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Патент USA US2404603

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July 23, 1946.
l2,404,603
T. O. SUMMERS, JR
ATTITUDE-INDICATING FLIGHT INSTRUMENT
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Filed Jan. 4, V194:3
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ATTORNEY.
July 23, 1946.
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T. o. suMMERs‘. JR
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ATTITUDE-INDIIGATING FLIGHT INSTRUMENT
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July 23, -1946.
T. o. sUMMERs, JR
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ATTITUDE-INDICATING FLIGHT INSTRUMENT
Filed Jän. 4, 1945 ,
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2,404,603
Patented July 23, 1946
UNITED STATES PATENT vorricla‘.l
ATTITUDE-INDICATTNG FLIGHT
’
INSTRUMENT
Thomas 0. Summers, Jr., Los Angeles, Calif.
Application January 4, 1943, Serial No.,471,259
> t
10 Claims.
(Cl. 33-204)
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2
the indicating media are observed, with theresult
that this support not onlyobscures vision through
the window and thereby complicates the` matter
This invention relates to"`attitude-indicating
flight instruments and more particularly to in
struments of the type commonly used as an aid
to navigation of an aircraft and wherein an air
of reading the instrument, but it also actually
craft semblance is caused by gyroscopic stabiliza
tion Ato depict pitchV and roll of the aircraft.
An object of the'present invention is to pro
-dial which could be employed most advanta
occupies a position in front of the instrument’s
geously for a more beneñcial purpose, such as
for the accommodation of the referencel scalefor >
yvide an attitude-indicating flight instrument
which includes a combination of Vcooperatively
associated indicators, one of which' shows direc
anindicator'used to indicate direction and ex
tent >of rolling movements of the craft.v »_Hereto
fore, since'the adjustable‘datum support has nec
essarily. obscured the View o_fy an appreciable por
tion and extent >of pitch while- another shows
direction and extent of roll, with the result that
observation of this single instrument, even if by
only `a single hurried glance, will impart, to the
tion of the lower half ofthe instrument’s4 dial, it
has been necessary to position this reference scale
in the upper half of the dial Where it must be
used to measure movements of the upper end <of
pilot all of the data required to` enable him to
keep his ship in the desired iiying attitude.
'
Since vthe “lift” of an `>airplane is dependent
the vertical indicating reference. It is for this
reason that the roll-indicating marker of an
upon several Variable factors, such as trim, air
instrument of this type and constructed accord
speed, total load, and load distribution, it fre'
quently occurs that, in order -to ily at constant 20 ing to conventional design, while showing cor
rectly the degree or extent of roll, moves back
elevation, the attitude of> an' airplane with re
ward over the scale and therefore vindicates di
spect to the horizontal must be varied to com
rection of bank incorrectly. That is to say, ina
pensate for variation in one or more of `those
conventional instrument the roll pointer moves to
factors. For example, if the total load weight
is decreased or if the center of gravity of the load 25 the left across its associatedfscale whenth'erair
craft banks to the right, and toward the 'right
is moved aft While thev air speed is permitted to
'when the aircraft banks to theleft. This con
fusing situation is remedied by the instrument of
the present invention wherein the pitch-'indicat
ing datum marker is amxed directly to thetrans
parent window of the instrument, thereby obvi
ating'the necessity of providing any other sup
remain constant,` as' frequently' occurs during _
bombing‘operations, i-t is necessary. for the' ship
to fly with itsV tail slightly 'higher in order to
avoid ' its 'increasing kits altitude. y Consequently
it has proved desirable to -provide'attitudeàindí
eating instruments with an adjustment whereby
a pilot is enabledto set the indicating member
to a zero-reading position wh'enheknows ‘his
'craft is iiying atcon'stant‘elevation and there
after rely upon the instrument to show whether
his craftY is flying at constant elevation,l and if
4not at how much deviation therefrom, rather
port therefor and leaving the entire portion of
the dial which is below, the datum marker com
pletely unobscured. As a result,V the scale of the
vertical indicator can be -accommodated con
veniently in this Ymoreadvantageous position, thus
permitting'use ofthe lower end of the vertical
y >indicator with the result that it shows not only
the extent of roll but also the direction.> Another
advantage of providing the adjustable feature in
than whether or not the ship itself is in any par’
V . ticular attitude with respect to the horizontal. i
In those instruments in which an adjustment
of the character indicated is Provided it is cus- t
tomary to make lthe adjustment in the position
"conjunction with the gyroscopically stabilizedin
dicator instead of with they datum marker is that
of the datum marker, i. e., the indicator which
is mounted directly upon the housing of the in
strument and which therefore serves merely as
a basis of reference with which the gyroscopically
by so doing the two indicating 4media are disposed
at'> the exact center of the transparent: ~Window
when in their zero-reading position, insteadA of -inv
' stabilized indicator may be compared in reading
the instrument to~ determine pitch. However, ,
ter, Was frequently occurs with fmorel> conventional "
certain inherent disadvantages lie in providing
the adjustment in connection with _the datum
marker. `One such-disadvantage is that it neces->
sitates providinga` support for the adjustable
marker which necessarily is positioned closely ad
a position considerably ldisplaced- fromV ythe cen-v
instruments of this type. f
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Therefore v,one of the mai-n o> jects of the pres'
ent invention is-to provide anatti’tude-indicating
night instrument äof the general ‘characterï dej
scribed, whereinthe datum marker is mounted
in fixed position upon Ythe transparent faceêof the
jacentthe transparent window through which 5.51 instrument and 'which' ¿includes »means fori ad
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'2,404,603
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4
justing the other of the two cooperating pitch-`
indicating markers so that the pilot is enabled
to set it to zero-reading position by manual op
of section being indicated by the line 6_6 of
Figure 5 and the direction of View by the arrows,
eration.
