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Патент USA US2404647

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Ju?y 23, E94.
H, J. DE N. MQCOLLUM ET AL
2,49%647
HEATING APPARATUS
Filed Oct. 15, 1942
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HEATING APPARATUS
Filed Oct. 15, 1942
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Patented July 23, 1946
2,404,647
" UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,404,647
HEATING APPARATUS
Henry J. De N. McCollum and Lynn A. Williams,
Jr., Chicago, 111.; said Williams assignor to
Stewart-Warner Corporation, Chicago, Ill., a
corporation of Virginia; Thelma McCollum ex
ecutrix of said Henry_J. De N. McCollum?ie
ceased
Application October 15, 1942, Serial No. 462,074 r
‘
8 Claims. (01. 126-116)
2
1
Our invention relates to heating apparatus and
‘ chamber 10, a ?nned heat exchanger l2 having a
more particularly to heaters of the internal com
mu?ler l4 located therein, and an outlet l6
bustion type particularly adapted for, but not lim
through which the cooled products of combustion
ited to, use in aircraft. ‘
are discharged to atmosphere.
‘
In heaters of the internal combustion type, it is
common to provide ?nned heat transfer means
for transferring heat from the products of com
bustion to the ventilating air directed over the
The heat ex
changer I2 is enclosed ins, cylindrical casing, 18
through which ventilating air is directed by a ram
or blower at the inlet end. of the duct 20 which
supplies the ventilating air to the tapered inlet
22 of the casing IS. The heated ventilating air
lating air. The heated products of combustion 10 discharged from the lefthand end of the casing
heat transfer means by a ram or blower for circu
l8 may flow directly into the aircraft cabin or
are originally directed against the ?ns at one end
other space to be heated, or may be distributed
of the heat transfer means and where the hot
to selected locations through a series of ventilat
products of combustion ?rst come in contact with
ing ducts, as desired.
the ?ns, these ?ns are raised to a temperature
A separate ram or blower forces air into the in
which is much in excess of the temperature of 15
let end of a pipe 24, leading to a Venturi tube 25,
other portions of the ?ns and particularly that .
which receives part of the air ?owing through the
portion adjacent the outlet end of the heater.
pipe 24. A rich mixture of fuel and air is sup
There is a practical limit to the temperature to
plied to the throat of the Venturi tube 26 by a
which the ?ns can be heated and this limits the
total quantity of heat which can be given off b 20 pipe 28 connected to a primary carburetor 30.
The pipe 28 has outlet openings 32 through which
a heater of any given size and shape.
‘
the rich mixture of‘fuel and air formed in the
An object of our invention is to provide heat
primary carburetor 30 passes into the Venturi
ing apparatus of the internal combustion type in
tube 26 and mixes with ‘the air flowing there
which local hot spots are eliminated and the heat
transfer means is heated to a substantially uni 125 through to form a combustible mixture.
This combustible mixture is discharged with a
form temperature throughout its length.
whirling motion through openings 34 in burner
Another object of our invention is to provide
heating apparatus wherein the temperature range
between different parts of the heat transfer
tube 36 and is initially ignited by the hot wires
38 of igniters 40. The igniters are provided with
means is reduced to a minimum and stresses and ‘
shields 42 which are. open. to the combustion
strains caused by great variations in tempera
ture of di?erent portions of the heat transfer
‘chamber at each end, but which serve to protect
the hot wires 38 against the direct discharge of
combustible mixture through the openings in the
burner tube 36. In the particular embodiment
disclosed, three igniters are provided and these
means are avoided.
‘
'
.
Another object of our invention is to provide
new and improved heating apparatus which is ex
tremely light in weight and compact and has a
high heating output.
.
igniters are arranged about the combustion
chamber as most clearly shown in Fig. 4. It is
understood, however, that any desired number
and arrangement of igniters may be utilized and
4.0 the particular number and arrangement shown is
In the drawings:
not essential.
