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Патент USA US2404697

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July 23, 1946-
2,404,697
J. R. DESCH ET AL
CALCULATING DEVICE
Filed March 21, 1942
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Ijoscph R. Desch and
Robert E. Mumma
Inventors
By ZGWP/M
Their Agongy
July 23, 1946-
J. R. DESCH ET AL
2,404,697
CALCULATING DEVICE
Filed March 21, 1942
4 Sheets-Sheet 2
HQ. 2
?enomma f/ona/ I 0/5 fr/ bv/ar
Z2
1501/. Z”
jmrph R. Desch and
Robert E. Mumma
Inventors
By W
Their Attorney
July 23, 1946-
J. R. DESCH ETAL
2,404,697
CALCULATING DEVICE
Filed March 21, 1942
2/7,
2/
4 Sheets-Sheet 4
. 4 2224,”
Jose h R. Beach and
R0
rt E‘. Mumma
Inventon
Their Attorney
2,404,697
Patented July 23, 1946
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,404,697
CALCULATING DEVICE
Joseph R. Desch, Oakwood. and Robert E.
Momma, Dayton, Ohio, assignors to The Na
tional Cash Register Company, Dayton, Ohio,
a corporation of Maryland
Application March 21, 1942, Serial No. 435,740
21 Claims.
(Cl. 235-60)
1
2
This invention relates to an electron tube cal
is hereinafter described with reference to the
drawings which accompany and form a part of
culatlng device and more particularly pertains to
this speci?cation.
such a device for the ultra-rapid multiplying of
Of the drawings:
numbers, expressed in the binary system of nu
Fig. l is a circuit diagram or the product ac
merical notation, by the use or differentially con
cumulator.
trolled electron tubes.
Fig. 2 is a circuit diagram of the denomina
The invention includes a product accumulator
tional distributor.
having electron tubes representing the digits,
Fig. 3 is a circuit diagram of the multiplier unit.
which tubes are actuated by electric impulses, a
di?erentially-controlled electric potential genera 10 Fig, 4 is a circuit diagram of the multiplicand
' unit.
tor having electron tubes representing the digits
Fig. 5 is a parallel table of binary notation
comprising a multiplier, a differentially controlled
and decimal notation.
electric impulse generator having electron tubes
In the binary system of numerical notation,
representing the digits of a multiplicand, and an
electron tube impulse producer and switching 15 there are but two digits, designated "0" and “1.”
The absence of data in a denomination is repre
means to distribute the impulses produced under
sented by "0," and the presence of a unit of data
control of the multiplier and multiplicand units
in a denomination is represented by "1." On the
to the proper denominational orders of the prod
addition of another unit of data in a denomina
uct accumulator. The invention further includes
certain manual controls for introducing the prob 20 tion having at that time a unit of data therein.
there are a return to the “0" condition 01' said
lems and for starting and resetting the devices.
The disclosed device is based on a numerical
notation having two digits in each denomina
tional order. which is known as the binary system
of numerical notation. The digits are designated
no»
(‘1-’)
Therefore it is the principal object of this in
vention to provide an electron tube multiplying
machine in which the calculation is performed
solely by the ?ow of electrons.
30
Another object of the invention is to provide a
multiplying machine having no moving mechan
ical parts except for manual entry of the problem.
Another object or the invention is to provide
means for producing denominationally-desig 35
nawd impulses in groups which are distributed by
denomination and a transier of one unit into the
next higher denominational order. The follow
ing examples of additions of one unit at a time
will give an understanding of the numerical sys
tem.
plus
equals
plus
0
1
ecimal
Eauivslcnt
notation
1-?‘
1
-1
nudism-21
-2
plus 1
eqplus
usuT-Hn-Hu
1
equals 100-21
plus 1
-4
stages to selected denominations oi an accumu
lator.
Multiplication in the binary system by partial
Another object of the invention is to provide an
products
is accomplished in the same manner
electron tube denominational distributor, for de 40
as in the decimal system; for instance.
nomination representing impulses, controlled
iointly by a multiplier unit and a multiplicand
101
E5 in the decimal system;
ll 8 in the decimal system
unit.
101
Another object or the invention is to control
101
an electron tube di?erential impulse generator to
equals E (us in the decimal system, or n+2l+m+2o
repeat its operation a certain number of times
automatically.
Multiplication in the binary system by succese
Another object of the invention is to provide
sive addition is accomplished in the same manner
means to multiply two binary numbers by oper
as in the decimal system, but is much simpler, as,
ating electron tubes di?'erentially and cyclically. 50 in muitipiyins by one in any denominational or
With these and incidental objects in view, the
der, the multiplicand is set down but once. A
problem 01' multiplying 25 by 25 (decimal nota
invention includes certain novel features of con
struction and combinations of elements, the es
sentials or which are set forth in appended claims
and a preferred i'orm or embodiment or which
tion) by successive addition will be carried out
in the binary system and in the decimal system
side by side for comparison.
2,404,697
4
‘
.
thethirdentryintotheQ'ordensaideni-riesk
Bins-y
11001
ll
Xllllll
X25
11001
25
11M
11M
.
20'
3
1
1001110001
ing made successively. By thus arranging the
successive entry oi data in the accumulator, in_~
terierence oi the multiplication impulses and the
interdenominational transfer impulses is posi
tively avoided, and not dependent on timing.
The accumulator, although shown to but six
denominations, may be made in any number 01'
Decimal
at
28
25
25
035
10
denominations.
It is seen by rei'crence to Fig. 1 that, there be
ing sixjdenominations in the product accumula
tor, it will accommodate in one operation the
product obtained by multiplying a three-denomi
national-order binary number by a three-de
It is seen, therefore, that in the binary system
the entry or data into the product accumulator
nominational-order binary number.
need be made only once ior each denominational
order or the multiplier and that. in substance,
the multiplication of binary numbers is the same
by successive addition as it is by partial products.
type which has an internal voltage drop, when
conducting, of about 16 volts. The cathodes are
indicated conventionally as being heated, and
each is grounded for operating potential through
‘ The product accumulator
arcslstancelikercsistance l2. Atypicalsetol
The gaseous triode electron tubes are or the
circuit values will be given the circuit elements.
The product accumulator (Fig. 1) as disclosed
the
12, for example, being 15,000 ohms. comprises six denominational orders. Each of
Theanodesoreachoithetubesaresuppliedwith
thedenominations is represented by two gaseous 25 positive potential from a ‘lb-volt source ll. con
triode electron tubes, one tube representing "0”
trolled by a switch II, which energizes a supply
and the other tube representing “1." The tubes
conductor is common to all the tubes in the ac;
of a denomination are coupled in such a manner
cumulator. From said common supply conductor
that, when one tube of a pair commences con
ll, each pair of tubes constituting a denomina
ducting, the other tube or the pair is caused to gg tional order is supplied through abranch con
become non-conducting. The pairs or tubes,
ductor such as conductor ii through a 3000-ohm
each pair or which forms a denomination. are
resistor such as resistor ll, whose iunction is for
arranged in a series 01' ascending value, so that,
a Purpose to be described. Each of the cathodes
upon a tube representing "1” becoming non-con
is rurther coupled to ground through a capacitor
ducting, a change or mode or operation of the
like capacitor II, or .001 microtarad, and a series
next higher denominational pair is brought about.
resistor, like resistor 10 of'2500 ohms,~ the resistor
The scheme or data representation in the ac
cumulator will be described. The denominations
will be designated 2°, 21, 2', 2!, 24, and 2', so that
their decimal equivalents may be easily followed.
