Патент USA US2404603код для вставки
July 23, 1946. l2,404,603 T. O. SUMMERS, JR ATTITUDE-INDICATING FLIGHT INSTRUMENT ~ s sheets-sheet 1 Filed Jan. 4, V194:3 ||||||| y. ~ ik* Í q, www . BY / /D / . ¿v1/j( ì , / MÃ ATTORNEY. July 23, 1946. _ T. o. suMMERs‘. JR - 2,404,603 ATTITUDE-INDIIGATING FLIGHT INSTRUMENT , ,Filed Jan. 4, 1943 ./ T ` s sheets-‘sheet 2 ` 'laA f / l , „f È IT INVEN TOR. if' f, â, d ' ' y 7270/1/45@ SUMME/35 BY ATTORNEY. July 23, -1946. T. o. sUMMERs, JR » 2,494,503- ATTITUDE-INDICATING FLIGHT INSTRUMENT Filed Jän. 4, 1945 , .fs sheets-sheet- 3 l '36 ¿a f7 ~ V' 87 @a 37 i _89 ` 3] „ _ 5 _ N > . . ` j > ' Ä\ï - _32 ./ 2f ' 56» 9/\ f5 "v1-_Ü 2L 19,. y if _ _ . 5@ . Y/ 26 52 122 ¿4 y i’. 54 » l y .» ) 79 5J. ' 7. ' . I INVENTOR, _ZZ/@V45 Ú. jan/MERS JQ. 75 ~ _ ` lAT’roRmsY. 2,404,603 Patented July 23, 1946 UNITED STATES PATENT vorricla‘.l ATTITUDE-INDICATTNG FLIGHT ’ INSTRUMENT Thomas 0. Summers, Jr., Los Angeles, Calif. Application January 4, 1943, Serial No.,471,259 > t 10 Claims. (Cl. 33-204) . 2 the indicating media are observed, with theresult that this support not onlyobscures vision through the window and thereby complicates the` matter This invention relates to"`attitude-indicating flight instruments and more particularly to in struments of the type commonly used as an aid to navigation of an aircraft and wherein an air of reading the instrument, but it also actually craft semblance is caused by gyroscopic stabiliza tion Ato depict pitchV and roll of the aircraft. An object of the'present invention is to pro -dial which could be employed most advanta occupies a position in front of the instrument’s geously for a more beneñcial purpose, such as for the accommodation of the referencel scalefor > yvide an attitude-indicating flight instrument which includes a combination of Vcooperatively associated indicators, one of which' shows direc anindicator'used to indicate direction and ex tent >of rolling movements of the craft.v »_Hereto fore, since'the adjustable‘datum support has nec essarily. obscured the View o_fy an appreciable por tion and extent >of pitch while- another shows direction and extent of roll, with the result that observation of this single instrument, even if by only `a single hurried glance, will impart, to the tion of the lower half ofthe instrument’s4 dial, it has been necessary to position this reference scale in the upper half of the dial Where it must be used to measure movements of the upper end <of pilot all of the data required to` enable him to keep his ship in the desired iiying attitude. ' Since vthe “lift” of an `>airplane is dependent the vertical indicating reference. It is for this reason that the roll-indicating marker of an upon several Variable factors, such as trim, air instrument of this type and constructed accord speed, total load, and load distribution, it fre' quently occurs that, in order -to ily at constant 20 ing to conventional design, while showing cor rectly the degree or extent of roll, moves back elevation, the attitude of> an' airplane with re ward over the scale and therefore vindicates di spect to the horizontal must be varied to com rection of bank incorrectly. That is to say, ina pensate for variation in one or more of `those conventional instrument the roll pointer moves to factors. For example, if the total load weight is decreased or if the center of gravity of the load 25 the left across its associatedfscale whenth'erair craft banks to the right, and toward the 'right is moved aft While thev air speed is permitted to 'when the aircraft banks to theleft. This con fusing situation is remedied by the instrument of the present invention wherein the pitch-'indicat ing datum marker is amxed directly to thetrans parent window of the instrument, thereby obvi ating'the necessity of providing any other sup remain constant,` as' frequently' occurs during _ bombing‘operations, i-t is necessary. for the' ship to fly with itsV tail slightly 'higher in order to avoid ' its 'increasing kits altitude. y Consequently it has proved desirable to -provide'attitudeàindí eating instruments with an adjustment whereby a pilot is enabledto set the indicating member to a zero-reading position wh'enheknows ‘his 'craft is iiying atcon'stant‘elevation and there after rely upon the instrument to show whether his craftY is flying at constant elevation,l and if 4not at how much deviation therefrom, rather port therefor and leaving the entire portion of the dial which is below, the datum marker com pletely unobscured. As a result,V the scale of the vertical indicator can be -accommodated con veniently in this Ymoreadvantageous position, thus permitting'use ofthe lower end of the vertical y >indicator with the result that it shows not only the extent of roll but also the direction.