Fig. 1 is a longitudinal, sectional view of a
It will be understood that the igniters 40 are
preferred embodiment of our invention;
controlled by the usual thermostatic switch for
Fig. 2 is a partial, sectional view taken inthe
disconnecting these igniters from their source of
plane of the line 2—-2 of Fig. 4;
Fig. 3 is a partial, vertical, sectional view taken 45 electrical current when the heater attains normal
operating temperature and thereafter ignition of
on the line 3—3 of Fig. 1;
the incoming combustible mixture is maintained
Fig. 4 is, an irregular, sectional view taken on
by the re-igniter 44. Only a single re-igniter is
the line 4-4 of Fig. 1;
Other objects and advantages will become ap
parent as the description proceeds.
‘
Fig. 5 is a vertical, sectional view of the inlet
end of a heater embodying a modi?ed form of our
shown, as ordinarily a single re-igniter is suffi
50 cient to maintain combustion of the incoming
fuel, but additional re-igniters may be provided
if desired. The single re-igniter is illustrated as
Fig. 6 is a partial, vertical, sectional view taken
being located at the lower end of the combustion I
on the line B—6 of Fig. 5.
chamber and such location is desirable but not
The heating apparatus shown in Figs. 1. to 4,
inclusive, comprises, in. general, a combustion 55 essential.
'
invention; and
2,404,647
'
3
.
The combustion chamber I 0 has an annular
wall 46 which is spaced inwardly of the bases 48
of the hollow ?ns 50. The hot products of com
bustion flow between the lefthand end 52 of the
annular "wall 46 and the tapered .end 54 of the
muffler into .the gas passages 56 extending length
wise of the hollow ?ns. The tapered end of the
4
ucts of combustion ?rst engaged these ?ns. This
further means is illustrated as comprising a comb
80 having an annular base 82 provided with teeth
84 which project through the inlet openings 58
‘and lie parallelwto the bases of ‘the ?ns. '
The comb V8!) is preferably made of copper or
other material having high heat conductivity.
mu?ler provides a tapering annular passageway " The teeth 84 are of smaller diameter than the
for the products of combustion and permits these
openings 58 and permit cooling air to enter these
hot gases to make their initial contact with-the 10 openings and flow lengthwise of the teeth 84 and
hollow ?ns over an appreciable portion of the en
the bases of the .hollow ?ns. The teeth 84 are
tire length of these ?ns. This tendsto reduce the '
formation of hot spots in the bases :of the ?ns, but
we have found it desirable to provide additional
means for eliminating‘ such hot spots and for '15
maintaining the ?nned heat exchanger 12 at a
preferably madeof such length that they extend
for substantially the entire length of that por
tion of ‘the hollow ?ns'which ?rst comes in con
tact with the hot products of combustion and
serve to prevent the formation of local hot spots
more uniform temperature throughout its length.
throughout this portion of the hollow ?ns.
'
In the embodiment of Figs. 1 to 4, inclusive,
The comb 80 may be either a complete annulus
this additional means for eliminating hot spots
or may be composed of a plurality of arcuate
from the bases of the hollow ?ns comprises the 20 segments. In the embodiment shown, in the
provision of an annular series of inlet openings
drawings, frictional engagement between. the
58 in the wall Ell which connects the combustion
chamber with the inlet end of the heat exchanger
I'2. As most clearly shown in Figs. 3 and 4, each
teeth .84 and the sides of inlet openings 558 is relied
upon to hold the comb in ‘place, but any desired
means may be provided for attaching the comb
inlet opening is located immediately beneath the 25 to the conical air conduit 62, or any other suitable
base ‘48 of .-a hollow ?n. Theseinlet openings 58
part of the heating apparatus;
‘ r .