Another object is to provide an attitude-indi
cating night instrument of the character de
scribed, wherein the datum marker of the pitchl
top plan.
Figure 7 is a longitudinal, vertical sectional
view of the casing of the instrument, showing the
internal mechanism of the instrument in side
indicator-iis mounted directly-fupon‘the, crystal’`
elevation».
and showing most of the internal mechanism in
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...Figure 8I isjanexplode'dfview in 'perspective of
require any bracket or other form of support 10 the gyroscopically stabilized pitch indicator and
the manually adjustable operating mechanism
which would obscure view of any portion of the
face ofthe instrument and therefore'. does not
dial therebehind, and wherein advantage is taken? ’
therefor.
has been made available, by placing the refer-`
that part of the dial, instead of in the upper part.
as has been Vdone heretofore, and thereby A'so ar
shown asV being enclosed within a suitable hous
ing or casing adapted for mounting upon the in
~ strumerrtl >panel'of an airplane. The front wall
ranging the instrument that it gives a true read-,_
ing of the direction, as well as the extent, of roll.
bOdY 0f the Casing I6 as by a plurality of screws
ence scale for the ver-tical-indicatingY pointer vin ~
v|'|,_ whichY preferably is removably secured to the
Yet another object is to construct the adjust
.|8, carries a crystal face,„or'window I9 through
ment for the gyroscopically stabilized.y indicator
which Jmay beV 'observed the :indicating `media of
insuch a manner, and so to associate it with its
the instrument.
stabiliaing _gyro vertical, that although the indi
The mechanism for operating these indicating
mediacomprises a gyro' Vertical indicated in its
cator actually is stabilized so Yas to permit the
casingof the instrument, and with it the fixed
datum marker, to lmove in rotary motion around
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entirety at 2| 'and supported in a `‘gimbal ring 22
for rotaryV movement about a ‘transverse axis by
aligned bearings23; The fgimb’al ring 22 is sup
ported Vfor movement about Ma longitudinal axis
thestabiliaed indicator,_ that indicator actually
tion and thereby amplify ,the 'apparent movement
o_f the indicatorY to make 4reading of Íthe 'instru
is caused to move slightly'in -the opposite direc
by 'aligned bearings 24 which conne'ct'the gimbal
ring 22 to the housingl ’16. The forward "one of
the two bearingsy 24 is carried 'by >a pillar 26 rigid
30
ment easier and more positive.A
A furtherrobject of mypr'esent invention is to
with and extending upwards 'from th'ebottom of
provide an instrument having a manually adjust
able gyroscopically Ystabilized indicatorf as de
the housing |6. _ This pillar‘also carries aback
ground shield 2_1 whichv preferably is lin the form
scribed, which is particularly adapted for,`but: is`
not necessarily limited to, use in an instrument
of a segment ofi aßph'erfe _they center of which lies
substantially at the intersection of the‘transverse
.Whereinthe actuating forces are derived'from a
and longitudinalgimbal -axes. Since the diameter
of the shield 2l is somewhat 'greater than that of
>the opening in the front wall |'| of the housing
gyro Vertical, th'e erecting mechanism of which
is constructed in accordance with the principles
forming part of theï‘subject matter of my co
I6 withA which the ‘crystal face |'9'is associated
40
pending applic-ation, Serial No. 462,943, ñled Oc
tober_f2_2‘,k'194'2.
the shield 21 serves to hide Vthe, internal mecha
ni'sm of the jinstrumen‘t’leaving .only the indicat
'
ing media visible through lthe crystal face' 1'9.