> Another advantage of providing the adjustable feature in than whether or not the ship itself is in any par’ V . ticular attitude with respect to the horizontal. i In those instruments in which an adjustment of the character indicated is Provided it is cus- t tomary to make lthe adjustment in the position "conjunction with the gyroscopically stabilizedin dicator instead of with they datum marker is that of the datum marker, i. e., the indicator which is mounted directly upon the housing of the in strument and which therefore serves merely as a basis of reference with which the gyroscopically by so doing the two indicating 4media are disposed at'> the exact center of the transparent: ~Window when in their zero-reading position, insteadA of -inv ' stabilized indicator may be compared in reading the instrument to~ determine pitch. However, , ter, Was frequently occurs with fmorel> conventional " certain inherent disadvantages lie in providing the adjustment in connection with _the datum marker. `One such-disadvantage is that it neces-> sitates providinga` support for the adjustable marker which necessarily is positioned closely ad a position considerably ldisplaced- fromV ythe cen-v instruments of this type. f 50 '» « ` _ Therefore v,one of the mai-n o> jects of the pres' ent invention is-to provide anatti’tude-indicating night instrument äof the general ‘characterï dej scribed, whereinthe datum marker is mounted in fixed position upon Ythe transparent faceêof the jacentthe transparent window through which 5.51 instrument and 'which' ¿includes »means fori ad » '2,404,603 S 4 justing the other of the two cooperating pitch-` indicating markers so that the pilot is enabled to set it to zero-reading position by manual op of section being indicated by the line 6_6 of Figure 5 and the direction of View by the arrows, eration. Another object is to provide an attitude-indi cating night instrument of the character de scribed, wherein the datum marker of the pitchl top plan. Figure 7 is a longitudinal, vertical sectional view of the casing of the instrument, showing the internal mechanism of the instrument in side indicator-iis mounted directly-fupon‘the, crystal’` elevation». and showing most of the internal mechanism in '- ‘ _» ~_. f - » ~ ~ »_ _ ...Figure 8I isjanexplode'dfview in 'perspective of require any bracket or other form of support 10 the gyroscopically stabilized pitch indicator and the manually adjustable operating mechanism which would obscure view of any portion of the face ofthe instrument and therefore'. does not dial therebehind, and wherein advantage is taken? ’ therefor. has been made available, by placing the refer-` that part of the dial, instead of in the upper part. as has been Vdone heretofore, and thereby A'so ar shown asV being enclosed within a suitable hous ing or casing adapted for mounting upon the in ~ strumerrtl >panel'of an airplane. The front wall ranging the instrument that it gives a true read-,_ ing of the direction, as well as the extent, of roll. bOdY 0f the Casing I6 as by a plurality of screws ence scale for the ver-tical-indicatingY pointer vin ~ v|'|,_ whichY preferably is removably secured to the Yet another object is to construct the adjust .|8, carries a crystal face,„or'window I9 through ment for the gyroscopically stabilized.y indicator which Jmay beV 'observed the :indicating `media of insuch a manner, and so to associate it with its the instrument. stabiliaing _gyro vertical, that although the indi The mechanism for operating these indicating mediacomprises a gyro' Vertical indicated in its cator actually is stabilized so Yas to permit the casingof the instrument, and with it the fixed datum marker, to lmove in rotary motion around - ' entirety at 2| 'and supported in a `‘gimbal ring 22 for rotaryV movement about a ‘transverse axis by aligned bearings23; The fgimb’al ring 22 is sup ported Vfor movement about Ma longitudinal axis thestabiliaed indicator,_ that indicator actually tion and thereby amplify ,the 'apparent movement o_f the indicatorY to make 4reading of Íthe 'instru is caused to move slightly'in -the opposite direc by 'aligned bearings 24 which conne'ct'the gimbal ring 22 to the housingl ’16. The forward "one of the two bearingsy 24 is carried 'by >a pillar 26 rigid 30 ment easier and more positive.A A furtherrobject of mypr'esent invention is to with and extending upwards 'from th'ebottom of provide an instrument having a manually adjust able gyroscopically Ystabilized indicatorf as de the housing |6. _ This pillar‘also carries aback ground shield 2_1 whichv preferably is lin the form scribed, which is particularly adapted for,`but: is` not necessarily limited to, use in an instrument of a segment ofi aßph'erfe _they center of which lies substantially at the intersection of the‘transverse .Whereinthe actuating forces are derived'from a and longitudinalgimbal -axes. Since the diameter of the shield 2l is somewhat 'greater than that of >the opening in the front wall |'| of the housing gyro Vertical, th'e erecting mechanism of which is constructed in accordance with the principles forming part of theï‘subject matter of my co I6 withA which the ‘crystal face |'9'is associated 40 pending applic-ation, Serial No. 462,943, ñled Oc