor IA and an inner concentric conductor I B.
The resonant frequency of the resonant element
I is varied above and below the assigned or de
age to a commutator arranged to be integral with
sired operating frequency by means of rotating
the cyclically varied tuning condenser to thereby
generate or produce a voltage whose polarity is
of one sign when the operating frequency is above
the tuning of the low loss circuit and of the oppo_
site sign when below the assigned or desired fre
disc 2 mounted on the shaft of and driven by
synchronous motor 3. Disc 2 is cut away or
notched, as shown at 2E, 2F, 2G and 2H, so as
quency.
One object of my invention is to pro
vide a system which does not make use of a com
to have four condenser poles 2A, 2B, 2C and 2D.
As illustrated, these condenser poles rotate
through a slot in the outer conductor IA of the
concentric transmission line I and cause the
mutator and thereby avoids the di?iculties con
resonant frequency of the low loss device I to
comitant to its use. In carrying out this object, 60 vary equally above and below the desired oper
I make use of a balanced detector system, as will
ating frequency.
be described more fully hereinafter, in place of
the commutator.
Radio frequency oscillations are fed from the
high frequency generator HFG to the concentric
transmission line 5A—5 to a suitable circuit such
Use of my balanced detector arrangement re
quires another voltage synchronous with the volt
as an antenna (not shown).
By means of the
2,404,568
3
4
transmission line section 6 having an internal
grid of VTz is negative when the plate voltage is
conductor BA and coupling loops 6B and 60, high
frequency oscillations from the generator are also
fed through the action of loop BB, conductor 6A
and loop BC to the resonant low loss circuit i.
By means of loop 4A and the inner conductor
4B of transmission line section 40, wave energy
is picked up from the low loss resonant circuit
i and fed to high frequency crystal detector
plus. This will operate the polarized relay H,
which will operate relay l2 and start the con
trol motor RM in the proper direction to correct
the generator frequency.
If the generator frequency shifts to F2 the con
ditions will be as illustrated in Figure 10. Now
the control grid of VTz is plus when the plate
voltage is plus, while the 'control grid of VTl
4 provided With a suitable iby~pass condenser 10 is negative and, therefore, VTz will draw more
current than VT1 and the polarized relay II
49.
will be operated in the opposite direction, caus
The recti?ed output of crystal detector 4 is
ing the control motor RM to operate in the proper
fed through line 4F and transformer ‘T to the
control grid of the ampli?er-limiter tube 9, The
direction to correct the frequency.
In the above the phase of the voltage Ep may
output of limiter 9 is impressed through trans 15
be adjusted with respect to the phase of voltages
former T3 in push-pull to the control grids of
vacuum tubes VT1 and VT2 forming a balanced
detector Ill.
The source of constant relatively low frequency
waves derived from a source LFS, which drives 20
Em and Eye by locating condenser 2 in the proper
position on the synchronous motor shaft. Also,
ampli?er 9 is operated so that it is limiting. This
results in the amplitude of the voltages Em and
Egg to balanced detector iii being independent
the synchronous motor 3, also supplies trans
of the amplitude of radio frequency voltage cou
former T3 feeding the full wave recti?er 1,. Un
pled into high "Q” circuit 1 and, therefore, sub
?ltered recti?ed voltage from recti?er ‘I is fed
stantially responsive only to changes in fre
through condenser Cl and conductor C2 to the
plates of vacuum tubes VTl and VT2.
25 quency.
The function of condensers l3 in Figure 1 is
The cathodes of detector tubes VT1 .and VTz
to smooth out the pulsating currents which flow
are connected to and actuate polarized relay H,
through the tubes VT1 and VTz and maintain a
in turn actuating relays l2, in turn controlling
more nearly constant current through the D.-C.
a reversible motor RM used to control the fre
quency of the high frequency generator HFG. 30 polarized relay ii. That is, the high peak ‘cur
rents through the tubes VT1 and VT2 charge up
As illustrated, this is accomplished by increasing
or decreasing the capacity of the frequency con
the condensers i3 which discharge through the
relay H and the resistor {3A. The average cur
trolling condenser FCO which may form part of
rent through this resistor produces a bias for the
the tank circuit of the vacuum tube generator
HFG.
tubes W1 and VT2.
