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Патент USA US2404617

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July 23, 1946.
S. J. BUDLAN E
HEATING APPARATUS
Filed Oct .
m
25 .
1942
2,404,61 7
Patented July 23, 1946
2,404,617
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,404,617
HEATING APPARATUS
Stanley J. Budlane, Chicago, Ill., assigner to
Stewart-Warner Corporation, Chicago, Ill., a
corporation of Virginia
Application October 23, 1942, Serial No. 463,059
7 Claims. (Cl. 126-116)
1
2
My invention relates to heating apparatus, and
more particularly to heating apparatus of the in
ternal combustion type.
In heating apparatus of the internal combus
tion type, and especially in heating apparatus
one or more electrical igniters 26 for initially
igniting the combustible mixture supplied to the
combustion chamber l0. It will be understood
that these igniters may be controlled by the usual
thermostatic switch which disconnects these ig
niters from their source of electrical current when
designed for use in aircraft and for similar pur
the heater attains normal operating temperature.
poses, the muñier is located in the heat transfer
Thereafter, combustion is maintained by the re
means to guide the products of combustion to
igniter 28 and also by the ring of burning gases
this heat transfer means and to absorb sound
10 which collect in the annular corner 30 of the
created in the operation of the heater.
combustion chamber I0.
An object of my invention is to provide heat
The combustion chamber l0 is located in one
ing apparatus having a new and improved muii‘ler.
end of a tubular heat transfer means or heat ex
Another object of my invention is to provide
changer 32, which is illustrated as having hollow
heating apparatus of the internal combustion
type and having a new and improved muiiler 15 fins extending lengthwise thereof. A muilier 34
is located in the heat exchanger 32 and cooperates
which facilitates the now of the products of com
therewith to direct the hot gases, which consti
bustion from the combustion chamber to the heat
tute the products of combustion, into the longi
transfer means.
tudinal passages 36 formed in the hollow fins.
Another object of my invention is to provide
new and improved heating apparatus wherein 20 As these gases flow lengthwise of the hollow iins,
the gases give up their heat to the heat exchanger
sound absorbing material in the muñier is pro
32 and the cooled gases are discharged from the
tected against melting under the temperature
left-hand end of the passages 36 into an outlet
produced in the combustion chamber.
chamber 38 formed between the left-hand end of
Another object of my invention is to provide
new and improved heating apparatus having su 25 the muiiler 34 and a plate 4i), which closes the
left-hand end of the tubular heat exchanger 32.
perior means for directing the flow of gases there
An outlet fitting 42 is mounted in the plate 4B
through and for protecting the muiller against
and has a passage 44 connecting the outlet cham
the intense heat created in the combustion
ber 38 with any suitable exhaust pipe connected
chamber.
Another object of my invention is to provide 30 to the threaded end 46 of the fitting 42. i
The heat exchanger 32 is surrounded by a cylin
a new and improved muilìer.
drical casing 48 which cooperates with the heat
Other objects and advantages will become ap
exchanger to form longitudinal Ventilating air
parent as the description proceeds.
ducts between the hollow ñns. A sheet metal
In the drawing:
cone 50 connects the heater inlet 22 with the inlet
Fig. 1 is a view showing a longitudinal section
end of the casing 48, so that the Ventilating air
through a heater embodying a preferred form of
is supplied to this casing by the same ram or
my invention; and
blower which furnishes the air for the combusti
Fig. 2 is a View showing a transverse section
ble mixture. The left-hand or outlet end of the
through the nose of the muiller, and is taken along
casing 48 may open directly into the aircraft cabin
the irregular line 2-2 of Fig. 1.
or other space to be heated, or may be connected
The heating apparatus disclosed in the drawing
to ducts for directing the heated Ventilating air
comprises a combustion chamber IIJ to which a
combustible mixture is supplied through the ports
t0 selected locations,
I2 in a burner tube I4 in communication with
The products of combustion flowfrom the com
bustion chamber ID to the hollow fins by way of
an annular tapered passage 52 formed between
the tapered nose 54 of the muiiler 34 and the ad
jacent portion of the tubular heat exchanger 32.
one end of a Venturi tube I6.