As4 explained,‘the gyroyertical 2| is mounted
ablefeatures“,
of which,> .with j those enu- ,
merated, willbe set forth in the following descrip-v 45
for V4universal'moven‘ient 'about the transverse `and f
longitudinal gimbal'axe's; but the'extent of'such
movement is Vlimited by preferably cushioned
stops 28 ‘and 29. vThjerstop‘Zß Ais Ycarried by the
rotor-bearing casing §3f| V‘of _the gyro gve'rtical ’2|
in such position. that' it will 'engagea DOl‘îâîon of
the gimbal ringzz jandtnereby limit movement of
thegyr'o vertical ‘2| about transverse axis.; and
tion ofthe preferred embodiment of my invention
`illustrated in the drawings accompanying and
formingpart of the speciiica'tion.A It is to be
understood that I do not limit myself to the show
ingymadeby 'the said drawings and description,
50
as 1 may adopt variations 'of the _preferred form
withinthe vscope o'ffmy invention as deñned by
the plans.v _
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Referring to the drawings: ‘
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the stop 29 -which is carried"'b'y’gtheV ‘gimb‘al _ring 22
is'adapted to engage 'either one ‘or the: other of
'
Figure 1 is a face view of'a. liiight-ind'icai-,ing
two}_laterally' extending A‘ears “ 32 ‘ which _are 'p1-b
instrument 'incorporating _the principles .of the
vided 'on the'z‘upper end 'of the 'pillar`2|ì,y and there
present invention and showing the indicating
media thereof~ in the respective positionsloccu- _
byî limit motion ofthe 'gimbal ring '23, and Vthe
gyro 'vertical 2| about -the ¿longitudinal'gimbal
pied thereby when the plane carrying the instru-‘_`
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'.:Theprefer'red embodiment of the flight-indi
cating instrument of the present invention is
of the fact that the lower part of the dial thus
_ment is in level flight.
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axis.
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inthe Yn1o¿irritatien»illustrated ’and nere-being
V~c1escribes, 'tnegyro 'verticarîl is ofjthe type de
Figure 2 is a Yview-similar to Figurerl but show-_
ing‘the vertical-indicating marker` moved .to -show ' scribed ‘more’particul’arly’in my> co-pending ap
jthatthe‘nshippis‘intzt-30° left bank. ‘
plication Serial No. 462,943, filed October 22; 1942,
‘_ , Figure 3 _is another view similar to_Figure_ ll
inasmuch as the 'erecting mechanism'whichifforms
an important portion thereof vtakes the' 'formof
Y_butI Withvthe indicator showing that the ship kis
‘ Y experiencing a_ f‘tail high"¿attitude.
a pair of crossed, bail like, substantially Semi
-_ y»Figure ‘_1-fis. another. vièW similar@ Figure V1
. iii‘i_`gure5V is a view .in side elevation of rthe- in
îcircular stator members 36' and 3L 'These stators
et ‘and si extend transvetseiy and mngitudinany,
respectively', with 'fespe'c't'rto the instrument, and
both» areengaged lby. aroto’r "38 which is an up
its sidecoverplate being broken away to reveal
'ward> extensionboffithevlsh'aftßofîthe gyroscope’s Y
„rotorinot shown) whenever displacement _ofthe '
with the instrument indicating both a slightly
“au 19W# attitude anda 30° right bank- _ _
.apart rofthe internal mechanism.
_. ¿.¿Figureß iis la longitudinal, horizontal >sectional
view of _the casing of the instrument, the plane
err-01 vertical.. frein. iiSïÍ vefiîèaltpositìón Occurs-_
.irbefstaior §56 isimeùntesitforfrotary movement
about an axis extending transversely of the cas
«2,404,603
ing I6 for which purpose one end 39 of the stator
36 is pivoted directly tothe casing I6 as by a
pivot pin 4I. At its diametrically opposite point,
describe the actionmore .precisely,f however, in
actual use the stator element >36, the arm 53 which
is connected theretoVand `the indicator bar 51
however, the housing I6 has an opening `42 closed ' are stabilized bythe gyro vertical. 2I and hence
remain substantially stationary while the housing
by a cover plate 43 spaced outward slightly from
I6 moves with respect thereto with the result that
the associated portion of the housing I6 by an
to a person observingthe indicator bar 51 through
. outwardly extending flange 44. Hence, in order
the crystal face I9 the bar 51 will appear to fall
to provide support for the other end 46 of the
when the plane’sattitude changes by lowering its
stator 36, a bracket 41' is secured to the housing
I6 below the opening 42 and extending downwards 10 forwardy portion', and to rise when the nose of
the ship is raised.
Y
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Y
to support a pivot pin 48 for the end `46` in axial
In order to facilitate ready determination of
alignment with the pin 4I. Thus it- may be seen
the direction and extent of any such apparent
that the semi-circular stator 36, because of the
motion ofthe indicator bar 51 there is associated
engagement of the upper end of the rotor shaft 38
therewith, will follow the movements of the gyro 15 therewith a datum marker 66 which is rigidly
secured to the casing I6, preferably by being per
vertical 2| about its transverse gimbal axis re
manently fastened to the inner side of the crystal
gardless of the position of the »gimbal ring 22
face I9, and substantially at its center. y The
within the housing I6.
datum marker 66 vpreferably is so shaped that it
Carried by the cover plate 43 and preferably
simulates the after 0r tail portion of an airplane,
in a position spaced from the axis of the trans
and since the datum marker 66 is to be observed
verse stator 36 is a tubular bearing 5I having a
in connection with the bar 51 it is preferred that
pin 52 rotatable therein and extending there
these two bars be so proportioned with respect to
through, with an arm 53 supported upon the inner
each other that the-two, when observed simul
end of the pin 52. Preferably both the bearing
5I and the pin 52 are materially-elongated so as 25 taneously, closely simulate the appearance of an
actual aircraft when viewed from some distance
to minimize the tendency for the pin 52 to bind
within Yits bearing tube 5I »and thereby contribute
astern thereof.