The above description relates to a ll-pole syn
The synchronous motor 3 ‘may be a .e-pole
motor with a speed of 1800 R. P. M. The rotat
chronous motor, but also it would be possible to
use a 2-pole synchronous motor. In that case
ing condenser pole may be a ‘ll-pole condenser.
the rotating condenser would have to have two
In operation any one pole of the rotor of the
synchronous motor may line up with any of the 40 poles P1 and P2, as illustrated in Figure 2. Also,
four poles of the stator. The synchronous:motor
if the output from crystal detector 4 were large
enough it may be possible to omit ampli?er 9 and
3 may take ‘any one of four positions. For this
impress the crystal output voltage directly on the
reason the condenser 2 must have the same num
ber of poles as the .motor 3 so that the phase
balanced detector i6, as shown in Figure 2.
of the output voltage from crystal detector 4 will
The output at the balanced detector may be
be independent of the position of the synchro
made to control a voltage which will correct the
frequency drift of the generator. rl‘his may be
nous motor 3.
The voltage fed to the plates of balanced de
done for such generators as the “Klystron” oscil
tector I0 is recti?ed full wave, 60 cycles and is
lator or other oscillators whose frequency is a
represented in Figures 1a, 1b and ‘10 by Ep.
function of the supply voltage. Speci?cally, the
Figure 1d represents a resonance curve of the
frequency increases with an increase in plate
high “Q” circuit I. Thus, if the generator fre
voltage (increase in electron velocity in beam)
quency is at F0 the rotating condenser will vary
in a “Klystron”- or similar type of oscillator, and
the frequency of ,1‘ between the limits of F1 and
decreases with a decrease in voltage.
F1 and the resulting output voltage in crystal 55
Figure 3 shows a circuit for controlling the
4 will be as represented in Figure 1a by E91 and
frequency in this way. The operation and ar
Egg. Egi is the voltage impressed on the control
rangement of the balanced detector iii are as
grid of tube VTi and Egz is the voltage impressed
given in connection with Figure 1. However, it
on the control grid of VTz. An examination of
is to be noted that the cathode output circuits
Figure la will show that the average current
of the detector tubes VTi, VT2 of Figure 3 are
drawn ‘by VTi will be equal to the average cur
connected in series with one cathode, namely,
rent drawn by VT2 and the polarized relay M
cathode MIC of vacuum tube V'I‘2, grounded.
will not be operated.
As a consequence, in Figure 3 a D. C. output
However, if the frequency of the generator
voltage at terminal I? will appear which will be
shifts to E1 the modulating condenser 2 will vary
negative or positive with respect to ground de—
the frequency of the ‘circuit 1 between the limits
pending upon whether the frequency of the high
of F3 and F0. The output voltage on crystal 4
frequency generator I-IFG (see Figure 1) is above
will be half the frequency that it was for the
or below its assigned Value.
condition when the generator frequency was F0.
The voltage at terminal ll of Figure 3 is im
The resulting voltages impressed on thecontrol
pressed through a suitable resistance and con
grids of VTl and V’I'zyare represented in Figure
lb by E91 andE‘gz. Examination of this curve
shows that VTl will draw more current than
VT2 because the grid is plus during the time
that the plate voltage is also plus whereasv the ‘*
denser ?lter on the control grid of vacuum tube
ampli?er T4. Vacuum tubes T4, T5 and To serve
to regulate the power supply at terminals a, I)
connected to the oscillation generator. -.