Fuel or a rich
mixture of fuel and air is supplied to the throat
of the Venturi tube I6 by a fuel supply pipe I8
having outlet openings 20 in the restricted throat
of the Venturi tube I6. A heater inlet 22 is sup
plied with air from a ram, blower or other suit
able supply means, and part of this air enters the
open end 24 of the Venturi tube I6 and forms a
combustible mixture with the fuel supplied by
the pipe I8.
The combustion chamber I0 is provided With
This tapered nose terminates in a cap 56 which
50 is directly exposed to the burning gases in the
combustion chamber I0 and which cooperates
with the rest of the tapered nose smoothly and
easily to direct the hot products of combustion
from the combustion chamber to the interiors of
the hollow hns.
'
2,404,617
3
The muflier, in general, comprises a sheet metal
shell 58 containing a quantity of sound absorbing
material 66, such as glass wool or stainless steel
wool. The shell 58 is provided with a plurality
of small openings 62 which connect the interior
of the muiller shell with the gas passages in the
hollow fins and form acoustic couplings through
exchanger, means for supplying a combustible
mixture to said combustion chamber, a muil‘ler 10
cated in said heat exchanger and containing
sound absorbing material, a sheet metal shell
providing an air space interposed between said
combustion chamber and said sound absorbing
material and forming a heat insulating barrier
which sound in the gases of combustion may ñow
into the interior of the mufller and be absorbed
between said combustion chamber and said mate
rial, and means for directing Ventilating air over
by the glass wool or stainless steel wool therein.
said heat exchanger.
While the glass wool or stainless steel wool is
heat resistant to a considerable degree, this ma
terial might melt or be softened if exposed for
long periods of time to the intense heat created
in the combustion chamber i Si. The muffler shell
58, therefore, terminates in an end 64, which is
comprising a tubular heat exchanger, means for
supplying hot products of combustion to one end
of said heat exchanger, a muffler located in said
heat exchanger, said muiiler having a hollow shell
containing sound absorbing material, said shell
separated from the cap 5% by an air or gas space
56 that serves to insulate the glass wool or stain»
less steel wool from the heat in the combustion
chamber Hl. This space 6B also constitutes a res
onance chamber which is acoustically coupled to
the interior of the shell 58 by an annular series
of openings 53 located in the end lill of this shell,
The mullier shell 58 and heat exchanger 32 are
preferably made of thin sheets of stainless steel
2. Heating apparatus of the class described
having openings providing communication be
tween the interior of said shell and the interior
of said heat exchanger, means providing a res-=
20 onance chamber at one end of said muiîler in posi
tion to receive said hot products of combustion
thereon and acoustic couplings between said res
onance chamber and the interior of said muiiler
shell, and means for supplying Ventilating air to
the exterior of said heat exchanger.
3. Heating apparatus of the class described
or other suitable material, and the cap or gas de
flector plate 56 may be made of the same mate
comprising means forming a combustion cham
ber, heat transfer means receiving products of
nichrome.
rial or of more
This heat
cap may
resistant
be welded
material
or otherwise
such
combustion from said combustion chamber, a
suitably secured to the tapered end of the muil‘ler 30 muiller located in said heat transfer means, said
shell and constitutes a unitary part of the muiller
muiller comprising a shell having a tapered end,
structure.
sound absorbing material in said shell, means
From the foregoing description it will be ap
providing communication between the interior of
parent that in my new and improved heater, the
said shell and the interior of said heat transfer
muli‘ler is provided with a gas or air space which 85 means, and a cap attached to said shell and co
insulates and protects the sound absorbing mat-e~
operating therewith to form a heat insulating and
rial of the muflier from the intense heat in the
sound resonance chamber interposed between
combustion chamber. This heat insulating space,
said combustion chamber and said sound absorb
acting as a resonance chamber, cooperates with
ing material.