Therefore when the plane on .l
which the instrument is mounted alters its atti
tude, say for example, so as to assume a “tail
the axis of its vsupporting pin 5I.
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The arm 53 is provided with an outwardly de y30 high’.’ position, the horizontal indicator> bar 51
will remain substantially stationary while the
flected portion 54 forward of its supporting pin
datum marker is carried upward with respect
5I to enable the arm 53 to extend around and
thereto >with theresult that these parts assume
past the proximal end 46 of the stator element
a position such as `that illustrated in Figure 3
36. It is for the accommodation of this out
wardly deflected portion 54 without'unduly en 35 `wherein the two indicators 51 and 66 closely simu
,late the appearance of an actual aircraft in “tail
larging the housing I6 that the opening ‘42 and
thigh” position and viewed from` astern. Should
the outwardly extending flange 44 are provided.
the plane assume a _“tail lowî’ position the action
Forward of the bracket 41 the arm is provided
will be reversed, thedatum marker 66 moving
with a longitudinally extending slot 56; and for:
ward of the slot the arm 53 is deflected inwards 40 downwards from its zero-reading position so that
the instrument presents an appearance such- as
again to clear the forward portion of the flange
that illustrated in Figure 4. Consequently these
44. To the extreme forward end of the arm 53
two indicators 51 and 66 are of such form and
an indicator bar 51 is afñxed. 'I_'his indicator
cooperate with each other in such a manner that
bar 51 extends transversely across the housing I6
just forward of the background shield 21 where 45 they do not require any interpretation, i. e., it is
- not necessary for the pilot to convert in his own
it is visible through the crystal face I9. Prefer
mind the indications of the instrument _to terms
ably this transverse indicator bar 51 is shaped to
which will enable him to operate his controlsv
simulate the forward wing portion of an airplane
properly._ Byl presenting an instrument in which
as clearly shown in Figures 1 to 4, inclusive, and
8, and, since its supporting arm 53 is pivoted to 50 the indicators actually simulate a real airplane
and also simulate the movements of the fore-and
the housing I6 of the instrument it will remain
after ends ofvan airplane, the movements which
at all times parallel to the transverse axis of the
the airplane is experiencing are depicted, and the
airplane in which the instrument is mounted, with
pilot is enabled thereby to develop without mental
the result that’it serves as an indicator useful to
show lateral inclination, or roll ofthe aircraft 55 effort those mental reactions which are necessary
for the proper maneuvering of his ship. .
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-on which the instrument is mounted.
Adjusting
means
are
provided
for
shifting
the
Means are provided, however, for connecting
transverse indicator 51 without effecting any
the supporting arm 53 to the stator element 36
movement of the stator element 36 or thegyro
in such a manner as to utilize the gyro vertical
2| for the stabilization of the indicator bar 51. 60 vertical 2I. lThis is for the purpose ofenabling
the pilot to move the indicator 51 into accurate
Hence the housing I6 moves in rotary motion
alignment with the datum marker 66 while the
about the transverse gimbal axis and with respect
ship is flying under such conditions thaty it is `
to the bar 51 during pitching movements of the
abnormally “tail high”'or “tail low.” The. cover
aircraft, with the result that the indicator bar
51 can be relied upon also to indicate direction 65 plate 43 for the opening42, instead of being rig
idly secured to the casing I6, isattached adjacent
and extent of such pitching movements. A pin
oneend only by a single screw 1I which-has a
6I rigid with the stator element 36 extends for
shoulder 12 thereon which is slightly wider than
ward therefrom, and preferably radially from the,
the thickness of ythe cover'plate 43 vand which,
axis about which the stator element 36 is mov
therefore,
tightens against thelouter face'of the
able. The forward end 62 of the pinI 6I is de-v 70
Vflange 44 into which-the screwl 1I is threadedso
flecte'd Youtwards to be engaged slidably within
as to leave the cover plate '43 free Yto pivot about ‘
theslot 56vin the -arm 53 with lthe result that
the axis of the screw] I. Such pivotal kmovement
`when the stator 36 swings forward about its axis
of the cover plate 43 resultsin raising or lowering
of support the supporting arm 53 will swing down
to the freedom of movement of the arm 53 about
wards about the axis of l/itssupporting pin 5 I. 'I_‘o
the pin 52upon which arm 53'is mounted; and
erroneos
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when „such` movement .of .the . kpin 52Y occurs; the
A'crystal face |19. ffI‘liis `.vertical indicator 86.5is
maintained vertical; regardless ¿of the movements
experienced by the housing I6,xby thagimbal :ring
Yarmwill pivoty about :that portion 62 ,of ¿the pin 6I
which is yengaged »within Vthe „slot '56fçand Athereby
affect vertical adjustment of `the indicating .bar
51".. ,A .manually rotatable knob 'I3 accessible at
therv front of theinstrumentis carried ,bya shaft
'Mfwhich >is ‘revolubly mounted in thefront wall
and extends therethroughto receive apinion 'I6
whichis rigid with .its inner end and which is
.