The voltage impressed on the control grid g4
2,404,568
5
.of electron discharge device T4 from potentiom
eter l6 by way of tap 3H5 is ampli?ed by tubes
T4 and'Ta and impressed on the grid g6 of vacuum
tube T6 in such a way as to maintain the voltage
across the output terminals a and b constant.
The function of the glow tubes GT1 and GT2
of Figure 3 is to maintain the cathodes C4 and
C5 of vacuum tubes T4 and T5 at a ?xed potential
6
crease the smoothing of the power supply ripple
voltage from the high voltage recti?er. This con
denser will result in a higher percentage of the
ripple voltage which appears across a—b being
impressed on the grid of T4 than would result
with just the potentiometer [6. Of course, in
creased regulation of slow voltage variations
across a—b would result if the tap on the poten
tiometer could be moved to b, but this would re
across a—b will increase the voltage from a to 10 sult in excessive bias on T4 unless glow tube regu
lators with an operating voltage nearly equal to
the tap 3I6 on the potentiometer Hi. This means
the voltage across a-—b were used.
the grid voltage of T4 will be made more negative
The resistance 3|8 between the grid G4 of T4
with respect to a or ground and, hence with re
and the potentiometer tap is to permit the grid
spect to its cathode C4. This will reduce the
current in the plate resistor R4 of tube T4 and, 15 to follow the voltage variation on H. Similarly
the resistance 32E] between I‘! and the grid of T4
hence, decrease the negative potential on the
is to permit the grid to follow the voltage varia
grid Gs of T5. This will result in an increase in
tions of the tap 3|6. In some cases the regula
current through the plate resistor R5 of tube T5
tion of the potentiometer would be high enough
and an increase in negative potential of the grid
Go of T6. Thus, the voltage drop across T6 is 20 so that the resistor 3| 8 adjacent the tap could
below ground.
Thus an increase in voltage
increased to maintain a constant voltage across
a—b when the voltage from the high voltage
recti?er increases. If the connection point at I‘!
is broken, the tubes T4, T5 and Te maintain nearly
constant voltage across a and b.
The voltage from terminal H being impressed
be omitted.
‘
The balanced detector 10 may also be used to
directly operate a reversible motor for frequency
control. Such an arrangement is illustrated in
Figure 4. It will be noted that the armature of
the reversible frequency controlling motor 4RM
is connected between terminals GT and 4T1. The
?eld for the reversible motor is connected be
across the output terminals a and b and thereby
tween the terminals 4T1 and 4T2.
vary the frequency of the generator in a manner
Having thus described my invention, what I
determined by its voltage versus frequency char 30
claim is:
acteristic. As explained above, in a “Klystron”
1. In combination, an adjustable electrical de
or similar type of oscillator the frequency in
Vice carrying high frequency oscillations, a low
creases with an increase in plate voltage and
loss resonant element, means for exciting said
decreases with a decrease in plate voltage. For
element with oscillations derived from said de
more detailed circuit connections to such an os
vice, a source of constant relatively low frequency
cillator, reference is made to Figure 1 of my
waves, means for cyclically changing the tuning
copending application Serial No. 446,457, ?led
of said element under control of waves from said
June 10, 1942.
source, means for rectifying oscillations derived
Since the voltage I1 is determined by the
from said cyclically tuned element, means for
amount the generator is off frequency this volt 40 rectifying waves from said low frequency source,
age can be used to correct the frequency. If the
means for combining the recti?ed oscillations and
drift of the generator is large it would not be
waves, and means responsive to the combined
possible to correct it entirely by means of the
waves for changing the adjustment of said de
circuits shown in Figure 3 since there is usually
vice.
an optimum voltage for this type of generator.
