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Патент USA US2404674

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July-23, 1946. ~
Filed Oct. 28, 1942
3 Shams-Sheet l
July 23, 1946.
Filed Oct. 28, 1942
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
' /02
Laiuls 11'. V522 0/1156)?
$51-$24,‘ mar/kg,
July 23, 1946.
Filed Oct. 28, 1942
3 Sheets-Sheet 3
Louis If. Vbn OhZsen
' f
@B "/g?gmzgy
I ‘
Patented July 23, 1946
Louis H. Von Ohlsen, New Haven, Conn, assignor
to The Safety Car Heating and Lighting Com
pany, Inc., a corporation of Delaware
Application October 28, 1942, Serial No. 463,645
7 Claims. (01. 201-51)
This invention relates to electrical apparatus,
and more in particular to the construction and
operation of electrical equipment such, for exam
.ance increasing as the pressure on the carbon
pile is decreased; an electro-magnet assembly
having» a rocking armature which is rocked from
its initial position due to the effect of the mag
ple, as an electric regulator in a power system.
An object of this invention is to provide an 5 netic ?eld to increase the resistance of the car
electric regulator which is sturdy in construction
and reliable in operation and which is light in
weight and inexpensive to manufacture. A fur
ther object is to provide an electro-magnetic con
struction which is economical to manufacture,
bcn pile; a dashpot assembly to cushion the rock
ing operation and limit the speed at which the
resistance is changed; a compensating spring as
sembly the e?ect of which varies as the spring
is extended and which opposes the action of the
magnetic ?eld in rocking the armature; a thermo
responsive unit in the form of a bi-metallic strip
which varies the tension of the compensating
further object is to provide apparatus of the
spring assembly in accordance with the ambient
above character wherein e?icient use is made of
all of the materials of which the apparatus is con 15 temperature; and a carbon pile compression ad
justment means which maintains a substantially
structed and wherein all of the various individual
constant compressing force upon the carbon pile
mechanical assemblies are of uniformly high effl
until there is a predetermined movement of the
ciency and are durable. A further object is to
armature from its initial position whereupon the
provide apparatus of the above character where
in a standardized construction can be utilized un 20 compressive adjustment means is rendered inef
fective, and further movement of the armature
der a variety of different conditions of operation.
effects a change in the resistance of the carbon
A further object is to provide such apparatus
which is easily adjustable, and which will remain
Referring particularly to Figure 2 of the draw
in adjustment without constant attention. These
and other objects will be in part obvious, and in 25 ings, the regulator is attached to a panel 2
through two legs 4 and two legs 5 (see Figure 4)
part pointed out below.
by screws 6, (Figure 2) one of which is threaded
The invention accordingly consists in the fea
into each leg With its head countersunk in the
tures of construction, combinations of elements,
panel. Legs 4 are integral with the left-hand
and arrangements of parts as will be exempli?ed
vertical arm 8 of a frame construction 9 having
in the structure to :be hereinafter described, and
a general U—shaped con?guration and including
the scope of the application of which will be indi
e?icient and dependable in operation, and adapt
able to various conditions which arise.
cated in the following claims.
A still
In the drawings:
Figure 1 is a front elevation of an electric reg
ulartor constituting one embodiment of the inven
Figure 2 is a sectional View of certain of the
apparatus shown in Figure 1 and is along the line
2-2 of Figure 3;
Figure 3 is a side elevation from the right of
Figure 1;
Figure 4 is a top plan view ;
Figure 5 is a showing of the stampings which
are used to construct the magnetic parts of the
Figure 6 is a sectional view of the assembled
electro—magnet construction; and,
Figure 7 is a view of the electro-magnet and
armature construction with certain parts broken
In the illustrative embodiment of this inven
tion, an electric regulator is provided which in
cludes; a carbon pile the electrical resistance of
which is varied in order to obtain the control ef
iect, illustratively shown herein with the resist
a bottom transverse web It) and a right-hand ver
tical arm l2. Legs 5 (Figure 4) are integral with
an angle bracket 1 which is parallel to transverse
web ll) of frame 9 and is rigidly held thereto in
a manner explained more fully lbelow. Bracket
‘i has a vertical portion extending between the
two legs 5 and a horizontal portion which is en
larged and apertured at its center. Rigidly se
cured in this aperture is a ball-bearing unit l5.