212, ,upon #which it is mounted. ‘ The. upper end
.81, -.ofV the .indicator ‘86 >is deñected horizontally
.and then downwards :as yat 88soas to permit fat
tachment of the bar :86 rigidly tothe =gimbal`;22
as by a screw 39.. Consequently the .bar -8.6.- pro
vides aconvenient reference line which is always
enmeshed withrack teeth 11 Acarried by arforward v10 visible through the >crystal face I9 and is always
extensionV ‘I8 of the cover platey 4:3.v .Accordingly
disposed in ,an accurately ‘vertical position'with
by :turning the knob .-13 ¿the pilot »can move 'the . the> result that ybyreferringl to it the pilot can
cover Aplate 4.3;, about ¿the .axis yofßits tulcr-um :screw
inform himself instantly as tothe attitude of his
'Il ¿and thereby, raise orzlower :the V‘ping'liZ-ldepend
yshines-far as_lateral inclination :or roll is con
ing upon the direction .in which. theîknob is ,15 cerned.
Bygassociating a reference scale with the ver
turned. fWhen. such vertical movement zof: the
pin ,52, occurs theM arm , 5_3‘v will swing :about the ,lat
tical indicator 86 >to be read in conjunction `there
»erally extending portionl62 of» the ¿pin 6I thus
transmitting r.vertical movement to the horizontal
with the pilot is enabled to ascertain the extent yof .
such _lateral „inclination in addition lto direction .
indicator »57. In this manner the-pilot .can bring 20 thereof. In `more conventionally Constructed in
the indicating .bar 51^accurately into alignment
struments .it hasv been customary to associate
with§the~datummarker 66;,without requiring any '
.such a `reference scale with the upper end of .the
movement ofthe stabilizing .mechanisrrp
The
vertical indicator, probably for the `reason that
reason that such adjustment of the bar ‘5.1 with
visibility ofi-the. lower half, oi the _dial of such
instrumentsy is obscured bya supporting bracket
lfor the datum marker of the pitch @indicating
respect to .its `stabilizing means `is advantageous
isA »that it permits .compensation for `different fly
ingconditions such as «variation inçt-hecweightor
arrangement Yof the, load which vnecessitates that
the ship be .flown at, a slightlydifferent rattitude
in order to maintain levelënight. .After ythe >pilot
. has ascertained -thathis .1ship;is.m.aintaining con
stan-t elevation,-he- can, »byxmanipulating :the knob
-I3, bring-.theî-indicating'barilinto proper registry
media. However, in the present invention, as ex
plained hereinabove, ythe datum marker ëä isV
mounted directly upon the .Crystal face` lI9as by
being kbonded permanently thereto. , Such mount
ing for the datum marker 66 eliminates the ne
cessity for` a supporting bracket or other struc
ture apt» to obscure vision of the lower half of
with the datum. .marker _6.6, -.~and.vthereafter, by
theV dial and therefore'I» have provided a pointer
_glancing at V,the 'instrument ¿ascertain whether or 35 9| on lthe lower end of the vertical indicator- I6,
.not the Vship V:is ëmaintaining|~-level :flight >without
and a reference .scale-Q2 carrying calibrations 93
having to :pay -qany-attention’to îthe exact attitude
and indicia 9B around the lower half of the cir
of. his ship »with Vrespect .tothe horizontal.
cumference of the crystal face I9. Whereas the
Since it isdesirablethat :the armo5‘3 befa‘ble to
:move .about ¿the @axis îofçlthe> `pini52 with maximum
"number of calibrations employed andthe nu
Afreedomso as .to :imposea Vminimum of reactive
merical value of the indicia may be variedtosuit any particular set of circumstances, the type illus
force upon; the l»stator elementf36, it Iis ¿preferred
that the arm s531=be :in substantially perfect bal
trated show the lower half Yof the dial _divided into
eighteen spaces withthe result that each .calibra
ance and therefore aîcounterweight'ïil >of appro
tionvindicates 10° of roll.