i communicate with the interior of the conicalex
Our novel heating apparatus is‘ highly .e?icien't
tension '62 of the pipe.“ and are supplied with air
since the heat exchanger is maintainedat a sub
by the same blower .or ram which supplies the
stantially uniform temperature throughout its
secondary air for the combustible mixture. The
length and this uniform temperature may be the
air passing through the inlet openings 58 ?ows
maximum permissible temperature for ef?cient
lengthwise of the bases of the hollow ?ns and
operation. This heating apparatus can be made
cools the bases of these ?ns adjacent their inlet
extremely compact and of lightweight construc
ends su?iciently to prevent the creation of hot
tion and is particularly suitable for ‘use in air.
spots ‘in these :bases where the hot products of 35 craft. It is not limited to such use, howeven'and
combustion ?rst .come in contact with the ,?ns.
may be utilized'for various other purposes. While .
The cooling air admitted through the inlet
our ‘novel means for eliminating hot 'spotsg-from
openings 58 is not intended to ‘promote additional
the ?nned heat exchanger. is particularly advan
combustion adjacent the bases of the ?ns, but is
tageous in heating apparatus having its own icom
admitted solely for the purpose of cooling these 40 bustion chamber, our improvement isrnotineces
bases adjacent theinlet end of the heat ex-i
sarily limited to such use but may ?nd application
changer. This cooling air mixes with the prod
in exhaust type heaters or ‘other heatersrwhere
ucts of combustion and this mixture ?ows length
hot ?uid is supplied from outside sources. '
wise ,of ‘the hollow ?ns from'whence it passes into .
While we have illustrated and described herein
the chamber .64 formed between the lefthand end 45 only two embodiments of our invention, it ‘is to be
of the mu?ler l4 anda plate 66 which closes the
understood that our invention is not limited to
lefthand .end of the heat exchanger 12. One or
the details shown and described, but ‘may ‘as
‘more brackets 168 may be provided 'to attach the
sume numerous other forms and is to be con
plate“ to the casing [8.
strued as including all variations and‘modi?ca
"The outlet I6 is formed in a ?tting '10 mounted 60 tions falling within the scope of the appended‘
on the plate 66 and havinga threaded end 12 for
claims.
7
attachment to an exhaust pipe communicating
We claim:
I
with atmosphere. In some installations the ?t
1. Heating apparatus comprising a tubular
ting 10 may be connected to the inlet of a suction
heat exchanger of the hollow ?nned type, means
blower or other suction producing means where 55 forming a combustion chamber in one end there
it is desired to utilize such suction producing
of for supplying hot products of combustion to
means to create the necessary ?ow of combustible
the interior of said heat exchanger, means for
mixture into the heater and of the products of
directing cooling air into said heat exchanger at
combustion therefrom. The I?OW of ventilating
the combustion chamber end thereof, and a'p'lu
air through the ‘casing I8 may also be caused by 60 rality of parallel rods adjacent the bases of said
suction producing means connected to the outlet
?ns to prevent the formation of hot spots in the
end :of this casing rather than by pressure pro
bases of the hollow ?ns ‘where the hot products
ducing means at the inlet of the pipe 20 where
of combustion ?rst contact these ?ns, said rods
such an alternative arrangement is preferred.
having parts in contact with said cooling air.
Thermu?ler 14 has a sheet metal shell 114 which 65
'2. Heating apparatus of the class described,
is ?lled with sound absorbing and heat resisting
comprising a tubular heat exchanger of the hol
material 16 such, for example, as glass wool or
low ?nned type, means for supplying hot'?uid to
stainless steel wool. The shell '14 is provided with
one end of said heat exchanger and interiorly
a plurality of small perforations 18 which form
thereof; means for forming a blanket of cooling
acoustic couplings between :the gas passages in 70 ?uid between the hot fluid and the bases of :the
thehollow ?ns and the interior of the mu?ier.
?ns adjacent said end of the heat exchanger,
In the modi?cation of Figs. 5 and 6, we have
and heat dissipating membersin the path of vsaid
provided further means in addition to the inlet
cooling ?uid and inwardly of the bases iof said
openings :58 :for preventing the creation of hot
?ns, said members having :partsextending be
spots in the bases of the ?ns where the hot prod 75 yond said heat exchanger. ‘
:
.Y .