The tubes are represented by circles. The "1”
tube in the denomination 24 represented as con
ducting as an example, by being blackened, rep
resents an accumulation oi “10000” in the binary
system or "16” (2') in the decimal system.
ll being introduced ior prevention oi.’ oscillatory
phenomena. Each grid is biased from a negative
source or potential 20 through a renstor
like resistor Ii 01' 120,000 ohms, a point like point
2!, a resistor like resistor 23 of 500,000 ohms, a
point like point :0, and a resistor like resistor 25
or 50,000 oh'ms. Points like point 22 are also
grounded through a resistor like resistor 20 oi’
50,000 ohms. This gives each grid, normally, a
controlling bias oi’ about 12 volts over the critical
Potential.
The zero condition 01 the accumulator is evi
denced only when all the "0” tubes are conduct
ing, which event is brought about by a special
control.
Each denominational pair of tubes in the prod
uct accumulator is provided with input means by
which actuating electric impulses are impressed
on the pair, such impulses originating by the dif
i'erential action or multipiier-multiplicand units
or by reason of the "1" tube of the next lower
denominational order becoming non-conducting.
Each impulse represents a unit or data and causes ‘
a change in the mode of operation or the electron
tube pair upon which it is impressed.
The orders or the accumulator have data en
tered therein in sequence the entry 01’ the multi
plicsnd as multiplied by one digit of the multi
plier being made denomination by denomination
with the highest of the concerned or
connect the grid oi’ an asso
ciated "0" tube to ground, so as to ground the
control grids oi‘ all the zero tubes simultaneously
to cause the product accumulator to represent
zero by causing all the zero digit tubes'to become
conducting.
'
'
Assuming the product accumulator in more con
dition, the method of counting data therein will be
described ?rst by supposing a positive potential
impulsetobeintroducedthroughtheiitinputter
mlnal 20, said impulse being or such potential
that, when it is impressed through capacitor 00,
or 10 micro-microierads, through point It and
resistor it onto the grid of the "1” digit tube or
the 2" denominational order, it will cause said
digit tube to lire and become conducting. The
anode oi’ said tube, due to the roaster i1,"will
thereupon drop in potential, as the temporary
grounding eiiect oi’ capacitor i0 holds the ‘anode
at that potential, such anode potential being tem
ders oi’ the accumulator. Thus, it the
70 porarily
teiy 16 volts above the ground.
multipllcand "111’ were being multiplied by the
Atthesame timasuchsnode dropinpotential
particular digit "1” representing the denomina
iscarriedbyconrluetorittotheanodeortuhs ii,
tion 2’, the iirst entry would be made into the 2‘
which is in-a conducting condition andwlmse
denominational order of the accumulator, the sec
cathode is maintained
at a poli?ve
ond entry into the 2‘ denominational order, and
potential or
m volts, determined
‘
9,404,697
5
.
byresistorl,of15,000ohms,hythedischargeof
the multiplier. There are three input control
conductors from the multiplicand unit to the de
nominational distributor, said conductors ending
in terminals ill, II, and 0, representing. respec
tively, the 2', 21. and 2° denominational orders of
the multiplicand unit.
Thusthesingleimpulseiseountedinthe?'order
These conductors convey certain potentials to
of the product accumulator by leaving the "1"
the grids of nine gaseous triode electron tubes.
tube in a conducting condition.
each being rendered conducting under control oi‘
Upon the introduction of. the second positive
impulse through the 2° terminal 2!, the “0” tube 10 associated portions of the multiplier and multi
plicand units and thereafter having a self-ex
will be ?red and become conducting, whereupon
tinguishing action. The combined in?uence of
the "1” tube will be extinguished, its grid resum
a potential rise in a conductor from the multi
ing control. The rise in the potential 0! the
the capacitor 8!, so that the anode of the tube
Ii temporarily becomes more negative than the
cathode, allowing the grid to resume control,
whereupon the tube ii becomes extinguished.
cathode of tube Ii, as it ?res and becomes con
plier unit and a potential rise in a conductor of
ducting, is impressed on conductor 32, through 15 the multiplicand unit causes the ?ring or a par
point 33, and through capacitors 34 and 15.
causing the "1" tube of the 21 denominational
order oi‘ the accumulator to tire and become con
ducting, thereby causing the zero tube of the
same order to become extinguished. No matter 20
which tube of the succeeding order is conduct
ticular one of the nine self-extinguishing tubes
of the denominational distributor, creating a po
tential impulse which is routed to the proper de
nominaticnal order of the product accumulator
to actuate it. The three input conductors of the
multiplier combine with the three input con
ductors of the multiplicand to give nine possible
results, each of which is represented by one of
the nine tubes of the distributor. A typical prob
as capacitors N and 35, it will always cause the
non-conducting tube to ?re and the conducting 25 lem will give an understanding oi’ the function 01‘
the distributor. For example, multiply in the
tube to become extinguished. The accumulator,
binary system "111" by "111." This problem will
after the supposed introduction of two impulses
identify the function of each of the tubes in the
through terminal 29, now shows an accumulation
denominational distributor, as it provides a digit
of two units of data, or, expressed otherwise, data
representing 21. Data introduced over terminal 30 in every order of every stage of the multiplica
tion. As has been said, the highest digit of the
30 represents, for each impulse, unit data of 21,
multiplier is ?rst used, and therefore the problem
as such an impulse introduced over terminal It
may be expressed in this manner:
will actuate tubes 11 and III to change their mode
oi’ operation from what it then is, and to cause
2‘ 21 2' 2! 2| 2"
(Denominational order)
a transfer of data to actuate the succeeding de 35
X
l l l
(multiplicand) -2'+2l+2'
nominational order if such change in the mode
l l l
(multiplier) -2'+2\+2'
of operation of the pair results in the zero tube
111
("m me)=2‘+2‘+3'
ing, because the interdenominational transfer im
pulse is impressed through both capacitors, such
becoming conducting.
In the same manner, a
single impulse over the terminal Iii will introduce
11
l
1
l
1
(second
stage; -2l+21--2l
(third stage viii-flu”
in the accumulator a unit of data in the value 40
It is seen that. in the ?rst stage of the multi
of 2", an impulse on terminal ill will introduce
plication. the highest order multiplier digit is em
into the 23 denominational order a unit of data
ployed, which is, in the denominational distribu
equal to 21‘ for each impulse, and an impulse on
tor, represented by the multiplier terminal Ill
terminal ll will introduce data equal in value to
2‘ for each impulse. The total capacity of the 45 (Figs. 2 and 3). This terminal is connected to
the grids of the gaseous triodes ii, 52, and 53,
disclosed accumulator as noted in the binary sys
whose cathodes are respectively connected to the
tem is "111111." which is "63” as noted in the
decimal system. Since the maximum multipli
cation accomplished by the structure disclosed is
"ill" by "111" in the binary system. which gives
product accumulator terminals 89, 40, and ll,
leading to the product accumulator banks (Fig. 1)
representing 2’, 23, and 24. Referring to the ?rst
a product or "ll000l” in the binary system (49 in
the decimal system), it is seen that the said ac
cumulator is ample to take care of any problem
that can be set up in the three place multiplier
and the three place multiplicand units. The in
vention as disclosed permits the number of de
nominational orders to be increased inde?nitely
to accommodate more denominations for carry
over data or to accommodate a larger product.
The terminals 29, 88, I9, 40, and ll are con
nected to the denominational distributor or the
generated impulses, as will be described. No in
put terminal is furnished for the 2B denomination
of the accumulator, as that denomination receives
data only by denominational transfer.