tober_f2_2‘,k'194'2. the shield 21 serves to hide Vthe, internal mecha ni'sm of the jinstrumen‘t’leaving .only the indicat ' ing media visible through lthe crystal face' 1'9. As4 explained,‘the gyroyertical 2| is mounted ablefeatures“, of which,> .with j those enu- , merated, willbe set forth in the following descrip-v 45 for V4universal'moven‘ient 'about the transverse `and f longitudinal gimbal'axe's; but the'extent of'such movement is Vlimited by preferably cushioned stops 28 ‘and 29. vThjerstop‘Zß Ais Ycarried by the rotor-bearing casing §3f| V‘of _the gyro gve'rtical ’2| in such position. that' it will 'engagea DOl‘îâîon of the gimbal ringzz jandtnereby limit movement of thegyr'o vertical ‘2| about transverse axis.; and tion ofthe preferred embodiment of my invention `illustrated in the drawings accompanying and formingpart of the speciiica'tion.A It is to be understood that I do not limit myself to the show ingymadeby 'the said drawings and description, 50 as 1 may adopt variations 'of the _preferred form withinthe vscope o'ffmy invention as deñned by the plans.v _ '_ f Referring to the drawings: ‘ ~ the stop 29 -which is carried"'b'y’gtheV ‘gimb‘al _ring 22 is'adapted to engage 'either one ‘or the: other of ' Figure 1 is a face view of'a. liiight-ind'icai-,ing two}_laterally' extending A‘ears “ 32 ‘ which _are 'p1-b instrument 'incorporating _the principles .of the vided 'on the'z‘upper end 'of the 'pillar`2|ì,y and there present invention and showing the indicating media thereof~ in the respective positionsloccu- _ byî limit motion ofthe 'gimbal ring '23, and Vthe gyro 'vertical 2| about -the ¿longitudinal'gimbal pied thereby when the plane carrying the instru-‘_` ` f '.:Theprefer'red embodiment of the flight-indi cating instrument of the present invention is of the fact that the lower part of the dial thus _ment is in level flight. _ - ì 1. axis. ' You ' . _ l ' v ~ ' > inthe Yn1o¿irritatien»illustrated ’and nere-being V~c1escribes, 'tnegyro 'verticarîl is ofjthe type de Figure 2 is a Yview-similar to Figurerl but show-_ ing‘the vertical-indicating marker` moved .to -show ' scribed ‘more’particul’arly’in my> co-pending ap jthatthe‘nshippis‘intzt-30° left bank. ‘ plication Serial No. 462,943, filed October 22; 1942, ‘_ , Figure 3 _is another view similar to_Figure_ ll inasmuch as the 'erecting mechanism'whichifforms an important portion thereof vtakes the' 'formof Y_butI Withvthe indicator showing that the ship kis ‘ Y experiencing a_ f‘tail high"¿attitude. a pair of crossed, bail like, substantially Semi -_ y»Figure ‘_1-fis. another. vièW similar@ Figure V1 . iii‘i_`gure5V is a view .in side elevation of rthe- in îcircular stator members 36' and 3L 'These stators et ‘and si extend transvetseiy and mngitudinany, respectively', with 'fespe'c't'rto the instrument, and both» areengaged lby. aroto’r "38 which is an up its sidecoverplate being broken away to reveal 'ward> extensionboffithevlsh'aftßofîthe gyroscope’s Y „rotorinot shown) whenever displacement _ofthe ' with the instrument indicating both a slightly “au 19W# attitude anda 30° right bank- _ _ .apart rofthe internal mechanism. _. ¿.¿Figureß iis la longitudinal, horizontal >sectional view of _the casing of the instrument, the plane err-01 vertical.. frein. iiSïÍ vefiîèaltpositìón Occurs-_ .irbefstaior §56 isimeùntesitforfrotary movement about an axis extending transversely of the cas «2,404,603 ing I6 for which purpose one end 39 of the stator 36 is pivoted directly tothe casing I6 as by a pivot pin 4I. At its diametrically opposite point, describe the actionmore .precisely,f however, in actual use the stator element >36, the arm 53 which is connected theretoVand `the indicator bar 51 however, the housing I6 has an opening `42 closed ' are stabilized bythe gyro vertical. 2I and hence remain substantially stationary while the housing by a cover plate 43 spaced outward slightly from I6 moves with respect thereto with the result that the associated portion of the housing I6 by an to a person observingthe indicator bar 51 through . outwardly extending flange 44. Hence, in order the crystal face I9 the bar 51 will appear to fall to provide support for the other end 46 of the when the plane’sattitude changes by lowering its stator 36, a bracket 41' is secured to the housing I6 below the opening 42 and extending downwards 10 forwardy portion', and to rise when the nose of the ship is raised. Y ‘ Y to support a pivot pin 48 for the end `46` in axial In order to facilitate ready determination of alignment with the pin 4I. Thus it- may be seen the direction and extent of any such apparent that the semi-circular stator 36, because of the motion ofthe indicator bar 51 there is associated engagement of the upper end of the rotor shaft 38 therewith, will follow the movements of the gyro 15 therewith a datum marker 66 which is rigidly secured to the casing I6, preferably by being per vertical 2| about its transverse gimbal axis re manently fastened to the inner side of the crystal gardless of the position of