Web ID (Figure 2) is similarly enlarged and aper
tured and. carries a similar ball-bearing unit [3.
These two ball-bearing units provide a rockable
mounting for a crank shaft l4 and rigidly mount
ed upon shaft [4 between the ball-bearing units
is an armature H; which is pressed onto the
Crank shaft M also has rigidly mounted upon
it a crank assembly shown at the bottom of Fig
ure 1 and designated generally at l8. Crank as
.sembly I8 includes adashpot arm 29 extending
to the right and connected to the piston rod 22
of a dashpot 25. Dashpot 25 has a graphite pis
ton 24 connected to the piston rod, and a cylinder
26 rigidly mounted at its upper end on a, shelf
bracket 36 extending from the vertical arm l2 of
frame $3. This mounting is provided by a stud
23 integral with the top of the cylinder and ex
tending through the bracket and is clamped
thereto by nut
The damping effect of dash
pot 25 is regulated by adjusting a screw 34 (Fig
the action of a magnetic ?eld which opposes the
action of spring '53. This magnetic ?eld is pro
duced by an electro-magnet I32 rigidly mounted
(see Figure 2) upon the tWo arms 8 and 12 of the
frame 9, and best shown in Figures 6 and '7. This
ure 2) which controls the air outlet from cylin
der 25.
electro~magnet is provided with a solenoid Hi3
and a core res, which has a left-hand pole piece
As indicated above, armature Iii is rocked by
The carbon pile, the resistance of which is
I55 and a right-hand pole piece 506 (see Figure 7).
varied in order to exert the control effect, ex 10 Pole pieces 435 and H36 have cylindrical pole faces
tends vertically at the center of Figure l and is
with the same axis as the shaft it about which
At the top of carbon pile 3B is a
armature it rocks. Armature I5 is provided with
contactor 3'11, above which is an insulator 38 and
pole tips iii? and we, and the pole faces are cy
an anvil is pivotally suspended by a pin 42 from
lindri'cal and concentric with the pole faces of
a pile lever ll/i. At the bottom of carbon pile 33 it pole pieces 5% and Hit. Thus, the air gaps at the
is a similar arrangement in the form of a con
two ends of the armature are small and are of
tactor 3%, an insulating member El, and an anvil
uniform length throughout the entire swinging
153 pivotally carried by a pile pin 45 mounted ec
movement of a “mature it. However, many of the
centrically on the crank assembly is and secured
advantages of this invention can be realized when
by a nut (51'. Referring again to the top of the 20 eccentric pole pieces are used, thus giving air gaps
carbon pile assembly, pile lever M is pivoted at
which are not uniform throughout.
its left end on a pin 43 carried by a bracket 46
Core ice is built up of a plurality of similar
integral with arm 8 of frame 9. At the right, pile
laminations of the shape shown in Figure 5 at
lever M! has a slot 5Q into which is hooked the
l 88. Each lamination has therein four holes
upper end of a tension pile spring 56. An adjust 25 Iii? which, when the laminations are stacked
ing screw 53 is threaded through the lever and is
to form the core, are in alignment (see Figure 6),
locked in adjusted position by a lock nut 52. The
and the core is held together by sleeves H2 eX~
lower end of adjusting screw 59 is positioned above
tending through those holes with a pair of ferrules
and adapted to engage the top of a stop pin 53
I it! held upon the flanged ends of each sleeve.