The denominational distributor
stage or the multiplication, it is seen that a unit
of data is to be entered into each of the last
The denominational distributor (Fig. 2) relays
and distributes impulses produced under joint
named denominational orders of the accumulator.
By impressing a positive potential on terminal 60
(Fig, 2) su?icient to relieve the bias on the grids
of tubes ii, 52, and It to a point just short of
?ring, each of the said tubes Ii, 52, and I! is
primed to be responsive by ?ring. If the grid of
any one of the primed tubes is given a positive
potential impulse by the multiplicand unit,
through associated respective terminals 80, II,
and 82. su?icient to overcome the relieved bias,
such tube will ?re and become conducting. Such
multiplicand impulses are adjusted so as to be
insumcient to ?re tubes or the denominational
distributor which are not relieved of the full bias
potential. The cathode of a ?red tube will rise
in potential, due to the resistance in the cathode
supply circuit, delivering a positive potential im
control of the multiplier-multiplicand units to 70 pulse to the associated one of the terminals It.
40, and ii actuating the corresponding bank of
the product accumulator to actuate it. There are
the product accumulator. The cathode of the
three input control conductors from the multiplier
tube Ii (also connected to the cathodes of tubes
unit to the denominational distributor, ending in
BI and it) is connected to ground through re
terminals 50, s2, and I3, representing, respec
tively, the 2’, 21, and 2° denominational orders of 75 sistor M of 50.000 ohms by means of conductors
.
‘
7
_
II and 00. The cathoderesistor ll is.common
totubesll
andlhthe'cathodeoithetubell
beingconnectedthereto
conductor II. The cathode. resistor‘ is is con
nected alone to tube ‘It.
, "‘e
theorize
negative multiplierlot
tllllicondterminals
grid. is
under: which
a positive potential immusejin sequence, begin- 10 accession-ma measurements we
hositii'ethan 10 volts 'negativelwith
to
with terminal 00 andending withterminal
. thods, by
vfrom the multiplicand
02, for each stageoi the multiplication. In prob
causing such primed tubes to
_»
lems in which there isno multiplying dish in a "
such as resistors 00 and 00 (Fig. 2)
given denomination, no impube" ‘i'onthat denom
500.000 ohms, respective
ination‘ reaches the distributor.
00; are or
ly. Resistors; ‘such as resistor 00 are oi’ 350.000
»~: e; =1 ~ ': 2°,is coupledby conductor 00 to the
mlrldsoftubes II, 00, and‘ I! each through a
‘ A switch lli‘isprovided to complete the anode
capacitor like capacitor-0| of 10 micro-microiar
Suppl!
, j toalltheselr-extinguishingtubes
ads. 'In the same manner, the grids of the tubes
02, II, and I‘! are coupled, each through a capac 20 or the denominational distributor unit. 7
‘
a The multiplier unit
a
.
itor, to the common conductor ,‘lloonnected to
the terminal 0i representing the 21 denomina
"I'he multiphérlili‘lg. 3) includes four gaseous
tional order of the multipllcand. and, in a like
triodes,
three oi them, I00, IN, and I02, ‘repre
manner, each of the tubes II, ‘II, and ‘i2 is cou
sending
the
denominational orders 2=, 21, and 20 of
pled, through a capacitor, to a conductor ‘I0 con? 25 the multiplier,
the iourth tube, I00. being a “stop”
neeted to the terminal 0! representing the 2° de
tube. T‘Thetubes' ‘I00 to I00 are caused to be
nomlnational order oi the multiplicand.
in sequence, the ?rst of said tubes, tube
In the ?rst stage oi the multiplication, the ?rst _ operated
mt ‘
tired by momentarily closing a switch
tube or the denominational distributor tubes'to
I“,
-‘-which
grounds the grid. The remaining
become conducting (for the supposed problem)‘ is 30 tubesili, i0l,'and
100 are calmed to become con
the tube ll, followed in order by tubes 02 and Ii.
ducting in sequence in response to positive po
The reason for this order is that in the ?rst stage
the tubes Ii, 02, and II are relieved of their bias
‘and the terminals 00, II, and 02 intl'mtorder are
given the necessary positive potential ?ring im 35
pulseinsequence. The?ringoleachoithe
tential impulse signals received through termi
nal ‘III, which impulses are received from the
militlpliound unit (Fig. 4),‘ as will be described.
The anodes oi' the tubes of the multiplier are
tubes 02, 03, and ii produces an impulse, the
‘Supplied, through theterminal ill, under control
?rst impulse being impressed on the terminal 4i, ‘
the second on the terminal 00, and the third on
through a resistor I00 0! 3,000 ohms and a com
the terminal 09.
0! a switch ill, with '75 volts positive potential,
mon conductor» I00.
'
'
The cathodes of cache: the tubes I00, ml, and
After one of the tubes 01' the denominational
' iii! are grounded through a 15,000-obm resistor,
distributor has ?red and become conducting, it is
‘like
_ _ resistor i in, in parallel‘ with a capacitor oi
.002 inlcrofarad, like capacitor iii, in series with
a resistor-oi 2,500 ohms,‘ like resistor H2. The
' self-extinguished by reason or the fact that the
cathode and anode of each tube are each dynam
icallv coupled to ground, which tact, in conjunc
grids or each of the tubes Ill, I02, and I00 are
tion with a resistance and capacitance in parallel
givennegative bias through the resultant sheet
or, connection to terminal H3 or 150 volts nega
in the cathode supply, and the distributed induc
tance in the anode-cathode circuit, causes an
tiveiwith respect to ground, through a point like
point ii], through a network 01' resistors, like
resistors H0 (or 00, Fig. 2, when key switch 21
‘is closedLiii, III, H1, H0, and iii oi the val
oscillatory rise in cathode potential which over— ‘
shoots the anode potential, extinguishing the
tube. For tube 03, for instance, the capacitor ‘II
or 100 micro-microiarads, the resistor 00 of 50,000
ohms in the cathode circuit, and the relatively
large capacitor 16 coupling the common anode
‘
ues 350,000 ohms, 200,000 ohms, 200,000'ohms,
300,000 ohms,‘500,0001ohms, and 50,000 ohms, re
supply to ground constitute such a self-extin 56 spectively. Points like point I50 are connected
to the cathode of the preceding tube oi’ the se
guishing circuit. The tubes 02 and 04 are both
ries at a pointlike point I02, which is grounded
served by the resistor 01 and the capacitor DI,
the cathodes or both tubes being connected by
through a, resistor like resistor I20 of 15,000 ohms.
This gives the grids oi’ tubes I01, J02, and!“ a
conductor 00.
a
negative bias or 57 volts with'r'espeet to
In the same manner tor tubes 05, 00, and ii, 00 normal
their
cathodes,
which is su?icient to preventjthe
whose cathodes are connected by conductors 55
?ring ot said‘tubes, their cathodes being con
and 00, the resistor 04 and the capacitor ‘I0 sup
ply the self-extinguishing circuit elements. For a
the tubes "and ‘ii, the resistor 11 and the ‘capac
ltor ‘II serve the same purpose by reason or the
common conductor ‘ll. The tube 12 is served by
the resistor 00 and the capacitor Ii. The cath
oderesistors and capacitors are thesamei'orall
the distributor tubes.
