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Патент USA US2404609

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.
July23, 1946.,
-
F. WHITTLE
2,404,609
I GENTRIFUQAL COMPRESSOR
Filed Nbv. 24. 1942
.2?’ rep far’,
Patented July 23, 1946
2,404,609 -
‘ "UNITED PSTATES PATENT - orrlce " "
CENTRIFUGAL COIVI’PRES‘SOR
Frank Whittle, Rugby, England, assignor to Pow
er Jets (Research and Development) ‘Limited,
London, England
Application November 24, 1942, Serial No. 466,806
In Great Britain March 2,1940
- 5 Claims.
1
(Cl. 230‘-—128)
.
2
.
.
the impeller wheel, and it is to such or similar
compressors that the present invention relates
the compressor casing, and arcuate ?anges adapt,
ed to be attached to the‘ structural parts; and
the framework may be constructed insubstan
tially semi-circular halves. The struts may be
inclined in relation to the axis of ‘the impeller so
that the structure which they constitute or in
In British speci?cations Nos.’ 456,976, 456,980
. and 461,887, there were described or discussed
centrifugal compressors having substantially an
nular air intakes on each side of the plane of
(whether they have intakes on one or both sides
which they are comprised, conforms substantial
of the plane of the compressors), more especially
1y to the form of a frustu'm of a cone, their ends
when they are combined with gas turbines; or to
at'greater radius being adjacent ‘to the com
centrifugal compressors in which there may be io pressor casing and at lesser radius’ beingvadja
cent to the structural part to which they attach
di?iculty in supporting thecasing relatively to a
the casing. Conveniently the frameworkcome
bearing without obstructing an intake. The
prising'the struts and ?anges may be made by
present invention seeks to provide constructional
castings, and further detail ‘in relation to the
improvement affording the necessary steadiness
and stiffness of mounting of compressor casings 15 construction will be made clear by the follow
ing description of an example.
_‘; _
‘
,
and diffusers having regard to the constructional
Further, according to the invention, and in
problems which arise because of the double in
order to strengthen and stiffen the walls of ‘the
take, or because of the locationand arrangement
of an intake; and also to the desirability of of- ' compressor casing against internal pressure, these
walls carry ‘externally, projecting parts prefer
fering the minimum‘ of resistance to the inflow
ably cylindrical webs, which extend substantial;
ing air. Where the compressor is directly con
nected to a gas turbine which drives it, as in the
Iy axially from the walls, and supporting webs
previously proposed reaction propulsion system,
extend from other parts ofthe walls to these webs
it may be required to support the turbine and im-.
peller by bearings on each side of the impeller
and the compressor casing needs to be very rigid
relatively to the bearing housings, whilst at the
same time it may be desirable to avoid the use of
structural partsclosely adjacent to the impeller
eye. A further and important object of the in 30
vention is to afford adequate support of a wall
or equivalent, the rim of which forms-as it
were-—_-a reinforcing hoop to which stress is trans
mitted from the wall, which hoop consequently
acts in tension and prevents deformation of the
wall under internal pressure. *Againthe follow
ing more detailed description of an example'will
further elucidate this feature of the invention.
The accompanying drawing illustrates the 'in-.
vention as applied to a double-intake single-stage
centrifugal compressor, designed for inclusion in
a constant pressure gas turbine aircraft propul
or walls of a compressor casing against internal
pressure, especially where the wall is of large
area and is exposed to a substantial pressure dif
sion engine.
'
ference. Lightness and ease and economy of con
The drawing comprises Figure 1, which is a
struction are also obviously desirable. The in
sectional assembly view, and
vention seeks to afford these attributes.
Figure 2, which is an axial elevation of. a half
According to the invention, a centrifugal com
of the supporting structure on one side of the
pressor has its casing supported through the me
_
dium of a lattice or skeleton arrangement of webs 40 compressor casing.
The drawing shows a centrifugal double-intake
or struts extending from the casing to a struc
compressor with an impeller I supported by shaft- _‘
tural part axially spaced from the casing one
ing represented by a tail-shaft 2 and a quill
side thereof, and surrounding the impeller shaft
shaft 3. The impeller runs in a casing which has
ing (or to such parts on each side of the casing),
walls 4, which at a lesser radius are outwardly
the said struts lying at greater radius from the
convergent (as at 4A) and at a greater radius
axis of the shafting than air intakes formed
(as at 4B) are parallel, forming a primary dif-l '
between the casing and such structural part or
fusing space. The inner boundaries of the walls
parts. Preferably the struts are comprised in a
are curved until they are axially directed, as
triangulated structure and thus form lattice-like
frames. The said structural parts may be those v50 shown at 4C, and bolted to a ?ange around the
edge of these parts of the walls are extensions 5 I
which enclose and support bearings for the im
which form walls of intake eyes. Integrally
peller shafting. In a preferred construction the
formed with the walls 4 are short cylindrical
struts comprised in a triangulated lattice work
axial projections 6, carrying rims 6A.