the »gimbal ring 22 face I9, and substantially at its center. y The within the housing I6. datum marker 66 vpreferably is so shaped that it Carried by the cover plate 43 and preferably simulates the after 0r tail portion of an airplane, in a position spaced from the axis of the trans and since the datum marker 66 is to be observed verse stator 36 is a tubular bearing 5I having a in connection with the bar 51 it is preferred that pin 52 rotatable therein and extending there these two bars be so proportioned with respect to through, with an arm 53 supported upon the inner each other that the-two, when observed simul end of the pin 52. Preferably both the bearing 5I and the pin 52 are materially-elongated so as 25 taneously, closely simulate the appearance of an actual aircraft when viewed from some distance to minimize the tendency for the pin 52 to bind within Yits bearing tube 5I »and thereby contribute astern thereof. Therefore when the plane on .l which the instrument is mounted alters its atti tude, say for example, so as to assume a “tail the axis of its vsupporting pin 5I. Y The arm 53 is provided with an outwardly de y30 high’.’ position, the horizontal indicator> bar 51 will remain substantially stationary while the flected portion 54 forward of its supporting pin datum marker is carried upward with respect 5I to enable the arm 53 to extend around and thereto >with theresult that these parts assume past the proximal end 46 of the stator element a position such as `that illustrated in Figure 3 36. It is for the accommodation of this out wardly deflected portion 54 without'unduly en 35 `wherein the two indicators 51 and 66 closely simu ,late the appearance of an actual aircraft in “tail larging the housing I6 that the opening ‘42 and thigh” position and viewed from` astern. Should the outwardly extending flange 44 are provided. the plane assume a _“tail lowî’ position the action Forward of the bracket 41 the arm is provided will be reversed, thedatum marker 66 moving with a longitudinally extending slot 56; and for: ward of the slot the arm 53 is deflected inwards 40 downwards from its zero-reading position so that the instrument presents an appearance such- as again to clear the forward portion of the flange that illustrated in Figure 4. Consequently these 44. To the extreme forward end of the arm 53 two indicators 51 and 66 are of such form and an indicator bar 51 is afñxed. 'I_'his indicator cooperate with each other in such a manner that bar 51 extends transversely across the housing I6 just forward of the background shield 21 where 45 they do not require any interpretation, i. e., it is - not necessary for the pilot to convert in his own it is visible through the crystal face I9. Prefer mind the indications of the instrument _to terms ably this transverse indicator bar 51 is shaped to which will enable him to operate his controlsv simulate the forward wing portion of an airplane properly._ Byl presenting an instrument in which as clearly shown in Figures 1 to 4, inclusive, and 8, and, since its supporting arm 53 is pivoted to 50 the indicators actually simulate a real airplane and also simulate the movements of the fore-and the housing I6 of the instrument it will remain after ends ofvan airplane, the movements which at all times parallel to the transverse axis of the the airplane is experiencing are depicted, and the airplane in which the instrument is mounted, with pilot is enabled thereby to develop without mental the result that’it serves as an indicator useful to show lateral inclination, or roll ofthe aircraft 55 effort those mental reactions which are necessary for the proper maneuvering of his ship. . v ' -on which the instrument is mounted. Adjusting means are provided for shifting the Means are provided, however, for connecting transverse indicator 51 without effecting any the supporting arm 53 to the stator element 36 movement of the stator element 36 or thegyro in such a manner as to utilize the gyro vertical 2| for the stabilization of the indicator bar 51. 60 vertical 2I. lThis is for the purpose ofenabling the pilot to move the indicator 51 into accurate Hence the housing I6 moves in rotary motion alignment with the datum marker 66 while the about the transverse gimbal axis and with respect ship is flying under such conditions thaty it is ` to the bar 51 during pitching movements of the abnormally “tail high”'or “tail low.” The. cover aircraft, with the result that the indicator bar 51 can be relied upon also to indicate direction 65 plate 43 for the opening42, instead of being rig idly secured to the casing I6, isattached adjacent and extent of such pitching movements. A pin oneend only by a single screw 1I which-has a 6I rigid with the stator element 36 extends for shoulder 12 thereon which is slightly wider than ward therefrom, and preferably radially from the, the thickness of ythe cover'plate 43 vand which, axis about which the stator element 36 is mov therefore, tightens against thelouter face'of the able. The forward end 62 of the pinI 6I is de-v 70 Vflange 44 into which-the screwl 1I is threadedso flecte'd Youtwards to be engaged slidably within as to leave the cover plate '43 free Yto pivot about ‘ theslot 56vin the -arm 53 with lthe result that the axis of the screw] I. Such pivotal kmovement `when the stator 36 swings forward about its axis of the cover plate 43 resultsin raising or lowering of support the supporting arm 53 will swing down to the freedom of movement of the arm 53 about wards about the axis of l/itssupporting pin 5 I. 