. priate mass'to accomplish> thispurposeV is mounted 45
¿upon‘the end `81 lof the .arm >55'» `which .is opposit
:the .in_dícatingbar v51,
Y
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. Itwillbe observed that vertical movement of
»the indicating 1bar §55! iwhichresults .from -rotary _
mot-ion orfithe :stator .element 36centails .movement
ofthe arr-n 53 :asia lever,ab’outf»tlie pin f52 asits
f fulcrurnV support. .Consequently vertical move
ment A.of thetindicartor. .bari ;51,.-produced in «this
Vmanner will .be fampliiìedascompared with lthe
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Positioning the reference scale 92 for the ver
tical indicator .96 in the lower half ofthe dial as
explained, instead Y,of in the upper half as has
been done heretofore, is advantageous >for the
reason‘that it gives a vtruereading of the direction
of roll. For example, if the planecarrying the in
strument rolls to the left, the vertical indicator
86 being stabilized by the gylîo vertical 2| will re
main vertical while the other Visible portions of
theinstrument, including. the scale 92„ will-rotate
extent .of-` movement. whichfit «would experience so in counter-clockwisemotion, with theresult that
were 'the' bar :51.- disposed more-»closely fadjacent
although thescale 92 moves to the right past the
.thegpoi-nt ofzinterconnecti‘on betweenthefarrn 53
pointerQI of the indicator 9,6, the motion of ,these
and thejpin r6 I. Eorzthis reason, ~¿instead Aof being
parts which is'apparent to the pilotis movement
held truly stationary :by ¿its stabilizing lmecha
nism while its -housingrotates'. with respect’there
.to .the _indicator 4bar» §51 -.actuallyï will be kmoved
islightlyrin ftheiopposite direction. That -is ïto say,
when .the fdatumtmarker 6.6 ¿moves :upwards »to
indicate itha't'theship carrying the instrument is
nosing downwards îthe‘indi'cator bar 51 will .move
downwards slightly (see ÀFigure 3) _*.whilefthe` crlys
:tal` face, I9 and- the. datiun marker T66 carried
#thereby .moveslupward'sd .Infthis :manner the ex
tent ‘of-relativeinovement between the ‘two indi
of the indicating bar 86 wherein the pointer .9|
moves to theleft across .the scale 92„ i. e., fin the
same .direction as that in which the Vplanchas
rolled; Y LCorrespondingly when the ship banksto
.theîright, the pointer 9] .appears tormoveto the
,rightacross thescale 92.
As a further aid in determining direction and 1 Y
extent of lateral inclination, the datum marker `6,6
valso serves as a basisof comparison with> respect
tto which-.apparent'movement `oi the verticalindi
Vcating bar ¿8_6gmay beobserved. `Since the datum
aeatingrreferenoes '551 and "65, i‘s-so amplified that.
marker 66 simulates the tail portion of. an air
even „slight deviation', iof Lthe :airplane from level 70'. .plane it includes .a .pair of opposed laterally ex
?ten'dingmembers 96 which simulate the .hori
flightjisfinstantly.m’adefapparent.
'
»
‘
l;_ yThe'instrumentîalsio includes ¿a third; indicator
f8.6 'inthe :form íoiî aìverticallyï- extending ibarÍdïis
:zontal rudders 'and` a, vertically. extendingportion
«9J which simulates the vertical rudder. ¿Conse
V:posed;dïetweenithe'l background shield '12,1 .and _the .
quently, the` V¿vertical portion- i91- serves as` =a visual
2,404,603
fgf
aid ' in determining displacement' of" the"r plane
pivote’d to ' said housing l for»j movement ` about ïan
ÍrOm' horizontal attitude. ' Whenfthe is'hip’is'not
axis coinciding 'withf‘the‘ normal' position of said
experiencing any lateral inclination; th‘e vertical
portion'Sl of- the datum marker-66«loverliesfthe
verticalindicatin’g bar 86. Howev'endmm‘ediately
bîa1',"\ saidÍ semi-‘circular member':beingv 'connected 'L
tov said Agyroscope vfor‘ movementl therewith about
upon any displacement of the vshi'plfron'i -its hori
said axis of said semi-circular member, aniindi
axis' Vof movement of said `gyroscope on said gim
zontal attitude the vertical’portion ST‘moves away K
cator movably` mounted within'said housing, and
fore operates as a signal to' call >attention to the
fact' that the ship is no longer in truly hori
to'vthat'of said semi-circular member, -means for
moving said'lever and `‘releasably retaining'it vin
means connecting'fsaid 'indicator with said'V gyro
from its position of alignment with the vertical
vertical comprising 2a'r leverA pivotallyï'mounted‘ on
bar 86 thus developing angularity between these
two members which is ‘highly obvious and there 10 said housing for movement ’about anïaxis parallel
zontal
attitude.
l
`
.
Iclaim:
`
'
selected position, means carried by said lever pro
-
'
viding affulcrum spaced >from 'said'axis of said
1. In an attitude-indicating flight instrument, 15 lever, an arm pivotally supportediby said »'fulcrum",
said` indicator being carried by >‘saidV arm,l4 and
a housing, a gyro vertical mounted therein for
freedom of movement about at least two-nor
mally horizontal axes, an indicator movably
mounted Within said housing, means connecting
said indicator to said gyro vertical, said con 20
means connecting said semi-circular ml'embeift to
said arm Atoïbe moved.' thereby "whereby said gyro
verticalvcontrols movement of ‘said arml"an'df'indicator as'isaid housing vmoves lwith respect' tothe
necting means comprising a pivotally mounted
gyro
»"5'. In
vertical.
an attitude-indicating
'
` '.1 1
flight
'
i instrument',
‘ '
lever, manually operable means for moving said
lever, means carried by said lever providing a ` a‘hou’sìng, a‘gyro vertical thereincompri'sinjg'a
gimbal mounted for movement .about 'fa .longitudi
fulcrum', an arm pivotally supported by said ful
crum, said indicator being carriedr by said arm, 251 nal axis, a gyroscope mountedon-said- gimbal fory
movement about;a-normally'horizontal axis per-and meansï -connecting said gyro vertical to said
pendicular to that of said gimbalyand anerecting
arm to controlmovement offsaid indicator as said
mechanism for said gyroscope, said erecting
housing moves with> respectto said gyro vertical.