which has an enlarged lower end 59 threaded 30 The outwardly extending end faces i it of the four
through a bracket 6i‘! and locked in adjusted posi
ferrules on each side of the core are ground after
tion by a lock nut 62. The threading on the en
assembly to a single plane, and the spacing be
larged portion 59 of stop pin ‘58 extends above the
tween the two planes on the opposite sides of the
lock nut 52 and provides an anchor portion 63
core is accurately controlled to a speci?ed dimen~
upon which is threaded the tightly coiled small
sion. These two planes are normal to the axis of
diameter lower end of the pile spring 56. This
sleeves H2, and have a predetermined relation‘
stop pin and pile spring assembly provides a
tension control adjustment which acts through
pile lever 13!‘. ‘to maintain an initial predetermined
pressure on the carbon pile all in a manner to be
ship with respect to pole pieces “35 and I85.
Sleeves M2 and ferrules H4 are used to mount
the core on the frame 53 with a stud 1 E8 extending
through each sleeve and secured to a hole in
more fully discussed below.
The central portion of each stud is of
reduced diameter to provide a clearance £28 about
a segment portion 76 which has a hole 16 there
the stud at the center of sleeve I I2 and a tight fit
in, in which is hooked the lower end of a tension
at the two ends of the sleeve. Referring again tov
spring it. The upper end vof tension spring 78
Figure 2, the ends of the four studs 5 it are held
is coiled tightly and threaded onto the lower end
in the mounting holes in the two side arms of
of a threaded “anchor pin as. The predetermined
rame e by nuts l22 (see also Figure 3), and the
adjustment ‘of spring '58 on anchor pin 89 is main‘
other ends of the studs are held by similar nuts
tained by a pair of lock nuts 82 and $4. As shown
I24. The lower stud in the frame arms and the
best in Figure 2, anchor pin 80 extends upwardly 50 upper stud adjacent panel 2 extend through eyes
through an enlarged opening 66 in the horizontal
in bracket '8 (Figure 4) which, as indicated above,
portion 'of ‘bracket ‘46, and, at the upper end, pin
carries the ball-bearing unit it and thus helps
86 carries a nut 99 which holds a knife-edged
support the crank shaft. These studs iii? and
washer 83 in adjusted position. The knife-edged
their nuts I22 and I24 thus hold bracket '5 tightly
portion'iie of washer 88 rests in a groove 92 in the
against the end faces H3 on the core, and also
free end of an arched lei-metallic strip '94 which
press the opposite end faces H3 tightly against
has a hole therethrough, through which pin 80
the‘m'achined surfaces of frame 9. Thus, the core
Hi4 and bracket 1 are accurately and rigidly se
Bi-metallic strip 54 is rigidly mounted at its
cured to frame 9. In this way, core “is acts as a
right-hand end by a pair of screws 96 (see also
spacing and aligning means, and armature i5 is
Figure 4) which are threaded into a horizontal
accurately held in place and in alignment with
Crank assembly is is provided at the left with
bracket portion 93 (Figure 2) of the frame 9, and
which hold a locking iplate I06 tightly against
the 'top'of ‘the bi-me‘tallic strip. Bracket portion
93, ~strip M, and plate IQ!) vare recessed between
to allow for the adjustment of screw
respect to the pole faces of pole pieces Hi5 and
As indicated above, crank assembly l3 and
armature it are biased clockwise (Figure 2) by a
spring ‘it toward the initial position shown
33. Bi-m'etallic strip 94 is curved as shown best
wherein lever 25* of the crank assembly engages
in'Fi'gure 2 with a main arch portion and a smaller
the ‘top of an adjusting‘screw I23. Screw I28 is
inverted‘arch portion, and (see Figure 4) it 'is ta~
threaded through a bracket I33 integral with
pered from its fixed end toward its free’end. This 70 frame '9 and is held in adjustment by a lock
lei-metallic strip is effective to move anchor pin
nut I32’. The counterclockwise ‘movement of
8?? up and down with changes in ambient tem—
lever ZQ/and thus of armature l 6, is ‘limited by the
perature to thus change the tension on tension
engagement of the lever with bracket
spring is and maintain the operating charac
ing operation, armature ‘I6 takes a'position be-.
teristics of the regulator constant.
tween the full line and broken line positions
shown in Figure» '7 wherein'the moment of the
force exerted by spring ‘I8 in one direction bal
ances the opposed moment of the force exerted by
the electro-magnet.