2. In combination, a generator of high fre
However, minor corrections could be made with
quency oscillations having an adjustable fre
this circuit up to a certain point where a motor
quency controlling device, a low loss resonant
operated as illustrated in Figure 1 could take
element, means for exciting said element with os
control to make a major correction in frequency.
cillations derived from said generator, a source
This correction would also bring the supply volt, 60 of relatively low frequency waves, means for cy
age back to normal. This combination would
clically changing the tuning of said element un
result in less operation of the relays and, hence,
der control of waves from said source, means for
longer life for the relays.
rectifying and limiting oscillations derived from
In other words, the frequency controlling sys
said cyclically tuned element, means for rectify
tems of Figures 1 and 3 may be used simultane 55 ing waves from said low frequency source, a bal
ously for frequency controlling the high frequency
anced detector for combining the recti?ed oscil
generator HFG of Figure 1. The conductor 4F
lations and waves, and means responsive to un
in this case, of Figure 3, would be connected to
balance of the detector waves for changing the
the terminal T of Figure l and the relay coil H
adjustment of said device.
of Figure 1 would be connected in shunt to the 60
3. In combination, a circuit carrying high fre
resistors l4, 15 of Figure 3. This shunt connec
quency oscillations, a low loss resonant element,
tion is possible when the relay coil is of sui?ciently
means for exciting said element with oscillations
high resistance, in which case it may be connected
derived from said circuit, a source of constant,
in place of resistors I4, 15. If the relay coil H
relatively low frequency waves, means for cycli
65
is of low resistance it may be connected in series
cally changing the tuning of said element under
with and between resistors I4 and I5.
control of waves from said source, means for rec
The function of the condenser resistance net
tifying oscillations derived from said cyclically
works |3—|4, l3—l5 of Figure 3 and the net
tuned element, means for rectifying waves from
work of capacity and resistance 30?) immediately
said low frequency source, means for combining
above I1 is to smooth out the ripple voltage due
the recti?ed oscillations and waves, and means
to the pulses of current through tubes VT1 and
responsive to the combined waves for changing
VTz. The variations of voltage at I‘! due to fre
the tuning of said circuit.
.1
quency changes are of a comparatively slow rate.
4. In combination, a generator of high frequen
cy oscillations having an adjustable frequency
The function of condenser 302 between the point
‘D and the tap 316 on the potentiometer is to in
controlling reactor, a low loss resonant element,
on the grid G4 of tube T4 will vary the voltage
aeogscs
7
meansfor exciting said element with oscillations
combining the recti?ed oscillations and waves,
derivedfrom said generator, a source of audio
frequency waves, means for cyclically changing
the tuning of said element under control of waves
and means responsive to the combined waves for
from said source, means for rectifying oscilla
tions derived from said cyclically tuned element,
quency oscillations, a low loss resonant element,
means for exciting said element with oscillations
changing the effective tuning of said circuit.
10. In combination, a circuit carrying high fre
means for rectifying waves from said audio fre
derived from said circuit, a source of relatively
quency source, means for combining the recti?ed
low frequency Waves, means for cyclically chang
oscillations and waves, and means responsive to
ing the tuning of said element under control of
the combined waves for changing the adjustment 10 waves from said source, means for limiting and
of said reactor.
rectifying oscillations derived from said cyclically
5. In combination, a circuit carrying high fre
tuned element, means for rectifying waves from
quency oscillations, a low loss resonant element,
said low frequency source, means for combining
means for exciting said element with oscillations
the recti?ed oscillations and waves, and means
derived from said circuit, a source of relatively
responsive to the combined waves for changing
low constant frequency waves, means for cycli
the effective tuning of said circuit.
cally changing the tuning of said element under
11. In combination, a circuit carrying high'fre
control of waves from said source, means for rec
quency oscillations, a low loss resonant element,
.tifying and limiting oscillations derived from said
means for exciting said element with oscillations
cyclically tuned element, means for full wave rec
derived from said circuit, a source of relatively
tifying waves from said low frequency source,
low frequency waves, means for cyclically chang
means ‘for combining the recti?ed oscillations and
ing the tuning of said element under control of
waves, and means responsive to the combined
waves from said source, means for rectifying and
waves for changing the effective frequency of op
limiting oscillations derived from said cyclically
eration of said circuit.