'I_‘o the pin 52upon which arm 53'is mounted; and erroneos 7 g8 when „such` movement .of .the . kpin 52Y occurs; the A'crystal face |19. ffI‘liis `.vertical indicator 86.5is maintained vertical; regardless ¿of the movements experienced by the housing I6,xby thagimbal :ring Yarmwill pivoty about :that portion 62 ,of ¿the pin 6I which is yengaged »within Vthe „slot '56fçand Athereby affect vertical adjustment of `the indicating .bar 51".. ,A .manually rotatable knob 'I3 accessible at therv front of theinstrumentis carried ,bya shaft 'Mfwhich >is ‘revolubly mounted in thefront wall and extends therethroughto receive apinion 'I6 whichis rigid with .its inner end and which is . 212, ,upon #which it is mounted. ‘ The. upper end .81, -.ofV the .indicator ‘86 >is deñected horizontally .and then downwards :as yat 88soas to permit fat tachment of the bar :86 rigidly tothe =gimbal`;22 as by a screw 39.. Consequently the .bar -8.6.- pro vides aconvenient reference line which is always enmeshed withrack teeth 11 Acarried by arforward v10 visible through the >crystal face I9 and is always extensionV ‘I8 of the cover platey 4:3.v .Accordingly disposed in ,an accurately ‘vertical position'with by :turning the knob .-13 ¿the pilot »can move 'the . the> result that ybyreferringl to it the pilot can cover Aplate 4.3;, about ¿the .axis yofßits tulcr-um :screw inform himself instantly as tothe attitude of his 'Il ¿and thereby, raise orzlower :the V‘ping'liZ-ldepend yshines-far as_lateral inclination :or roll is con ing upon the direction .in which. theîknob is ,15 cerned. Bygassociating a reference scale with the ver turned. fWhen. such vertical movement zof: the pin ,52, occurs theM arm , 5_3‘v will swing :about the ,lat tical indicator 86 >to be read in conjunction `there »erally extending portionl62 of» the ¿pin 6I thus transmitting r.vertical movement to the horizontal with the pilot is enabled to ascertain the extent yof . such _lateral „inclination in addition lto direction . indicator »57. In this manner the-pilot .can bring 20 thereof. In `more conventionally Constructed in the indicating .bar 51^accurately into alignment struments .it hasv been customary to associate with§the~datummarker 66;,without requiring any ' .such a `reference scale with the upper end of .the movement ofthe stabilizing .mechanisrrp The vertical indicator, probably for the `reason that reason that such adjustment of the bar ‘5.1 with visibility ofi-the. lower half, oi the _dial of such instrumentsy is obscured bya supporting bracket lfor the datum marker of the pitch @indicating respect to .its `stabilizing means `is advantageous isA »that it permits .compensation for `different fly ingconditions such as «variation inçt-hecweightor arrangement Yof the, load which vnecessitates that the ship be .flown at, a slightlydifferent rattitude in order to maintain levelënight. .After ythe >pilot . has ascertained -thathis .1ship;is.m.aintaining con stan-t elevation,-he- can, »byxmanipulating :the knob -I3, bring-.theî-indicating'barilinto proper registry media. However, in the present invention, as ex plained hereinabove, ythe datum marker ëä isV mounted directly upon the .Crystal face` lI9as by being kbonded permanently thereto. , Such mount ing for the datum marker 66 eliminates the ne cessity for` a supporting bracket or other struc ture apt» to obscure vision of the lower half of with the datum. .marker _6.6, -.~and.vthereafter, by theV dial and therefore'I» have provided a pointer _glancing at V,the 'instrument ¿ascertain whether or 35 9| on lthe lower end of the vertical indicator- I6, .not the Vship V:is ëmaintaining|~-level :flight >without and a reference .scale-Q2 carrying calibrations 93 having to :pay -qany-attention’to îthe exact attitude and indicia 9B around the lower half of the cir of. his ship »with Vrespect .tothe horizontal. cumference of the crystal face I9. Whereas the Since it isdesirablethat :the armo5‘3 befa‘ble to :move .about ¿the @axis îofçlthe> `pini52 with maximum "number of calibrations employed andthe nu Afreedomso as .to :imposea Vminimum of reactive merical value of the indicia may be variedtosuit any particular set of circumstances, the type illus force upon; the l»stator elementf36, it Iis ¿preferred that the arm s531=be :in substantially perfect bal trated show the lower half Yof the dial _divided into eighteen spaces withthe result that each .calibra ance and therefore aîcounterweight'ïil >of appro tionvindicates 10° of roll. . priate mass'to accomplish> thispurposeV is mounted 45 ¿upon‘the end `81 lof the .arm >55'» `which .is opposit :the .in_dícatingbar v51, Y ` . Itwillbe observed that vertical movement of »the indicating 1bar §55! iwhichresults .from -rotary _ mot-ion orfithe :stator .element 36centails .movement ofthe arr-n 53 :asia lever,ab’outf»tlie pin f52 asits f fulcrurnV support. .Consequently vertical move ment A.of thetindicartor. .bari ;51,.