The operating potentials are supplied as fol
lows: for the anodes, 76 volts positive, and for
respect to ground by being connected to" point
I“ through a 500,000-o1nn resistor I 00.. ' Basis
tor I0‘! is of $530,000 ohms instead of the'3§0‘.000
70
the normal grid bias, 150 volts negative.‘ This ‘
lid-volt negative supply is obtained by connec- ‘
V ' tion to terminal II.
which normal potential, bV
throughthetermineis Immoral”
nected to points like point 102 to give them a
negative potential in‘ the normal non-‘conducting
condition 01' 8 volts. The grid of tube I00 is
given a controlling negative bias oi.’ 150 volts ‘with
"I
ohms ‘stated ior other corresponding resistors.
The closing orany‘one or the keys 2*, 21, ‘oril"
(F1:- 3) adjusts‘ themes on the‘grid or the ease
oiated tube oi" the multiplier unit Bud, the'ihsso
natlonaldistributor,
elated tubes of the horizontal
making the
rowbias
of onitheffgrids
or the tubes or the denominational ‘distributor
2,404,697
(Fig. 2) as are associated with the depressed
closed key. about 59 volts negative. The conse
quent potential upon the grids or the multiplier
tubes of the next lower denominational order will
be about 65 volts negative.
As the key switch I04 is momentarily closed, l
grounding the grid of the 22 tube I00, the tube
I00 tires and becomes conducting, and the termi
nal 50 (if key 8| is on the lower contact), connect
ed to the cathode of the I00 tube through resistor
I88, is given a potential rise of approximately 36
volts. which results in relieving the bias on the
grids of the tubes SI, 52, and 53 of the denomina
tional distributor (Fig. 2) to approximately 23
volts negative.
When an impulse is impressed upon the ter
minal I05 (Fig. 3) from the multiplicand unit,
it is thereby impressed upon the grids of the
10
cult oi’ tube I03, a greater potential drop is avail
able at terminal I2 0.
It is seen, therefore, that manually selected
ones 01' terminals 50. 02, and 03 are caused to
be given an elevation of potential, one after
another, under control of the multiplicand unit,
the keys like key 04 being selecting keys for set
ting up the digits of the multiplier.
The multiplicand unit
The multiplicand unit (Fig. 4) includes tubes
200, 20I, 202, and 203 of the gaseous triode type,
such as the, tubes heretofore considered. ‘Tubes
MI, 202, and 203 represent, respectively, 2“, 2‘,
and 2’. The tube 200 is an operation recycling
control tube. The multiplicand tubes are con
nected in a circuit whereby, upon initiation of an
operation by ?ring the tube 203, the tubes 202,
Mi, and 200 are caused to ?re automatically and
tubes IOI, I02, and I03 by means of a common
become extinguished in that order in succession.
20
conductor I22 and capacitors, such as capacitor
Recycling tube 200, upon ?ring, initiates the com
I23 of 10 micro-microfarads. As the grid of tube
mencement of another sequential operation oi.’ the
IN is connected to point I24, it receives a posi
multiplicand unit by giving a positive potential
tive elevation of potential while the tube I00 is
elevation to the grid of the tube 203. When the
in conducting condition, which causes the grid of
terminal I26 (Figs. 3 and 4) receives the nega
tube IOI to be relieved 0r primed so as to be more 25 tive potential, due to the ?ring of the “stop" tube
susceptible to filing than the tube I02 or I03, and
of the multiplier, as has been explained, the re
consequently the potential impulse impressed on
cycling impulse of the tube 200 is blocked and
the recycling of the sequential operation of the
tubes of the multiplicand ceases.
primed tubes, and ?res tube IOI, whose grid is 30
Terminal 205 is the source of a 75-volt posi
the terminal I05 is made of a value which dis
criminates between the primed and the un
connected to the cathode of an already conduct
tive anode supply potential which is impressed
ing tube. Therefore, when tube I00 is conducting,
on a. common conductor 205 when switch 201 is
only tube IOI will ?re in response to an impulse
closed. A 3,000-ohm resistor 200 is included in
from the multiplicand unit. When tube IOI ?res,
the portion of said anode supply conductor serv
its cathode capacitor I25 of .002 microfarad will
ing the tubes 200, "I, 202, and 203. Each of
begin to charge, and, due to the common 3,000
the cathodes of said tubes 200 to 203 inclusive is
ohm resistor I08 in the anode potential supply
grounded through a 15,000-ohm resistor, such as
line, a sudden drop in potential in the conductor
resistor 209, in parallel with a capacitor and re
I05 occurs, with a consequent drop in the anode
sistor in series, like capacitor 2I0 of .002 micro
potential of the tube I00, which previous to that
farad and like resistor 2“ of 2.500 ohms. Each
time has been within about 16 volts of the po
of the grids, except as will be explained for tube
tential of its cathode. Such sudden drop in the
203, receives its biasing potential by being con
potential of the anode of tube I00 thereby ex
nected through a resistor oi’ 500.000 ohms, like
tinguishes it, as its cathode potential is tempo 45 resistor 2I2, a point, like point 2I3, a point, like
rarily maintained by the charge on capacitor I I I.
point 282, and a resistor of 150.000 ohms, like re
This extinguishing of one tube upon the ?ring
sistor 2I5, to a negative l50-volt supply conduc
of a. second tube by causing its anode potential
tor 2I'I. Points like point 2I3 are grounded
to become less than the cathode potential has
through ‘a capacitor of 250 micro-microfarads,
been explained before in connection with the
such as capacitor 222. Each cathode is connect
product accumulator. It is seen that tubes IOI,
ed to a point like point 2I5 through a resistor
I02, and I03 are caused to be ?red step by step
like resistor 2I0 of ‘75,000 ohms. Departing from
in sequence in response to the positive potential
the repeating pattern of the circuit elements of
impulses impressed upon the terminal I05 by the
the multiplicand unit, the resistor H9 is of
multiplicand unit.
150,000 ohms, the resistor 220 is of 50.000 ohms,
The ?ring of the tube I03 is only to provide
the resistor MI is of 500,000 ohms, and the ca
a negative potential at the terminal I20, which
pacitor 230, coupled to the source of positive
negative potential is brought about by reason of
potential, is 50 micro-microfarads. With the
the drop of the anode potential of tube I03
values of the circuit elements shown, upon the
due to the resistance in its anode supply. Such
closing of the start switch 223, which connects
(50
negative potential is impressed upon the multi
the positive potential conductor 205 through ca
plicand unit to stop the recycling operation of
pacitor 230 to point 224 leading to the grid of
the multiplicand tubes, as will be explained.
the tube 203, representing 22, the grid of said
When tube I03 ?res, capacitor I21 and resistor
tube 203 is caused to become su?iciently positive
I28 together provide the circuit function in ex
to ?re said tube. and, upon said tube becoming
tinguishing any other conducting tube whose
conducting, point 225 rises in potential, which
anode is given its potential by anode conductor
I09, just as though the capacitor and resistor
were in the cathode supply circuit of tube I03.
Therefore capacitor I2‘! is of the same value as
capacitor III, and resistor I28 is of the same
value as resistor I I0. The resistor in the cathode
supply of tube I03 is an oscillation-suppressing
resistor of 2,500 ohms corresponding to resistor
H2 having the same function for tube I00. By
placing most of the resistance in the anode cir
potential is impressed through Point 236, P88151101‘
20L point 202, point 2I3, and resistor 2I2 onto
the grid of the tube 202, representing 2', which
thereupon ?res and becomes conducting.