As shown best in Figure 1 in this embodiment,
the lower end of spring ‘I8 is hooked in hole ‘I6 in
the crank assembly below the radius line per
pendicular to the spring, and as the crank as
these laminations are tightly pressed onto shaft
I4. Referring to Figure 5, laminations I08 and
I48 are stamped from a sheet of iron in a single
operation. The‘iron from which these lamina
tions are stamped has “directional character
istics” in the sense that the magnetic characteris
tics along the sheet of iron are superior in the
direction of the “grain of the iron,” thatis, in
the direction in which the sheet was rolled dur
the lower end of the spring, moves to the right 10 ing manufacture. The sheet of iron illustrated
was rolled in the direction from top to bottom so‘
with a resulting shortening of the effective lever
that the grain and the superior magnetic char
arm through which spring 18 acts. This shortenacteristics are between the top edge and the
ing of the effective lever arm is such as to cause
sembly swings counterclockwise, hole ‘I6, and thus
lower edge, Accordingly, the laminations I08
the moment of the force exerted by spring ‘I8
to have the proper value at all times to permit 15 and I48 are stamped as shown, and laminations
I48 and the two arms of lamination I08 have
the use of a constant air gap. Under some cir
superior magnetic characteristics in the direction
cumstances, it may be desirable to provide a
in which the lines of magnetic ?ux are set up, that
variable air gap and an increasing e?ective lever
is, along their longitudinal dimensions. Referring
arm through which the spring acts. Under these
circumstances, a hole such as ‘I6 is provided near 20 to Figure 7, armature I6 and the arms of core I04
have these superior characteristics so that the
the top of the cam portion 14 of the crank assem
?ux lines which are set up by solenoid I03 extend
bly, and a shortened spring ‘I8 is hooked therein.
Referring to Figure l, the center of pile pin
from the ends of the solenoid straight down the
two arms of the core and thence across the arma
45 is directly above the center of shaft I4 so that
the counterclockwise movement of the crank as 25 ture, and all of this path is with the grain of the
iron. The only portion of the magnetic circuit
sembly swings anvil 43 to the left and downwardly.
which does not have the superior magnetic char
acteristics is the connecting portion of core I04
which is surrounded by and under the direct in?um
pile 36, and the carbon pile holds anvil 40 and
ence of solenoid I03, the source of the magnetic
lever 44 elevated as shown so that the lower end of
flux. Thus, e?icient use is made of the iron.
adjusting screw 50 is spaced from the top of stop
An additional feature aiding in providing an
pin 58. Thus, during the initial movement of the
eilicient unit is the provision of the core I04, built
crank assembly and anvil 43, the entire carbon
up of the U-shaped laminations I08, combined
pile and anvil 40 move with anvil 43 with spring
with the provision of minimum air gaps between
56 exerting a “follow-up” force downwardly
core I04 and armature I6. Thus, the magnetic
through lever 44 with the result that the carbon
structure has no air gaps in its stationary parts
pile remains compressed. However, after a pre
and the two gaps between pole pieces I05 and I06
determined swinging movement of lever 44, ad
and armature I6 are only large enough for me
justing screw 50 engages the top of stop pin 50,
and this prevents further downward or “follow 40 chanical clearance during movement of the ar
mature. The variable balancing feature and the
up” movement of lever 44 and anvil 40. As a
adjusting and control features of the regulator
result, the further movement of anvil 43 by the
In the initial position of the elements, spring 56
maintains a constant compressive force on carbon
counter-clockwise swinging of crank assembly I8,
make it possible to provide this magnetic struc
ture without sacri?cing the e?iciency and reli
increases the distance between anvils 43 and 40,
with a corresponding decrease in the compressive 46 ability of the action.