tuned element, means for rectifying waves from
6. In combination, a circuit carrying high fre
said low frequency source, means for combining
quency oscillations, a low loss resonant element,
the recti?ed oscillations and Waves, and means
means for exciting said element with oscillations
responsive to the combined waves for changing
derived from said element, a source of relatively
the tuning of said circuit.
low frequency waves, means for cyclically chang 30
12. In combination, a generator of high fre
ing the tuning of said element under control of
quency oscillations, a low loss resonator element,
waves from said source, means for rectifying os~
means for exciting said element with oscillations
cillations derived from said cyclically tuned ele
derived from said generator, a source of relatively
ment, means for combining waves derived from
low frequency waves, means for cyclically chang
the recti?ed oscillations and waves derived from
ing the tuning of said element under control of
said low frequency source, and means responsive
waves from _said source, means for rectifying os
to the combined Waves for changing the effective
cillations derived from said cyclically tuned ele
frequency of operation of said circuit.
ment, a balanced detecting arrangement for com
7. In combination, a circuit carrying high fre
binmg the recti?ed oscillations with waves ‘de
quency oscillations, a low loss resonant element, 40 rived from said source of relatively low frequency
means for exciting said element with oscillations
waves, and means responsive to the output of said
derived from said circuit, a source of relatively
balanced detecting arrangement for changing the
low frequency Waves, means for cyclically chang
frequency of operation of said generator.
ing the tuning of said element under control of
13, In combination, a generator of high fre
waves from said source, means for rectifying and 45 quency waves; a stable low loss concentric con
limiting oscillations derived from said cyclically
ductor tank circuit tuned to a desired frequency
of operation, said tank circuit having its outer
conductor perforated; a circuit coupling said gen
tuned element, means for full wave rectifying
waves from said low frequency source, means for
combining the recti?ed oscillations and waves,
and means responsive to the combined waves for
erator to said tank circuit so as to excite said
tank circuit with Waves derived from said gen
changing the tuning of said circuit.
8._ In combination, a circuit carrying high fre
mounted for movement in said perforation so as
quency oscillations, a low loss resonant element,
means for exciting said element with oscillations
derived from said circuit, a source of relatively
low frequency waves, means for cyclically chang
ing the tuning of said element under control of
waves from said source, means for rectifying os
cillations derived from said cyclically tuned ele
erator;
a physically movable tuning device
to vary the tuning of said tank circuit; a source
of 60_cycle low frequency waves; apparatus re
sponsive to said low frequency waves for cyclically
moving said device so as to vary, at a synchronous
rate with respect to the frequency of said source
of low frequency waves, the tuning of said stable
concentric line tank about a desired frequency of
ment, means for limiting the recti?ed oscillations, 60 operations; a detector coupled to said cyclically
means for rectifying waves from said low fre
tuned tank circuit; a balanced vacuum tube de
quency source, means for combining the recti?ed,
tecting system coupled to said detector and to
limited oscillations and Waves, and means re
said source of 60 cycle Waves, said detecting sys
sponsive to the combined waves for changing the
tem producing a variable voltage as the fre
effective tuning of said circuit.
quency of said high frequency generator varies
9. In combination, a circuit carrying high fre
with respect to the mean frequency of operation
quency oscillations, a low loss resonant element,
of said variable tuned tank circuit, and means
means for exciting said element with oscillations
utilizing the variable voltage so produced for con»
derived from said circuit, a source of relatively
trolling the frequency of operation of said high
frequency generator.