and assists the sound absorbing material in ren 40
fl. In heating apparatus of the class described,
dering the operation of the heater quiet and sub
the combination of a combustion chamber, means
stantiallv silent. The combination insulating and
for supplying means forming a combustible mix«
resonance chamber is formed between a beat re~
ture thereto, heat transfer means receiving the
sistant cap attached to the end of the muflier shell
products of combustion from Said combustion
proper, and this cap cooperates with the tapered 45 chamber, a muiiler located in said heat transfer
>end of the muiiler shell to deiiect and direct the
means, said muiiler including a pair of acoustical
gases of combustion from the combustion cham
ly coupled chambers arranged with one chamber
between the other chamber and said combustion
ber
of the
to heat
the longitudinal
exchanger. passages in the hollow
chamber and sound absorbing material in the
50
The heating apparatus which I have illustrated
other one only of said chambers, and means for
and described may be made extremely compact
directing Ventilating air over said heat transfer
and of light weight for a given heat output, and
means.
is particularly adapted for use in aircraft and
5. Heating apparatus of the class described
for other similar purposes. My novel heating ap
comprising tubular heat transfer means, means
paratus. however, is not limited to such use and 55 forming a combustion chamber for supplying
is eoually well adapted for other uses wherein theproducts of combustion to one end of said heat
conditions are entirely diiîerent from those en
transfer means, a muiller located in said heat
countered in aircraft operation. Because of the
transfer means and cooperating therewith to form
improved silencing effect of my invention, heating
passages for the hot products of combustion, said
apparatus embodying this invention is substan 60 muii‘ler having a tapered end terminating in a
tially noiseless and may be utilized in _locations
rounded gas deflecting cap for directing flow of
where quietness of operation is of prime im
hot products of combustion toward said heat
portance.
_
transfer means, said cap cooperating with other
While I have illustrated and described only a
parts of said muliler to provide a combination heat
single embodiment of my invention, my invention 65 insulating and resonance chamber, said muiiler
is not limited to the details shown and described.
including sound absorbing material protected by
but may assume numerous other forms, and my
said second named chamber against extreme tem
invention is to be construed as including all var
peratures created in said combustion chamber,
iations and modiñcations falling within the scope
and means for supplying a combustible mixture
of the appended claims.
70 to said combustion chamber.
I claim:
6. A muiiler for a heater having a tubular heat
1. Heating apparatus comprising a tubular
exchanger and means for supplying hot gases to
heat exchanger having hollow fins extending
one end of said heat exchanger, said muii‘ler com
lengthwise thereof, means forming a combustion
prising a perforated sheet metal shell containing
chamber located in one end of said tubular heat 75 a quantity of sound absorbing material. and a
2,404,617
5
6
rounded cap attached to one end of said shell and
containing a quantity of sound absorbing mate
cooperating therewith to form an insulating
chamber for protecting said sound absorbing ma
terial from hot gases flowing past the cap to the
rial and a cap attached to a perforated end por
shell when the muñier is inserted in said tubular '
heat exchanger with said cap adjacent said means
for supplying hot gases.
’7. A muiiier for a heater having a tubular heat
exchanger and means for supplying hot gases to
one end of said heat exchanger, a perforated shell 10
tion of said shell and cooperating therewith to
form a resonance chamber adapted to protect the
sound absorbing material from hot gases flowing
past the cap to the shell When the muflier is in
serted in said tubular heat exchanger with said
cap adjacent said means for supplying hot gases.
STANLEY J. BUDLANE.
Certificate_ of Correction
Patent No. 2,404,617.
July 23, 1946.
STANLEY J. BUDLANE
It is hereby certified that error appears in the printed speeiiication of the above
numbered patent requiring correction as follows: Column 4, line 42, claim 4, strike out
the Words “means forming” and insert the same after “of” and before “a” in line 41,
same claim; and that the said Letters Patent should be read with this correction therein
that the same may conform to the record of the case in the Patent Office.
Signed and sealed this 29th day of October, A. D. 1946.
[am]
LESLIE FRAZER,
First Assistant ó'ommz'ssz’oner of Patents.
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