-produced in «this Vmanner will .be fampliiìedascompared with lthe » Positioning the reference scale 92 for the ver tical indicator .96 in the lower half ofthe dial as explained, instead Y,of in the upper half as has been done heretofore, is advantageous >for the reason‘that it gives a vtruereading of the direction of roll. For example, if the planecarrying the in strument rolls to the left, the vertical indicator 86 being stabilized by the gylîo vertical 2| will re main vertical while the other Visible portions of theinstrument, including. the scale 92„ will-rotate extent .of-` movement. whichfit «would experience so in counter-clockwisemotion, with theresult that were 'the' bar :51.- disposed more-»closely fadjacent although thescale 92 moves to the right past the .thegpoi-nt ofzinterconnecti‘on betweenthefarrn 53 pointerQI of the indicator 9,6, the motion of ,these and thejpin r6 I. Eorzthis reason, ~¿instead Aof being parts which is'apparent to the pilotis movement held truly stationary :by ¿its stabilizing lmecha nism while its -housingrotates'. with respect’there .to .the _indicator 4bar» §51 -.actuallyï will be kmoved islightlyrin ftheiopposite direction. That -is ïto say, when .the fdatumtmarker 6.6 ¿moves :upwards »to indicate itha't'theship carrying the instrument is nosing downwards îthe‘indi'cator bar 51 will .move downwards slightly (see ÀFigure 3) _*.whilefthe` crlys :tal` face, I9 and- the. datiun marker T66 carried #thereby .moveslupward'sd .Infthis :manner the ex tent ‘of-relativeinovement between the ‘two indi of the indicating bar 86 wherein the pointer .9| moves to theleft across .the scale 92„ i. e., fin the same .direction as that in which the Vplanchas rolled; Y LCorrespondingly when the ship banksto .theîright, the pointer 9] .appears tormoveto the ,rightacross thescale 92. As a further aid in determining direction and 1 Y extent of lateral inclination, the datum marker `6,6 valso serves as a basisof comparison with> respect tto which-.apparent'movement `oi the verticalindi Vcating bar ¿8_6gmay beobserved. `Since the datum aeatingrreferenoes '551 and "65, i‘s-so amplified that. marker 66 simulates the tail portion of. an air even „slight deviation', iof Lthe :airplane from level 70'. .plane it includes .a .pair of opposed laterally ex ?ten'dingmembers 96 which simulate the .hori flightjisfinstantly.m’adefapparent. ' » ‘ l;_ yThe'instrumentîalsio includes ¿a third; indicator f8.6 'inthe :form íoiî aìverticallyï- extending ibarÍdïis :zontal rudders 'and` a, vertically. extendingportion «9J which simulates the vertical rudder. ¿Conse V:posed;dïetweenithe'l background shield '12,1 .and _the . quently, the` V¿vertical portion- i91- serves as` =a visual 2,404,603 fgf aid ' in determining displacement' of" the"r plane pivote’d to ' said housing l for»j movement ` about ïan ÍrOm' horizontal attitude. ' Whenfthe is'hip’is'not axis coinciding 'withf‘the‘ normal' position of said experiencing any lateral inclination; th‘e vertical portion'Sl of- the datum marker-66«loverliesfthe verticalindicatin’g bar 86. Howev'endmm‘ediately bîa1',"\ saidÍ semi-‘circular member':beingv 'connected 'L tov said Agyroscope vfor‘ movementl therewith about upon any displacement of the vshi'plfron'i -its hori said axis of said semi-circular member, aniindi axis' Vof movement of said `gyroscope on said gim zontal attitude the vertical’portion ST‘moves away K cator movably` mounted within'said housing, and fore operates as a signal to' call >attention to the fact' that the ship is no longer in truly hori to'vthat'of said semi-circular member, -means for moving said'lever and `‘releasably retaining'it vin means connecting'fsaid 'indicator with said'V gyro from its position of alignment with the vertical vertical comprising 2a'r leverA pivotallyï'mounted‘ on bar 86 thus developing angularity between these two members which is ‘highly obvious and there 10 said housing for movement ’about anïaxis parallel zontal attitude. l ` . Iclaim: ` ' selected position, means carried by said lever pro - ' viding affulcrum spaced >from 'said'axis of said 1. In an attitude-indicating flight instrument, 15 lever, an arm pivotally supportediby said »'fulcrum", said` indicator being carried by >‘saidV arm,l4 and a housing, a gyro vertical mounted therein for freedom of movement about at least two-nor mally horizontal axes, an indicator movably mounted Within said housing, means connecting said indicator to said gyro vertical, said con 20 means connecting said semi-circular ml'embeift to said arm Atoïbe moved.' thereby "whereby said gyro verticalvcontrols movement of ‘said