The electrical connections to the regulator are
force exerted on the carbon pile. This causes
provided, as shown best in Figure 3, through four
the electrical resistance of the carbon pile to in
terminals I33, I34, I40, and I46 mounted on
crease in the manner referred to above.
panel 2 with a pair of leads I3I and I32 connect
When the armature starts to swing from the
full line initial position of Figure '7, the path of
ing solenoid I02 to terminals I34 and I33, and
with a pair of leads I38 and I44 connecting con
the flux is from the extreme tip of pole piece I06
through the armature and to the upper portion
nector plates 31 and 39 to terminal plates I40 and
I46, respectively. In practice, solenoid I02 car
of pole piece I05. As the flux increases and the
ries a current which varies in accordance with
armature swings counterclockwise, the major por
tion of the flux still passes through the lower por
the control e?ect to be exerted, and the current
through the carbon pile is then varied by the
tion of pole piece I06, whereas the ?ux passes
regulator with the result that the proper control
only through the upper portion of pole piece I05.
Accordingly, pole piece I06 is larger than pole
effect is exerted at all times.
The pile spring 56 (Figure 1) maintains con
piece I05, and the entire core carries the flux
e?iciently at all times.
60 stant pressure upon the carbon pile except when
this pressure is relieved by the engaging of ad
During manufacture, the laminations I08 of
justing screw 50 with stop pin 58. Thus, even
core I04 are stacked and fastened together by
though the length of the carbon pile changes dur—
sleeves H2 and ferrules H4, in the manner dis
ing use, the spring 56 maintains constant pres
cussed above, and solenoid I03 is wound directly
onto this core. This type of winding is possible 65 sure on the carbon pile. Adjusting screw 50 is
readily changed to vary the amount of initial
because the pole pieces I05 and I06 are spaced
movement of the armature during which no con
apart so that the cross member of the core which
trol effect is exerted. The changes in ambient
connects the two arms is “open” in a radial direc
temperature are corrected for by the bi-metallic
tion. Thus, the core is mounted to rotate about
the center of its cross member with suitable insu 70 strip 94 which moves anchor pin 80 up and down,
and thereby changes the tension on spring ‘I8.
lating material in place, and the core is then
The tension characteristics of the spring is
rotated and the wire is wound to form the sole
changed by changing the number of turns which
are threaded onto the end of the anchor pin; that
tions I48 in the same manner as is core I04, and 75 is, when the number of turns threaded onto the
Armature I6 is built up of individual lamina
anchorfpin is increased, the number of turns
ing means, said biasing means cOmprising a coil
spring and said stop means including a rigid lon
gitudinal member extending through the center
active as a spring is correspondingly decreased.
As many possible embodiments may be made of
theabove invention and as many changes might
of said coil spring and having the ?xed end of
said coil spring attached to said longitudinal
be made in the embodiment above set forth,
it is to be understood that all matter here
inbefore set forth, or shown in the accom
6. In a carbon pile regulator, the combination
panying drawings, is to be interpreted as illustra
of, a U-shaped frame construction having a pair
tive and not in a limiting sense.