As
tube 202 is becoming fully conducting, capacitor
2I0 is charging, which, by lowering the potential
of anode I225 due to the common resistor 208 in
an anode supply circuit. lowers the potential of
the anodes of tubes "R," 2°. 21, and 2‘, which
2,404,697
I1
drop in potentialoi’ anode
more than 15
.
E‘:5 l? 5 3'B3
response to the poten
rise received at point 238 as tube 201 ?res.
as ?res. its cathode rises in poten
03 Q5r
In
10
a positive
impulse as the tubes 01' the multipli
cand?reinsuccession.
It is apparent that, as far
.15
i
the invention is concerned, the
a recycling of the multiplicand
at
the time the "R" tube 200 ?res the third time,
the "stop"
tube 103 (Fig. 3) is also caused to
digit-representing
tubes of the multiplicand unit. The tubes 289.
240, and 24!, being self-extinguished by reason of
their resistance-capacitance coupling‘to ground,
pass on the impulses and are ready for thing on
the next cycle of operation or the multiplieand
unit.
tube 200, due to its ?ring. will not initiate the
?ring of tube 203 and a consequent recycling of
the multipiicand. This stops the operation of
the muitipiicand unit.
itor 222 are timing capacitors,
oi’ 50 micro-microfarads delays
30
tial of the grid of tube 203 until the
tential arrives over
tiplicand keys are closed (Figs. 3 and 4), the key
ID‘ of the multiplier (Fig. 3) is closed, and ?nal
ly the start key 223 (Fig. 4) is closed. Under
40
mulator accordingr to the following schedule:
In
tter-
In at ter
nais to
m unis to
distributor
product
to terminals
impulse as the associated relay
Tubes 23!, 240, and 2" are self
The values for
been presented in the circuit elements that have
250,000 ohms to the l50-volt negative supply con~
ductor 217. Points like point 252 are connected
through a resistor like resistor 2“ to a terminal
like terminal 255, which may be connected by
a key switch like switch 256 to ground.
These
switches, when closed, ground the ternninal 285
and reduce the bias on the grid of the associated
relay tube.
example, the closing of switch
75
l3 -
,
candtubenot selectedisnotconveyedto thede
insequenceinresponsetoeachotre
nominational distribute .
ceived electric impulses: a second plurality of
electron tubes representing the digits of a mul
Thereiore, no matter
what the size of the multiplier or the multipli
cand, the time consumed in one multiplying op.
eration is the same.
tiplicand so connected in a circuit that they are
automatically rendered conductive in sequence
Instead of the method of selecting the digits
of the multiplier and the multiplicand by key
switches, wherein the control is located between
the multiplier or the multiplicand and the de
and connected to said nrst group of tubes so
that at the end ot a cycle of operation 0! the
multiplicand tubes a potential impulse is im
pressed upon the multiplier tubes; and means
nominational distributing unit, the. same results 10 associated with each multiplicand tube which
means is given an electric potential impulse when
could be gotten by bridging the connections be
the associated tube becomes conductive.
tween the multiplier tubes or the multiplicand
5. In combination, a plurality oi gaseous elec
tubes so as to cut out any particular tube not
tron tubes, each representing a digit oi’ a multi
wanted in the sequence oi’ operation, or stopping
15 plier and connected in a circuit so they are
the operation of selected tubes in any manner.
operable one at a time in sequence, in response
A table of binary-decimal equivalents is given
to each of commonly received electric impulses:
in Fig. 5 for convenience.
means to render the ?rst tube of the sequence
While the form of the invention herein shown
operable; a second plurality oi! gaseous electron
and described is admirably adapted to iul?ll the
objects primarily stated. it is to be understood 20 tubes, each representing a digit of a multipli
cand, so connected in a circuit that they are
that it is not intended to con?ne the invention
automatically rendered operable in sequence and
to the one form or embodiment herein disclosed,
connected to said first group of tubes so that
for it is susceptible oi’ embodiment in various
at the end of a cycle oi operation of the multi
terms all coming within the scope oi’ the claims
25 plicand tubes a potential impulse is impressed
which follow.
commonly upon the multiplier tubes; means to
What is claimed is:
start the sequential operation of the multipli
1. In combination a plurality of electron tubes
cand tubes; an output circuit for each tube of
each representing a denomination of a multi
the multiplier tubes, each of which output cir
plier so connected in a circuit that they are
operable one at a time in sequence in response 80 cuits is given a rise in potential as the asso
to each of commonly received electric impulses;
and a second plurality of electron tubes arranged
in a chain, each plurality representing a de
ciated tubes become conducting; and an output
circuit for each 01' the multiplicand tubes. each
of which circuits is given a rise in potential as
the associated multiplicand tube becomes con
nomination of a multiplicand so connected in a
circuit that conduction in one tube renders the 35 ducting.
6. In combination, a plurality of gaseous elec
next tube in the chain conducting, said group
tron tubes, each representing a digit oi’ a multi
being connected to said ?rst group of tubes so
plier and so connected in a circuit that they
that at the ‘end of a complete sequential cycle
are operable one at a time in sequence, in re
of operation of the multiplicand tubes a poten
tial impulse is impressed upon the multiplier 40 sponse to each of commonly received electric
tubes to operate them a step in the sequence,
2. In combination a plurality oi’ gaseous elec
tron tubes, each representing a denomination of
a multiplier, so connected in a circuit that they
impulses; a second plurality of gaseous electron
tubes, each representing a digit of a multiplicand
and so connected in a circuit that they are auto
matically rendered conductive in sequence, and
connected to said ?rst group of tubes so that at
are operable one at a time in sequence. in re
the end of a cycle of operation 01' the multipli
sponse to each oi’ commonly received electric
cand tubes a potential impulse is impressed com
impulses; and a second plurality oi gaseous
monly upon the multiplier tubes; an output cir
electron tubes arranged in a chain, each plu
cuit for each or the multiplier tubes, each oi
rality representing a denomination of a multi
plicand, so connected in a circuit that conduc 60 which circuits is given a rise in potential as the
associated tube becomes conducting; an output
tion in one tube renders the next tube in the
circuit for each of the multiplicand tubes. each
chain conducting, said group being connected
of which circuits is given a rise in potential as
to said ?rst group of tubes so that at the end of
the associated tube becomes conducting; and a
a complete sequential cycle of operation of the
means associated with each output circuit to
multiplicand tubes, a potential impulse is im
pressed commonly upon the multiplier tubes to
connect said circuit with said tube and discon
nect said circuit from said tube as selectively
operate them a step in the sequence.
determined.
3. In combination a plurality of electron tubes
7. A first plurality of electron tubes each tube
each representing a digit of a multiplier so con
representing a digit 01' a multiplier; a second plu
nected in a circuit that they are operable one at
rality of tubes each tube representing a digit of
a time in sequence in response to each of com
a multiplicand; means supplying operating en
monly received electric impulses; a second plu
ergy to said tubes; means connecting the mul
rality of electron tubes each representing a digit
tiplicand tubes to cause said multiplicand tubes
of a multiplicand so connected in a circuit that
to automatically become conducting one at a
they are automatically rendered conductive in
time in sequence; means connecting the mul
sequence and connected to said ?rst group of
tiplier tubes to cause the multiplier tubes to be
tubes so that at the end of a cycle oi’ operation
come conducting one at a time in sequence; means
of the multiplicand tubes a Potential impulse is
coupling the ?rst and second groups of tubes so
impressed upon the multiplier tubes; and an
output circuit for each tube of the multiplier 70 that each step oi’ operation of the ?rst group is
caused by the completion of a cycle of sequential
which circuit is given a rise in potential as the
operation of said second group; output means for
associated tube becomes conducting.