2. In an attitude-indicating flight instrument,
mechanismî includingr a semi-circularH member
a housing, a -gyro vertical 'mounted therein for 30. pivot'ed‘to said housing for >mo‘v'ementabout an
axis coinciding wïiththe normal-,position of. vsaid
freedom/of movement about at least two normally
axis >of movement' of saldgyroscope onsaid gim
horizontal axes, an indicator movably Ímounted
bal,=said semi-circular member beingveonne'cted:
within said housing, means connecting Vsaid indi
to said gyroscope ‘for movement ftherewith-'about
cator t0 said gyro vertical, saidconnecting means
comprising a lever pivotally mounted for move 35 said axis of saidgsemi-circular”meniber,"anindi
cato'rwithinî said housing, and means’co‘n‘necting
ment about an axis parallel t0 the normal posi
said indicator-to said-gyro verticalV comprising aan
tion of one of said horizontal axes, means carried
’ arm,.a Ypivotal support for’ saidV arm. disposedeœ
by said lever providing a fulcrumf with its `axis
centrically withgrespect to said axis. Voi’ said -semi
parallel to that of said lever,:»an arm-¿pivotally
supported by saidl fulcrum and carrying said'in 40 circular member,~` said indicator being-»carried by
said arm in position beyond said axis of said‘sem'
dicator, and means connecting said-gyro vertical
circularmemberrfrom the point ofV suspension vof
to said arm to control movement of said arm and
said arm,- . means connecting _said semi-.circular
indicator about said axis-of said fulcrumïas said
member tofsaid _arm to impart' movement- thereto
housing moves with> respect to said gyro'vertical.
3. In an attitude-indicating .flight instrument; » coincidentally.' with relativeffmovement .between
said A'gyroscope and saidLhousing, and means lfor
a housing, a gyro vertical mounted therein for
adiustingsaid; pivotal >support in; a direction 'ex-y '
freedom of movement about at least two normal
tendingyangularly with respect to said arm tto vary
ly horizontal axes, an indicator‘movably mounted
the position of said indicator with respect to said
within said housing, means connecting said indi
cator to said gyro vertical, said connecting means 50 gyroscope.
6. In an attitude-indicating iiight instrument,
comprising a lever pivotally mounted for move
a housing, a gyro vertical therein comprising a
ment about an axis parallel to the normal posi
gimbal mounted for movement about a longitudi
tion of one of said horizontal axes, means car
nal axis, a gyroscope mounted on said gimbal for
ried by said lever providing a fulcrum with its axis
movement about a normally horizontal axis per
parallel to that of said lever, an arm pivotally
pendicular to that of said gimbal, and an erecting
supported by said fulcrum and carrying said indi
mechanism for said gyroscope, said erecting
cator, said gyro vertical including a semi-circular
member pivoted to saidÍ housing for movement
about an axis coinciding with' said normal posi
` mechanism including a semi-circular> member
pivoted to said housing for movement about an
tion of said horizontal axis and connected to said 60 axis coinciding with the normal position of said
axis of movement of said gyroscope on said gim
gyroscope for movement therewith about said axis
of said semi-circular member, and means con
bal, said semi-circular member being connected
crum as said housing moves with respect to said
indicator to said gyro vertical comprising an arm
to said gyroscope for movement therewith about
necting said semi-circular member to said arm
said axis of said semi-circular member` an indi
whereby said gyro vertical controls movement of
said arm and indicator about said axis of said ful 65 cator within said housing, means connecting said
gyro vertical.
-
.
4. In an attitude-indicating night instrument,
a housing, a gyro vertical therein comprising a
gimbal mounted for movement about a longitudi
nal axis, a gyroscope mounted on said gimbal for
movement about a normally horizontal axis per
pendicular to that of said gimbal, and an erect
ing mechanism for said gyroscope, said erecting
mechanism including a semi-circular member
carrying said indicator, means connecting said
arm to said semi-circular member to be moved
thereby coincidentally with relative movement be
tween said gyroscope and. said housing, means
providing a fulcrum support for said arm com
prising a lever pivotally mounted on said hous
ing and means carried by one ond of said lever
pivotally supporting said arm, and manually op
erable means for moving said lever.