are embodied in framework comprising the
Surrounding the tail shaft 2, is a‘structural
struts, arcuate ?anges adapted to be attached to '
2,404,609
3
part ‘I, ?anged at 1A, which encloses a bearing for
the tail shaft 2,7and such other components as
may be required and to which may be attached
loads on the walls of the casing, for example on
ple an auxiliary-drive gearbox. Surrounding the Cl
the parts 4A thereof, aretransmitted through the
webs [2 to the rims 6A, which being virtually pe
ripherally continuous are consequentlyresistant
in tension, forming hoop like elements in which
quill-shaft is a second structural part 8 ?anged
at 8A likewise supporting and housing a-bear
structure comprised by the projecting parts 6,
such furtherassemblies as are required, for exam
the vstress tends to increase the radius.
The
ing and other required components. associated
and their rims ‘6A, and the webs ' l2, can there
with the quill-shaft. It is to these parts ‘I, 8
fore be regarded as a form of trussing supporting
that the compressor casing is required to be rig-J .10 the walls of the compressor.
'
idly attached.
The manner of attachment, con
_ The parts ‘I, 8 or the ?anges I 0 '( as may be con
stituting the basis of the invention, is as follows:
venient) may partially support a system of intake
Four lattice-like castings are provided, ‘each
guide elements represented generally at l3.
substantially as illustrated in Figure 2, and'each
constituted by a semi-circular ?ange 9, a semi
circular ?ange I0 of smaller radius, and a trian
gulated system of struts I I. The'struts H are of
streamline section to conform with the air?ow
‘ supported through the medium of an arrange
which passes, over them on its way into the eyes
. surrounding the impeller shafting and comprised
What I claim is:
l. A centrifugal compressor having its casing
ment of struts extending from the casing to a
structural part axially spaced from the casing and
of the impeller. Each strut is also preferably 20 in a triangulated structure forming lattice-like
‘t‘twisted” throughout. its length, further to con.
frames, the said struts lying at greater radius
form with the airflow, the direction .of which may
than .air intakes formed between the casing and
be expected to vary slightly. at different axially ' said structural part.
and radially spaced stations. The, fourv frame
2. Compressor according to claim 1,.i-n which
structures :so constituted are assembled by bolts or 25 the struts, comprised in triangulated lattice-work,
studs attaching the ?anges 9 to the ?anges 6A,
are embodied in framework comprising the struts,
and the ?anges 1.0 to the ?anges 1A and~8A-, and
arcuate ?anges adapted to be attached to the
the pair of structures on each side. of the com
compressor casing, and arcuate ?anges adapted
pressor thusform Virtually-continuous lattice-like
to be attached to the structural part.
» -a
supports between the parts ‘l, 8 and the com.-v 30
3. A compressor according to claim 1, in‘which
the arrangement of struts .is attached to the com
pressor casing through the medium of a short
cylindrical rimmed web extending axially from
the compressor casing walls, and radial webs con
,which- is axially directed instead of being in 35 necting said cylindrical web with said walls to
pressor casing.
'
Each end of each frame structure, 1. e.. the parts
which butt together to form. a diametral joint,
is formed as shown in Figure 2, with a strut 1 IA
I clined; these straight‘ struts are ‘faced at 1 1B,- and
sti?en and support the walls.
the complementary struts llAof the two mating
structures. maybe inter-attached. by bolts, and
'
. ‘
I
4. Compressor according to claim '1 in which
the struts, comprised in triangulated lattice-work;
are shaped so as to be streamlined in section when
are embodied in framework comprising the struts,
mated together. In Figure'2 a strut .H is shown 40 arcuate ?anges adapted to be attached to the
with portions cut away to .show their sectional
compressor casing, and arcuate ?anges adapted
shape and also to illustratevthe- “twist” previously
to be attached to the structuralpart, said frame
referred to.
r
'
‘Extending radially between the projections 6
and rims 6A=~andthe walls of the casing, are in
tegral stiffening webs l2, which help the casing
walls to resist deformation, especially against the
pressure within the casing. Inthis resides‘an
importantv feature of the invention; outward
work comprising .a casting.
_
>
5. A compressor according to ‘claim 1, the struts
45 being of streamline cross section and further be-.
ingv shaped with twist so as to conformwith'th
direction of the air passing over them.
>
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