each of said tubes, said output means being given
4. In combination a, plurality of electron tubes
a rise in potential each time the associated tube
representing digits of a multiplier so connected
in a circuit that they are operable one at a time 75 becomes conducting; selective means to determine
8,404,897
15
a
whether any of said output menu should be given
said rise in potential or not as the associated
tube becomesccnductlng; and a plurality or tubes
connected in] groups. each group representing an
output meansol the multiplier tubes by which the
group is controlledand connectedin other groups
each oi‘ which'represents the output means of one
of the multiplicanditubesr and connected in third
groupings, each ot'whioh represents the Joint con
they are made to become conducting one at a time
in sequence, each step of the sequential operation
being caused through said couplings by the re
cycling means or the multipllcand unit on the
completion of a cycle of said multlplicand unit;
means under control or the multiplier unit for
causing the multiplicand unit recycling means to
cease its operation at the conclusion oi’ one se
trol of adigitrepr'esenting tube of the multiplier 10 quential cycle of operation or the multiplier unit;
an output conductor for each tube oi’ the mul
and aldisitreprcsenting tube of the multlplicand
tipller
unit which output conductor is connected
whose productis represented in the same denomi
nation.
"
I
to an electrode of the associated tubes so as to
receive an electric potential rise as such tube is
_
8. In combinationi-a' plurality oi’ electron tubes
operated; an output conductor for each tube of i
representing denominations , of a multiplier so 15
the multiplicand unit so connected to an electrode
‘connected in a circuit that they are operable one
01 the associated tube that such tube is given an
electric potential rise as the associated tube is
‘operated; controls whereby to start the operation
ity of electron tubes representing the denomina
tions 01' a multipli'cand so connected in a circuit 20 of the multiplier units and the multiplicand units:
a plurality of responsive means. each of which is
that they are automatically rendered conducting
at a time in sequence; iii-response to each of com
monly received electric impulses; a second plural- '
associated with an output conductor of the mul- '
in sequence, and connected to said ?rst group of
tubes, so that at the end or a cycle 01' operation
of the multiplicand tubes a‘, potential impulse is
impressed upon the multiplier tubes: a plurality
of means, each representative of a product of a’
tipller unit and one of the output conductors of
the multiplicand unit so as to be responsive to
given an electric potential change when the as
sociated conductors receive their potential rises
at the same time; and a plurality oi’ conductors
multiplicand digit as multiplied by a multiplier‘
d'git, said means including a plurality of electron
‘ each associated with one or more or the respon-v
sive means. which conductors are given an elec
tubes equal in number to the number-oi’ denomina
tions in the multiplier times the number of de 30 tric potential change nearly one of the respon
sive means with which they are associated re
nominations in the multiplicand; and connec
sponds.
,
tions between the product representing tubes, a
11. In combination, a multiplier unit, includ
source of electric energy, and the multiplier and
ing an electron tube for each 01' a plurality of
multiplicand tubes. whereby any one of said prod
uct tubes is renderedconductlng by reason of the 36 denominations based on the binary system of
numerical notation; a multiplicand unit includ
multiplicand tube and multiplier tube whose prod
ing an electron tube for each of a plurality of
not it represents, being simultaneously in a con—
ducting condition. -
denominations based on the binary system of
'
numerical notation, and a cycling means; con
9. In combination, a multiplier unit, including
an electron tube for each of a plurality of denom
inations, based on the binary system of numerical
notation; a multipllcand unit, including an elec
tron tube for each oi'a plurality of denomina
tions, based upon the binary system of numerical
nections between the tubes 01 the multipllcand
40 unit whereby the tubes are caused to become con
ducting one at a time in sequence, said sequen
tial operation being automatically repeated by
the recycling means; couplings between the multi
plier
unit and the multlplicand unit; connections
notation, and arecycling means; connections be 45 betweenthe
tubes of the multiplier unit whereby
tween the tubes of the multiplicand unit where
they are made to become conducting one at a
by the tubes‘ are caused to become conducting one -
time in sequence, each step of the sequential
at a time in ‘sequence automatically, said sequen
operation being caused through said couplings by
tial' operation being automatically repeated by
the recycling means upon completion of the se
the recycling means; couplings between ‘the mul 50 quential cycle of operation oi’ the multiplicand
tiplier' unit and the multiplicandunit; connec
unit ; means under control oi’ the multiplier unit ’
tions between the tubes 0! the multiplier where
for causing the multipllcand unit to cease its
by they are made‘to become conducting ‘one at a
repeat operation at the conclusion of‘one se
time in sequence, each step of ‘the sequential
quential cycle oi’ operation oi’ the multiplier unit:
operation being caused through said couplings by
controls whereby to start the operation of the
the completion or. asequential cycle of the mul
multiplier unit and the multlplicand unit; an
tiplicand operation; and means under control of
output conductor for each tube of the multiplier
the multiplier unit‘ for causing the multiplicand
unit recycling'means' to cease its repcatropera-j V
tions at the’. conclusion "or one sequentialcycle
of operational the'multiplier unit.
r
"
unit, which output conductor is connected to an
electrode of the associated tube so as to receive
a change in‘electrlc potential as each tube is
operated; an output conductor for each tube 01"
10. In combinatiomna multiplier unitinclud
the multiplicand unit so connected to an elec
ing anelectrohiiibc'wler each of a plurality of
trode oi’ the associated tube that each con
denominationsxbased on the‘ binary system of
ductor is given a change in electric potential as
numerical notation: a multiplicand unit includ 65 the associated tube is operated: a plurality of
ing an electron tube for each of a plurality‘oi
1,
denominations ‘based upon ‘the binary system of ‘
means, each of which is associated with a con
ductor oi’ the multiplier unit and one or the con- '
numerical notation, and a recycling means: con
ductors of the multiplicand unit so as to respond
nections between the, tubes of the multipllcand
when the associated conductors receive their po
unit whereby the tubes are caused to become con 70 tential change at the same tim ; a plurality of
ducting one at a tlmein sequence, said sequential '
operation being automatically repeatedby the
conductors each‘ associated with ‘one or more of
the responsive means and each having a desig
recycling means; couplings between the multiplier
nated numerical value. which conductors are given
unit and the multipllcand unit; connections be
an electric potential impulse as any ‘one oi‘ the
tween the tubes 01' the multiplier unit‘ whereby 75 responsive means with which they are associated
9,404,697
17
commonly impressed upon all the tubes; 9. second
; and an accumulator of data having
plurality of electron tubes divided into groups,
denominational orders based upon the binary sys
each group being associated with one of the
tem of numerical notation. which is actuated by
tubes at the iirst named plurality; means common
the changes of potential 0! the conductors asso
ciated with the responsive means, said conductors 6 to the tubes of a group normally rendering the
tubes inoperative; and connections between a
and the denominational orders of the accumu
tube oi the first plurality and associated group
lator being so connected that the accumulator is
whereby when said tube of the ?rst plurality
actuated to have data entered therein correspond
i; operated it prepares for operation all the tubes
ing to the product represented by multiplying the
0! the group with which it is associated.
value oi’ the multiplicand tubes by the value of
14. In combination, a product accumulator
the multiplier tubes.
actuable by electric impulses; a multiplier unit
12. In combination, a multiplier unit, includ
including a plurality oi electron discharge tubes.
ing an electron tube for each of a plurality oi.’
each of said tubes representing a denomination
denominations based on the binary system or
numerical notation; a multiplicand unit includ 15 in the binary system oi numerical notation; a.