low frequency Waves, means for cyclically chang
ing the tuning of said element under control of
14. In combination, a generator of high fre
waves from said source, means for rectifying and
quency Waves, a stable low loss concentric con
limiting oscillations derived from said cyclically
ductor tank circuit tuned to a desired frequency
of operation, said tank circuit having its outer
conductor perforated, a circuit coupling said gen
tuned element, means for full Wave rectifying
waves from said low frequency source, means for
10
varying the ‘tuning‘of said stable circuit about a
erator to said tank circuit so as to excite said tank
circuit with waves derived from‘ said generator,
an electromechanically» driven tuning device
mounted for physical movement in said perfo
rated conductor so a's'to Vary the tuning of said
tank circuit, a source of low frequency waves,-ap
desired frequency of operation, a recti?er rectify
ing waves derived- from said variably tuned stable
circuit,‘a detecting system‘ supplied with and re—
sponsive to waves derived from said recti?er and
from said relatively low frequency source to pro
duce a voltage which varies in polarity depending
upon changes ‘in frequency of said controllable
system above and below a desired frequency of
operation,‘ and instrumentalities responsive to the
paratus responsive to said low frequency waves
for cyclically moving’ said device so as to vary
the tuning of said concentric line tank about a
desired frequency of operation, a'detector coupled
voltage‘produced by said detecting system to
to said cyclically tuned tank circuit, a balanced
detecting system coupled to said detector and to
change the frequency of operation of said con
troll'able system in a direction towards the de
said source of low frequency waves, said balanced
sired frequency of operation.
detecting system producing a voltage which varies
as the frequency of said high frequency generator
‘ '18. In combination, a generator of high fre
varies with respect to the mean frequency of op
eration of said tank circuit, and means utilizing
' quency waves, a stable low loss concentric con
ductcr tank'circuit tuned to a desired frequency
of operation, said tankv circuit having its outer
~conductor perforated, a circuit coupling said
the variable voltage produced by said balanced
detecting system for controlling the frequency of
operation of said high frequency generator.
'
20 generator to said tank circuit soas to excite said
oscillations generated by said generator, said
tankcircuit With- Waves derived from said gen
erator, a mechanically movable conductor
mounted for movement in said perforation so as
stable circuit being coupled to said generator so
to vary the tuning of said tank circuit, a source
as to be excited by oscillations generated by said _
generator, a source of relatively low frequency
waves, means responsive to waves from said low
of low frequency Waves, apparatus responsive to
said low frequency waves for electromechanically
moving said movable conductor in the space be
frequency source for cyclically Varying the tuning
tween said concentric conductors so as to vary,
in synchronism with said low frequency waves,
the tuning of said stable tank circuit about a de
sired frequency of operation, a detector coupled
15‘. In combination, a generator of oscillations,
a stable circuit tuned to a desired frequency of
of said stable circuit about a desired frequency
of operation, a recti?er rectifying waves derived '4
from said variably tuned stable circuit, a balanced
detecting system responsive to and comparing
waves derived from said recti?er and from said
relatively low frequency source so as to produce a
voltage which varies in polarity depending upon
departures in frequency of said oscillation gen
erator away from a desired frequency of opera
tion, and instrumentalities responsive to the
voltage produced by said balanced detecting sys
tem to reduce the departure in frequency of op
eration of said oscillation generator away from
the desired frequency of operation.
16. In combination, a generator of high fre
quency waves of a desired frequency, a stable low
to said cyclically tuned tank circuit, a balanced
detecting system coupled to said detector and to
said source of low frequency waves, said balanced
detecting system producing a variable voltage as
the frequency of said high frequency generator
varies with respect to the mean frequency of op
eration of said stable tunable tank circuit, and
means utilizing the variable voltage so produced
for controlling the frequency of operation of said
high frequency generator.