of substantially parallel spaced longitudinal por
I claim:
10 tions rigidly connected at the base of the U by
1. In a carbon-pile regulator, the combination
a base portion, a substantially U-shaped electro
of, a U-shaped frame constituting a vrigid mount
magnet rigidly mounted on said ‘frame construc
ing means and having two leg portions connected
tion and having a pair of substantially parallel
together at their lower ends by a base portion and
spaced longitudinal portions rigidly connected
having their free ends extending upwardly, an 4, by a base portion, said electro-magnet being
inverted U-shaped magnetic core having two legs
mounted on the frame construction with the re
extending along and rigidly clamped to the re
spective longitudinal portions in side-by-side
spective leg portions of said frame with the lower
parallel relationship and with the base portions
free ends of the legs substantially at the base of
oppositely positioned with respect to each other
the frame and with the base portion of the core
whereby the free ends of the longitudinal por~
being positioned along the side of the leg portions
tions of the electro-magnet are positioned at the
of the frame, a bi-metallic strip extending across
base portion of the frame construction and hav—
the top of said frame with one end rigidly at- >
ing substantially cylindrical pole faces, a frame
tached to the top of ‘one of said leg portions, a
member of substantially the length of the base
tension spring assembly suspended from the other 25 portion of said frame construction and posi~
end ‘of said strip and extending downwardly to
tioned parallel to said base portion on the oppo
ward the base portion of said frame, a rotor as
site side of said electro-magnet, means clamping
sembly mounted at the base portion of said frame
said frame member to said frame construction
and adapted to be turned by variations in the
whereby said electromagnet is clamped in place
magnetic ?eld of said core to exert a motive force 30 and acts as a spacing means to hold said frame
which varies in accordance with the control ef~
member in spaced relationship, a pair of ball
foot to be exerted, a carbon-pile assembly carried
by said frame and positioned longitudinally there
of with its lower end adapted to be moved up~
wardly to compress the carbon pile in accordance
with the control effect desired, and means con
necting said tension spring assembly to oppose
the action of said motor assembly.
2. Apparatus as described in claim 1 wherein.
a dashpot is mounted on the side of said frame
opposite said tension spring assembly and is con
nected to oppose rapid changes in the control
3. Apparatus as described in claim 1 wherein
the upper end of said carbon pile is held against
a lever which is pivotally carried by one leg of
said frame and which is biased against said car
bon pile by a coil spring with adjustable stop
means limiting the movement of said lever to
ward said carbon pile,_said stop means including '
a stop rod which is rigidly carried by said frame.
and said spring being coiled about and anchored
to said rod.
4. Apparatus as described in claim 1 wherein
said motor assembly is formed by an electro
magnet which rocks an armature with the mag
netic parts of the electro-magnet being formed
by a plurality of substantially identical lamina
bearing units respectively mounted on said frame
member and the base portion of said frame con
struction with their axes in alignment on the
axis of said cylindrical pole faces, an armature
assembly having an armature positioned between
said pole faces and having armature pole faces
substantially concentric with said cylindrical
pole faces and having shaft portions respective
ly extending through said ball-bearing units to
provide a rocking support, a tension spring ex
tending longitudinally of said frame construc
tion with one end adjustably secured to the end
of said frame construction opposite the base por
tion thereof and with the other end of said ten
sion spring being attached to said armature as
sembly at a point beyond the rocking axis where
by a rocking movement of the armature assem
bly results in a reduction in the length of the le
ver arm through which the spring acts with the
reduction being of suf?cient amount to compen
sate for the increased pull of the extended spring,
a rigid elongated stop member positioned sub
stantially parallel to said longitudinal portions of
the frame construction, and a coil spring freely
coiled around said stop member with the coil
spring ?xed at one end of the stop member and
attached at the other end to means mounted
on said frame construction.
each lamination forming a complete magnetic (30
'7. Apparatus as described in claim 6 which in
path from one end of said armature to the other
cludes, a carbon pile assembly mounted on said
end thereof.
frame construction and including a carbon pile
5. In a carbon pile regulator, a carbon pile as
which is positioned substantially parallel to and
sembly, a base construction including means to , equidistant from said longitudinal portions of the
hold said carbon pile assembly, adjustable bias
frame construction, and means to change the
ing means to exert on said carbon pile assembly
compressive action on said carbon ‘pile in accord
a predetermined vcompressive effect and includ
ance with the movement of said armature.
ing stop means to limit the action of said bias
tions of iron in face to face relationship with
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