multiplicand unit including a plurality oi elec
ing an electron tube for each of a plurality of
tron discharge tubes, each oi said tubes repre
denominations based on the binary system oi‘
senting a denomination in the binary system of
numerical notation and a recycling means; con
numerical notation; a plurality oi.’ means for en
neetions between the tubes 01 the multiplicand
unit whereby the tubes are caused to become con 20 tering data into the several denominations of the
accumulator; a plurality of electron tubes, each
ducting one at a time in sequence. said sequential
of which produces an electric impulse when ac
operation being automatically repeated by the
tuated by operation 0! a tube of the multiplier
recycling means; couplings between the multiplier
unit in conjunction with the operation of a tube
unit and the multiplicand unit; connections be
tween the tubes of the multiplier unit whereby 25 0! the multiplicand unit at the same time; and
they are made to become conducting one at a
means connecting one or more oi the electric im—
time in sequence, each step of the sequential oper
ation being caused through the couplings by the
recycling means upon completion of the se
pulse producing tubes to an associated one of the
data entering means so that when one of the
for causing the multiplicand unit to cease its
repeat operation at the conclusion of one se
actuated, data is entered into the proper denom
ination of the accumulator to represent the
tubes associated with the data entering means is
caused to produce an impulse by reason of the
quential cycle oi’ operation of the multiplicand 30 associated
multiplier and multiplicand tubes being
unit; means under control 01' the multiplier unit
quential cycle or operation of the multiplier unit;
controls whereby to start the operation of the
multiplier unit and the multiplicand unit; an out
put conductor for each tube of the multiplier
product of the value of said multiplicand tube
35
asbemultiplied by the value of said multiplier
tu
.
15. In combination, an accumulator of data
having
denominational orders based on the
unit, which output conductor is connected to an
binary numerical notation; a plurality oi elec
electrode of the associated tube so as to receive
a change in electric potential as each tube is 40 tron tubes equal in number to the number of
denominations in a multiplier as multiplied by
operated: an putput conductor for each tube of
the number or denominations in a, multiplicand;
the multiplicand unit so connected to an elec
a multiplier unit based upon the binary system of
trode oi.’ the associated tube that each conductor
numerical notation, said unit including a gaseous
is given a change in electric potential as the
associa
tube is operated; a plurality of means, 45 electron tube for each denomination oi the mul
tiplier, including means connecting the tubes 50
each oikwhich is associated with a conductor of
they may be caused to operate in sequence in
the multiplier unit and one of the conductors of
response to commonly received electric im
the multiplicand unit so as to respond when the
pulses, including an output conductor for each
associated conductors receive their potential
change at the same time; a plurality of con 50 tube having impressed thereon electric potential
changes as the associated tube is rendered con
ductors each associated with one or more of the
ducting, said output conductcrs having selecting
responsive means and each having a designated
means included therein to connect or disconnect
numerical value, which conductors are given an
the conductor with or from the associated tube;
electric potential impulse as any one oi the
a multiplicand unit, including a plurality of elec
responsive means with which they are associated 55 tron
discharge tubes connected so they are op
responds; an accumulator of data having de
erated one at a time in sequence automatically,
, nominational orders based upon the binary sys
said multiplicand unit including an output con
tem of numerical notation, which is actuated by
ductor for each tube, which is impressed with
the changes of potential of the conductors asso
an electric potential change as the associated
ciated with the responsive means, said conductors 60 tube
is operated, including selective means where
and the denominational orders oi the accumulator
by
each
output conductor may be connected with
being so connected that the accumulator is actu
or disconnected from said associated multipli
ated to have data entered therein corresponding
cand tube so as to determine whether a potential
to the product represented by multiplying the
value of the multiplicand tubes by the value of 05 change shall be produced on said conductor,
means to cause the sequence of operation to be
the multiplier tubes; and manipulative means to
repeated, said means also causing a. step of op
select which 01' the multiplicand tubes and which
eration or the multiplier unit, and means con
of the multiplier tubes when operative shall im
trolled by completion of operation of the multi
press a potential change upon the associated
plier unit Ior disabling the repeating means of
70
responsive means.
the multiplicand unit; and means for operating
13. In combination a plurality of electron tubes
the tubes of the ?rst mentioned ‘plurality of tubes
each representing a digit: connections between
under joint control oi the combined output means
the tubes whereby they may be made conducting
of the multiplier unit and the multiplicand unit
one at a time in sequence, each step oi the se
so as to operate a. selected one of said tubes
75
quence being in response to an electric impulse
‘
m,_________
H__,,_
2,404,001
19
’
20
whsnacsstainonsoithemultiplicsndunitoutlatorotnumerlcaldatabasedonthebinarysys
putconduetorsrccsivesapotentialchango at temcd'notatiomactuatedbyelectricimpulsesin
thssamstimsaccrtainoneotthsoutputoom pulsetroduced intotheseveraldenominationsznn
means tor actuating the accu-,
tialchangatheoperatedtubeoitheiilstplu5
mulatonincludingapluraiityorelectrcntubes
rality having an output conductor leading to the
equal in number to the number of denomina
doctors of the multiplier lmit receives a poten-
pmpcr denomination oi’ the accumulator-so as to
enter therein the product data represented by
multiplying the value or the lssociated multipii-
tions or a multiplier times the number or de
nominations of a multiplicand, each oi’ said tubes
being supplied with operating energy and con
candtuhsbythevalueor themulti- 10 nectedsoastosupplyanimpulsetotheproper
plier tube.
denomination oi’ the accumulator when acted up
16. In combination, an accumulator ot numeron coniointiy by a digit-representing device or
ical data based on the binary system oi’ numerthe multiplier and a digit-representing device
icai notation, including denominational maps of
of the multiplies-ml whose product such tube rep
eiectron tubes. the tubes representing the digits 15 resents; an electronic multiplier unit based on
in the denomination, said accumulator being acthe binary system oi’ numerical notation, includ
tuated by electric potential chances introduced
ing a tube for each denominational order oi’ the
thereto by d
orders or between demultiplier; a multiplicand unit based on the bi
orders; data introducing means
nary system or numerical notation, there being
0! a plurality of electrical conductors 20 an electron tube for each denomination of the
each representing a denomination of the accumultiplicand; connections between the multi
mul?tor
to the product 0! a dlsit
plier tubes and the impulse-producing tubes:
or a multidenominatiimal number muml?ler by
connections between the multiplicand tubes and
a disit of a multidenominatlonei 1mm
multlthe impulse-producing tubes; and connections
pncand; and means to apply a Potential verle- 25 between the multiplier tubes and the multipli
tion to any such conductor by hsvins connected
cand tubes whereby each tube or the multiplier
thereto an electrode or a thyratron connected in
unit is rendered conducting in conjunction with
a 8811
?ttimtins (?rm-111i 119M118 9-
each tube in the multiplioand unit to control the
demoted numerical value or the dcnomina-
corresponding tube of the impulse-producer.