arml"an'df'indicator as'isaid housing vmoves lwith respect' tothe necting means comprising a pivotally mounted gyro »"5'. In vertical. an attitude-indicating ' ` '.1 1 flight ' i instrument', ‘ ' lever, manually operable means for moving said lever, means carried by said lever providing a ` a‘hou’sìng, a‘gyro vertical thereincompri'sinjg'a gimbal mounted for movement .about 'fa .longitudi fulcrum', an arm pivotally supported by said ful crum, said indicator being carriedr by said arm, 251 nal axis, a gyroscope mountedon-said- gimbal fory movement about;a-normally'horizontal axis per-and meansï -connecting said gyro vertical to said pendicular to that of said gimbalyand anerecting arm to controlmovement offsaid indicator as said mechanism for said gyroscope, said erecting housing moves with> respectto said gyro vertical. 2. In an attitude-indicating flight instrument, mechanismî includingr a semi-circularH member a housing, a -gyro vertical 'mounted therein for 30. pivot'ed‘to said housing for >mo‘v'ementabout an axis coinciding wïiththe normal-,position of. vsaid freedom/of movement about at least two normally axis >of movement' of saldgyroscope onsaid gim horizontal axes, an indicator movably Ímounted bal,=said semi-circular member beingveonne'cted: within said housing, means connecting Vsaid indi to said gyroscope ‘for movement ftherewith-'about cator t0 said gyro vertical, saidconnecting means comprising a lever pivotally mounted for move 35 said axis of saidgsemi-circular”meniber,"anindi cato'rwithinî said housing, and means’co‘n‘necting ment about an axis parallel t0 the normal posi said indicator-to said-gyro verticalV comprising aan tion of one of said horizontal axes, means carried ’ arm,.a Ypivotal support for’ saidV arm. disposedeœ by said lever providing a fulcrumf with its `axis centrically withgrespect to said axis. Voi’ said -semi parallel to that of said lever,:»an arm-¿pivotally supported by saidl fulcrum and carrying said'in 40 circular member,~` said indicator being-»carried by said arm in position beyond said axis of said‘sem' dicator, and means connecting said-gyro vertical circularmemberrfrom the point ofV suspension vof to said arm to control movement of said arm and said arm,- . means connecting _said semi-.circular indicator about said axis-of said fulcrumïas said member tofsaid _arm to impart' movement- thereto housing moves with> respect to said gyro'vertical. 3. In an attitude-indicating .flight instrument; » coincidentally.' with relativeffmovement .between said A'gyroscope and saidLhousing, and means lfor a housing, a gyro vertical mounted therein for adiustingsaid; pivotal >support in; a direction 'ex-y ' freedom of movement about at least two normal tendingyangularly with respect to said arm tto vary ly horizontal axes, an indicator‘movably mounted the position of said indicator with respect to said within said housing, means connecting said indi cator to said gyro vertical, said connecting means 50 gyroscope. 6. In an attitude-indicating iiight instrument, comprising a lever pivotally mounted for move a housing, a gyro vertical therein comprising a ment about an axis parallel to the normal posi gimbal mounted for movement about a longitudi tion of one of said horizontal axes, means car nal axis, a gyroscope mounted on said gimbal for ried by said lever providing a fulcrum with its axis movement about a normally horizontal axis per parallel to that of said lever, an arm pivotally pendicular to that of said gimbal, and an erecting supported by said fulcrum and carrying said indi mechanism for said gyroscope, said erecting cator, said gyro vertical including a semi-circular member pivoted to saidÍ housing for movement about an axis coinciding with' said normal posi ` mechanism including a semi-circular> member pivoted to said housing for movement about an tion of said horizontal axis and connected to said 60 axis coinciding with the normal position of said axis of movement of said gyroscope on said gim gyroscope for movement therewith about said axis of said semi-circular member, and means con bal, said semi-circular member being connected crum as said housing moves with respect to said indicator to said gyro vertical comprising an arm to said gyroscope for movement therewith about necting said semi-circular member to said arm said axis of said semi-circular member` an indi whereby said gyro vertical controls movement of said arm and indicator about said axis of said ful 65 cator within said housing, means connecting said gyro vertical. - . 