'. ‘ 1
.
5
2,404,647
3. In heating apparatus of the class described,
the combination of a tubular heat exchanger of
the ?nned type, means forming a combustion
chamber located in one end of said heat ex
changer and supplying hot products of combus
tion thereto, said combustion chamber having an
annular wall spaced from said heat exchanger,
a carburetor for supplying a combustible mixture
6
comprising a tubular heat exchanger having hol
low ?ns provided with bases, means forming a .
combustion chamber for supplying hot products
of combustion to one end of said heat exchanger,
a mu?ier located in said heat exchanger and co
operating therewith to direct the products of
combustion lengthwise of the interiors of said
hollow ?ns, means for supplying a combustible
mixture to said combustion chamber, means for
to said combustion chamber, means for supply
ing air to said carburetor, an annular series of 10 directing ventilating air over said heat ‘ ex
inlet openings for supplying air to the annular
changer, a heat dissipating comb having teeth
space between said combustion chamber and
extending parallel to the base of said ?ns adja
heat exchanger, each of said openings being lo
cent the combustion chamber end thereof, and
cated inwardly of the base of a ?n, said openings
means for directing cooling ?uid against said a
being supplied with air by the means supplying
comb.
air to the carburetor, and other means for di
'7. In heating apparatus of the class. described,
recting ventilating air over said heat exchanger.
the combination of ‘a tubular heat exchanger of
4. In heating apparatus of the class described,
the ?nned type, means forming a combustion
the combination of a tubular heat exchanger of
chamber located in one end of said heat ex
the ?nned type, means forming a combustion
changer and supplying hot products of combus
chamber located in one end of said heat ex
tion thereto, said combustion chamber having an
changer and supplying hot products of combus
annular wall spaced from said heat exchanger,
tion thereto, said combustion chamber having
means for supplying a combustible mixture to
an annular wall spaced from said heat exchanger,
said combustion chamber, ‘an annular series of
means for supplying a combustible mixture to
inlet openings for supplying air to the annular.
said combustion chamber, an annular series of
space between said combustion chamber and heat
inlet openings for supplying air to the annular
exchanger, each of said openings being located
space between said combustion chamber and heat
inwardly of the base of a ?n, said openings being
exchanger, each of said openings being located
supplied with air by said ?rst means, a comb
inwardly of the base of a ?n, said openings being 30 having teeth extending through said openings
supplied with air by part of said ?rst means, and
and a part exposed to said air, and second means
second means for directing ventilating air over
for directing ventilating air over said heat ex
said heat exchanger.
changer.
5. Heating apparatus of the class described,
8. A heating apparatus of the class described
comprising a tubular heat exchanger having hol
comprising a tubular heat exchanger of the hol
low ?ns provided with bases, means forming a
low ?nned type, wall means forming a combus
combustion chamber for supplying hot products
tion chamber at the rear end of the heat ex
of combustion to one end of said heat exchanger,
changer for supplying hot products of combus
a muffler located in said heat exchanger and co
tion to the interior of the heat exchanger, means
operating therewith to direct the products of
comprising a conduit for directing a supply of
combustion lengthwise of the interiors of said
combustion air into said combustion chamber
hollow ?ns, means for supplyinga combustible
and a separate supply of cooling air into said
mixture to said combustion chamber, means for
heat exchanger by a path which leads said air
directing ventilating air over said heat exchanger,
over the outer surface of said wall means of said
and a heat dissipating comb having teeth ex
combustion chamber and against the portions of
tending parallel to the base of said ?ns adja
‘the ?ns adjacent the combustion chamber, and
cent the combustion chamber end thereof, said
other means for directing a supply of'ventilating
comb having a part exposed to said ventilating
air over the exterior of said heat exchanger.
air.
HENRY J. DE N. McCOLLUM.
'6. Heating apparatus of the class described,
LYNN A. WILLIAMS, JR.
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