'
Y 2,404,603
I2
a 1 housing; faf gyro vertical‘rtherein» l comprisingça
gimbal' »mounted 5 for movement -about ¿a îlongi
`Y tudinal-a'xisa gyroscope mounted on» said‘gimbal .
for arnoyernent f' about -a' normally> l'iorizontalv axis
perpendicular to that -of said gimbal,- andan .`
Y
to- saidgyro vertical comprising: an» arm carrying
saidlindicatonsaid arm being 'deflected intosaid
opening-1in said housing-to extend around ¿and
` i f1, man attitude-indicating »nightginstmeria `
paStsaid` semi-circular member, - means connect
' ingA` said --arm to'said'. semi-circular member to be
„ moved thereby coincidentally with relative move
ment between saidg-gyroscope and Vsaid housing,
erecting Y mechanism lfor ¿said gyros'cope, said
erecting - mechanism -including a‘l semi-circular
means providing a fulcrum support for said ¿arm
comprising a cover plate for 'said opening, means
pivotallysupporting said cover plate on said
member pivoted toy said housing 'formovement
about an ^ axis ~ coinciding ~with the- normal ~~posi-‘
tionfof said axisof ‘movement` of said gyroscope
on said gimbal, said semi-circular member-being
connected "to said ygyroscope for movement there- `
with 'about'sai'd-axis lof said semi-'circular ¿mem-`
ber,-»said-housing having-an 'opening therein ein' Y,
registry- with* the 'pivotal' » support for one' endY of
said¢semi-circular member;A an indicator Within y
said housing, >means connecting saidindioator
to îs'aid'gyro vertical comprising arr arm/carrying
housing and intermediate its ends to present a
lever, means carried'by vone'end of said »cover
plate pivotally supporting said arm, land meansV
connected to the other end of said cover Vplate
for moving it about said- pivotal support therefor.
' 9.y In `an attitude-‘indicating night instrument,
a housing, a gyro vertical mounted therein'for
Vfreedom of movement about at 'least two nor
ma‘l'ly *horizontalA axes; an indicator mounted for
movement with respect to said housing, and
means connecting said indicator to said gyrover
said-»indicatorfsaid arm being ldeflectedn into ’f said
opening in said housing to extendîaround -"and
l past said's'emi-'circular member, means connect
ing “ said< ~`arm-‘to said" Vsemi-circular member to
` be 'moved v'thereby coincidentally with 'relative
i movement between ‘said'gyrosoope‘and said hous 25
ing; and: means providing'a fulcrum supportfor
tical, lsaid connecting means comprisingan ad
justably .mounted tmember, an Varm ypivotally
mounted on said 'member' and'carrying said indi- «
cator,? and means connecting said gyro vertical
to said' arm to'control movement of said indicator
.as-said housing»- moves with respect-tov said gyro
vertical, and a device operable-tof‘adjust said
‘ saidA` armV comprising "a "lever~ pivotally »mounted
on "said housing' "and-means" carried by’on'e end
of 'said' leverl pivotally: supporting saidr arm, 'and
member.
‘ manually operablex means `for moving said lever. 30
:8e In arr attitude-‘indicating 'iiightï instrument,
n achou'singpa 'gyro" vertical-therein comprising'a
-
'
-
'10. Inan attitude-‘indicatingflight-instrument, '
ahousing, a gyro'verti'cal vmounted therein for
Afreedom-0f movement about at least two normally
gimbal `mounted 'fon movement' 'about vr'a 'longi
horizontal axes, an indicator mounted? for move
ment with respect to-said" housing, means 'con
` tudinal‘a'xisça"gyroscope'mounted'on'said gimbal `
g for-movement about-a normally horizontal axis 35 necting said indicator to said gyro vertical, said
ï perpendicular‘jtoj that f of ‘said 'gimbaL 'and' an
connecting means comprising' a -mem-berïadjusta
erectmgi'im’echanis’m i for Asaid' 'gyroscopa i said
` erecting.- mechanism ' including » ‘a semi-circular
bly mounted for movement about‘an 'axisîparallel
‘ member 'pivoted to" said housin’g‘ff‘or movement
axes, anja'rm' pivotally mounted onïsaid member
i labout -an `axis coinciding"
i
i
`1
'ï
the normali posi
to the normal: position of" one ` ofV said' ’horizontal
40 and carrying 'said ’indicator forl movement vabout
tion ofsaidakis of ‘movement’of‘ said’gyr'oscope
on said' gimbal,"saidsemi-circular member being
connected 'tof'said gyroscope for movement there
_with>` about fsaid" axis of ¿said semi-'circulanmem
ber, said housing `having >an opening tnere'inj;r` 1in 45
registry'witlr the’V pivotal y"support forfonefèndof '
an- axis parallel to such'adjustment axis, “ and
means connecting said’fgyro'vertical to'said' arm
to `control îmovement of said arm-and“- indicator
about said'last-named axisjasïs'aid housing moves
With' respect to saîdfgyro vertica1,` and Aaf‘ device
operable to adjust `said member.
said "semi-'circular member; ' an ` indicator Within
' said: housing, ’me‘a?si connecting"saidf'mdicator
`THOMASÍ'O. SUMMERS, JR.
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