4. In an attitude-indicating night instrument, a housing, a gyro vertical therein comprising a gimbal mounted for movement about a longitudi nal axis, a gyroscope mounted on said gimbal for movement about a normally horizontal axis per pendicular to that of said gimbal, and an erect ing mechanism for said gyroscope, said erecting mechanism including a semi-circular member carrying said indicator, means connecting said arm to said semi-circular member to be moved thereby coincidentally with relative movement be tween said gyroscope and. said housing, means providing a fulcrum support for said arm com prising a lever pivotally mounted on said hous ing and means carried by one ond of said lever pivotally supporting said arm, and manually op erable means for moving said lever. ' Y 2,404,603 I2 a 1 housing; faf gyro vertical‘rtherein» l comprisingça gimbal' »mounted 5 for movement -about ¿a îlongi `Y tudinal-a'xisa gyroscope mounted on» said‘gimbal . for arnoyernent f' about -a' normally> l'iorizontalv axis perpendicular to that -of said gimbal,- andan .` Y to- saidgyro vertical comprising: an» arm carrying saidlindicatonsaid arm being 'deflected intosaid opening-1in said housing-to extend around ¿and ` i f1, man attitude-indicating »nightginstmeria ` paStsaid` semi-circular member, - means connect ' ingA` said --arm to'said'. semi-circular member to be „ moved thereby coincidentally with relative move ment between saidg-gyroscope and Vsaid housing, erecting Y mechanism lfor ¿said gyros'cope, said erecting - mechanism -including a‘l semi-circular means providing a fulcrum support for said ¿arm comprising a cover plate for 'said opening, means pivotallysupporting said cover plate on said member pivoted toy said housing 'formovement about an ^ axis ~ coinciding ~with the- normal ~~posi-‘ tionfof said axisof ‘movement` of said gyroscope on said gimbal, said semi-circular member-being connected "to said ygyroscope for movement there- ` with 'about'sai'd-axis lof said semi-'circular ¿mem-` ber,-»said-housing having-an 'opening therein ein' Y, registry- with* the 'pivotal' » support for one' endY of said¢semi-circular member;A an indicator Within y said housing, >means connecting saidindioator to îs'aid'gyro vertical comprising arr arm/carrying housing and intermediate its ends to present a lever, means carried'by vone'end of said »cover plate pivotally supporting said arm, land meansV connected to the other end of said cover Vplate for moving it about said- pivotal support therefor. ' 9.y In `an attitude-‘indicating night instrument, a housing, a gyro vertical mounted therein'for Vfreedom of movement about at 'least two nor ma‘l'ly *horizontalA axes; an indicator mounted for movement with respect to said housing, and means connecting said indicator to said gyrover said-»indicatorfsaid arm being ldeflectedn into ’f said opening in said housing to extendîaround -"and l past said's'emi-'circular member, means connect ing “ said< ~`arm-‘to said" Vsemi-circular member to ` be 'moved v'thereby coincidentally with 'relative i movement between ‘said'gyrosoope‘and said hous 25 ing; and: means providing'a fulcrum supportfor tical, lsaid connecting means comprisingan ad justably .mounted tmember, an Varm ypivotally mounted on said 'member' and'carrying said indi- « cator,? and means connecting said gyro vertical to said' arm to'control movement of said indicator .as-said housing»- moves with respect-tov said gyro vertical, and a device operable-tof‘adjust said ‘ saidA` armV comprising "a "lever~ pivotally »mounted on "said housing' "and-means" carried by’on'e end of 'said' leverl pivotally: supporting saidr arm, 'and member. ‘ manually operablex means `for moving said lever. 30 :8e In arr attitude-‘indicating 'iiightï instrument, n achou'singpa 'gyro" vertical-therein comprising'a - ' - '10. Inan attitude-‘indicatingflight-instrument, ' ahousing, a gyro'verti'cal vmounted therein for Afreedom-0f movement about at least two normally gimbal `mounted 'fon movement' 'about vr'a 'longi horizontal axes, an indicator mounted? for move ment with respect to-said" housing, means 'con ` tudinal‘a'xisça"gyroscope'mounted'on'said gimbal ` g for-movement about-a normally horizontal axis 35 necting said indicator to said gyro vertical, said ï perpendicular‘jtoj that f of ‘said 'gimbaL 'and' an connecting means comprising' a -mem-berïadjusta erectmgi'im’echanis’m i for Asaid' 'gyroscopa i said ` erecting.- mechanism ' including » ‘a semi-circular bly mounted for movement about‘an 'axisîparallel ‘ member 'pivoted to" said housin’g‘ff‘or movement axes, anja'rm' pivotally mounted onïsaid member i labout -an `axis coinciding" i i `1 'ï the normali posi to the normal: position of" one ` ofV said' ’horizontal 40 and carrying 'said ’indicator forl movement vabout tion ofsaidakis of ‘movement’of‘ said’gyr'oscope on said' gimbal,"saidsemi-circular member being connected 'tof'said gyroscope for movement there _with>` about fsaid" axis of ¿said semi-'circulanmem ber, said housing `having >an opening tnere'inj;r` 1in 45 registry'witlr the’V pivotal y"support forfonefèndof ' an- axis parallel to such'adjustment axis, “ and means connecting said’fgyro'vertical to'said' arm to `control îmovement of said arm-and“- indicator about said'last-named axisjasïs'aid housing moves With' respect to saîdfgyro vertica1,` and Aaf‘ device operable to adjust `said member. said "semi-'circular member; ' an ` indicator Within ' said: housing, ’me‘a?si connecting"saidf'mdicator `THOMASÍ'O. SUMMERS, JR.