19. In combination, a generator of high fre
quency waves of a, desired frequency, a stable low
loss tank circuit having an outer radiation con
?ning conductor tuned to said desired frequency
loss tank circuit tuned to said desired frequency
of operation, a circuit coupling said generator to
of operation, a circuit coupling said generator to
said tank circuit whereby said tank circuit is
said tank circuit whereby said tank circuit is
excited with waves derived from said generator,
excited with waves derived from said generator, a
a source of low frequency waves, rotatable tuning
source of low frequency waves, apparatus op
erated by said source of low frequency waves for 50 apparatus mounted for movement in an opening
in said outer conductor operated by said source
cyclically and continuously changing the tuning
of low frequency waves for periodically and con
of said tank circuit about said desired frequency
of operation, a recti?er fed with waves derived
tinuously changing the tuning of said tank circuit
about said desired frequency of operation, 2, rec
from said variably tuned tank circuit, a detecting
system supplied with waves derived from said 55 ti?er fed with waves derived from said variably
tuned tank circuit, a balanced detecting system
recti?er and said low frequency source, said de
supplied with waves derived from said recti?er
tecting system operating to combine the waves
and said low frequency source, said balanced de
supplied to it from said recti?er and from said
tecting system operating to produce a control
low frequency source to produce a voltage which
changes in polarity when the frequency of said 60 voltage which varies when said high frequency
generator varies in frequency away from the
high frequency generator passes through the
mean frequency of operation of said variably
mean frequency of operation of said variably
tuned circuit, and means responsive to said pro
tuned circuit, and means responsive to said pro
duced control voltage to modify the frequency of
duced voltage acting to restore the frequency of
operation of said high frequency generator back 65 operation of said high frequency generator.
to a desired operating frequency.
17. In combination, a controllable
system
carrying high frequency oscillations, a stable tank
circuit tuned to a'desired frequency of oscilla
tions generated by said generator, said stable cir
cuit being coupled to said system so as to be ex
cited by oscillations derived from said system, a
source of relatively low frequency waves, means
responsive to Waves from said low frequency
source for synchronously and electromechanically
20. In combination, a generator of high fre
quency waves of a desired frequency, a stable low
loss two-conductor concentric line tank circuit
tuned to said desired frequency of operation, a
70 circuit coupling said generator to said tank cir
cuit whereby said tank circuit is excited with
waves derived from said generator, a source of
low frequency waves, a device mounted for move
ment in the space between the conductors of said
concentric line, apparatus operated by said source
2,404,568
1l
12
of low frequency waves for synchronously and
oscillations generated, by said generator, 9. source
of relatively low‘ frequency waves, means’ respon
continuously moving said device thereby‘ periodi
cally changing the tuning of said, concentric line
tank circuit about said desired frequency of op
sive» to waves from said low" frequency source for
cyclically varying the tuning of said stable circuit
about a desired frequency of, operation, said
means including a physically movable conductor
mounted for movement. in an opening in said
outer conductor, a recti?er rectifying waves de
‘balanced detecting system operating to produce
rived’ from said variably tuned stable circuit, a
a Voltage which changes in polarity when said 10 balanced vacuum tube. detecting system respon
high frequency generator varies in frequency
sive to waves derived'from said recti?er andifrom
through the mid-frequency of operation of said
said relatively low frequency source to produce
a voltage which varies. in polarity depending, upon
variably tuned circuit, and means responsive to
eration, a recti?er fed with .waves derived from
said variably tuned tank circuit,v a balanced de
tecting system supplied with waves derived from
said recti?er and said low frequency source, said
changes in frequency of said oscillation generator
said voltage produced by said balanced detector
to alter the frequency of operation of, said high 15 above and below a desired frequency of operation,
frequency generator.
and instrumentali-ties responsive, to- the voltage
produced by said balanced vacuum tube detecting
21. In combination, a generator of high fre
system to change the frequency of operation of
quency oscillations, a stable concentric line circuit
said oscillation generator in a. direction towards
tunedto a desired frequency of oscillations gen
erated by said generator, saidstable, circuitbeing 20 the desired frequency of operation.
coupled to said generator so asv to be excited by
ORVILLE E.. DOW.
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