tion of the accumulator represented by the con- 30
20. In combination, a denominational accu
ducli?r: 8nd de?ominl?‘m?l ‘1181*’ representing
mulator of numerical data based on the binary
multil?lcr selecting means and denominational
system of notation, actuated by electric impulses
6181b MIG-891M118 multipliclmd Selecting means
introduced into the denominations; impulse pro
to comm] 851d matron! selectively whereby
ducing means for actuating the accumulator, in
“1086 mum "Prawn-n8 the Product 0! the 35 eluding a plurality of electron tubes equal in
selected multiplier number by 8 Selected mumnurnber to the number of denominations of a
91mm number are caused to bemme active in
multiplier times the number of denominations oi‘
denomlnaliional Beqlleme. t1m8 giving. the input
a multiplicand, each oi‘ said tubes being sup
conductors a potential change to enter product
plied with operating energy and connected so
dam into the Wawr40 as to supply an impulse to the proper denomina
17- In 60111793181301!’ 8» plurality of electmmc
tion of the accumulator when acted upon con
relays having 119818111111“ Product Values. 831d 1'9jointly by a digit-representing device of the mul
1535 being selectively mntmned Jointly by 3' mm‘
tlplier and a digit-representing device of the
HD1181‘ unit and a mumpnmd “mt, each unit
multlplicand. whose product such tube repre
bemB divided mm denmnma?ons- each may be‘ 45 sents; an electronic multiplier unit, based on the
1115 ‘Emma-ted with one denomination in each
binary system 01’ numerical notation, including a
“mt; means to issue mammal Variations n'om
tube for each denominational order of the mul
the multiplicmd "mt demmmamn by denomj‘
tiplier; a multiplicand unit based on the binary
nation and to Impress them upon the associated
system of numerical notation, including an elec
ones of the relay devices to control them; means 50 "on tube for each denomination of the mump?
to issue potential Variation‘? from the multiplier
cal-id; connections between the multiplier tubes
“mt denc‘mmauon by demmmatmn and impress
and the impulse-producing tubes; connections
them upon the associated ones Of the relay de‘
between the multiplicand tubes and the impulse
vices, said multipiicand unit and multiplier unit
producing tubes; connections between the mul
Pimmtial variations being timed ‘5° act hint]? at 55 tiplier tubes and the multiplicand tubes where
discretc periods to render the associated product
by each tube in the multiplier unit is rendered
desigmmfodrglczys e?ec?ve to represent the as‘
conducting in conjunction with each tube in the
5°C a e P
multiplicand unit to conjointly affect the cor
-
1_8- In 9' multiplying device wherein the mm"
responding tube in the impulse-producer; and
“mention is performed‘ in stages each under 60 means for selecting which digit tubes of the mul
contml M 8' demmmatmn of a multiplier- the
tiplier unit and the multiplicand unit shall act
combination of a plurality of groups of self-rec°njoln?y_
Setting 816cm" discharge tube “1518, each
21. In combination, a multiplier unit, includ
EI‘WP representing a stage °f multiplication and
ins a gaseous electron discharge tube for each
each tube in the group “150 representing a de' 65 denomination of a. multiplier based on the binary
nomination 91' the multiplicandi 9' conductor :01’
system of numerical notation, each of said tubes
controlling each Bmup controlled by a multiplier
including an anode, a cathode, and a control
unit; a multiplicand unit and including a “011'
electrode: means supplying operating energy to
ductoi‘ for each denomination of the
each of said tubes: means for applying a nomal
65nd. which cenducml‘? are coupled Jointly with 70 ly controlling potential on said control grids;
the conductors from the multiplier 5° the elecmeans to connect the tubes so they are rendered
tron tubes for determining which ‘oi’ the relay
conducting one at a time in sequence in response
tubes shall become c?nduetive to represent Pmdto electric impulses commonly received by all but
not data.
the ?rst tube applied to the control grids, the
19. In combination. a denomination! mumu- T6 conductivity oi‘ a preceding tube of the sequence
2,404,897
priming the grid of the succeeding tube of the se
in; means connecting the output conductor for
each denomination of the multiplier with the
quence so as to be responsive to the next impulse;
means to cause conduction in the ?rst tube of the
sequence; means including a resistance in the
sell-extinguishing tubes whose designated prod
uct includes that digit of the multiplier as a. fac
tor, whereby when said multiplier tube is in a
cathode supply circuit for each tube for causing
conducting condition, the controlling bias upon
the control grids of those corresponding’ sell-ex
tinguishing tubes is reduced; means connecting
conducting; means connected to said cathodes of
the output conductors of the multiplicand unit
all but the last tube receiving an electric impulse
each time the associated tube is rendered con 10 to those sell-extinguishing tubes whose designat
ed product includes that digit as a factor to give
ducting; a multiplicand unit, including a plural
said tubes an impulse whereby to destroy the con
ity of electron discharge tubes. each represent
a potential rise in the cathode as a tube becomes
trolling bias on any associated tube which has
had its potential reduced by connection to a con
ing a denomination in the binary system of nu
merical notation, each of said tubes including an
anode, a cathode and a control grid; means for
ducting multiplier tube; a plurality of conduc
applying operating energy to the anode-cathode
circuits of said tube; means to apply a normally
controlling bias to the grid of said tubes to pre
vent conduction therein; means connecting the
tubes so they are caused to become conducting
one at a time in sequence automatically; means
to start conduction in the ?rst tube of the se~
quence; means to recycle the multiplicand tubes
so they may be caused to automatically repeat
their operation in sequence, said recycling means
impressing an impulse upon grids of all but the
?rst of the tubes oi the multiplier unit to cause
a step of operation therein; means rendered ef
iective at the completion of the sequential op
eration of the multiplier tubes to render the re
cycling means of the multiplicand tubes ineffec
tive; means including a resistor in the cathode
supply of each tube of the multiplier unit to
cause a potential rise in the cathode as the tube
becomes conductiim; an output conductor con
nected with the cathode of each tube of the mul
tors, each‘ representing a denomination of a bi
ot the self-ex
-nary numerical accumulator, all
tinguishing tubes whose value is the value of the
conductor being connected thereto and deliver
ing thereto an electric impulse upon the dis
charge of any of said connected self-extinguish
ing tubes; an electronic product accumulator of
numerical data based on the binary system of
numerical notation, each denomination oi which
includes two electron discharge tubes connected
25
for alternate operation so that an electric im
pulse impressed commonly thereon will cause the
tube of the denomination to become
extinguished and the non-conducting tube of the
denomination to become conducting; means
30
connecting each conductor from the self-extin
tiplicand unit except the last; a plurality of self
extinguishing gaseous triode electron discharge
tubes, each of said self-extinguishing tubes rep
guishing tubes to the corresponding denomina
tion tubes of the product accumulator so that
when any impulse is received by said conductor
it will change the mode of operation of the cor
responding denominational tubes; and means in
terconnecting the denominations oi the accumu
lator whereby when the denomination having
had entered therein its full capacity of data re
resenting the product oi one of the digits of the 40 ceives another impulse from the associated self
extingulshing tubes, the denomination will 're
multiplier by one of the digits of the multipli
cand, and said number of sell-extinguishing
tubes equalling the product of the number of
multiplier denominations by the number of mul
tiplicand denominations; means normally sup
plying a controlling potential bias to said seli
extinguishing tubes to‘prevent conduction there
turn to zero and in so doing impresses an im
pulse on the next higher denomination so as to
enter therein a unit of data.
'
JOSEPH R. DESCH.
ROBERT E.
Certi?cate of Correction
Patent No. 2,404,697.
July 23, 1946.
JOSEPH R. .DESCH, ET AL.
It is hereby certi?ed that error appears in the printed speci?cation of the above
numbered patent requiring correction as follows: Column 16, line 38, claim 11, for
the word “cycling” read recycling; and that the said Letters Patent should be read
with this correction therein that the same may conform to the record of the case in
the Patent O?ice.
Signed and sealed this 22nd day of October, A. D. 1946.
[m]
LESLIE FRAZER,
First Assistant Uommim‘omr of Patents.
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