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Патент USA US2404736

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July 23, 1946.
Filed Sept. 2, 1942
/? ‘
2Sheets-Sheet 1 ;
1, a 0/: MAR ICK
July 23, 1946.
Filed Sept. 2, 1942
2 Sheets-Sheet 2_ ‘
4011/5 MIR/6K
Patented July 23, 1946
- coves; '
Lo’iiis Marick, Gro‘ssé Pointe Farir'i's,_Mieh-., assign=
or to United ‘States Rubber ‘Company,’ New
York, N. Y., a corporation of New Jersey
Application September 2, 1942,‘ Serial lira-455,621
1 Claim.
(o1. 219=19> '
This invention relates to electrically heated
covers for aerial cameras, machine guns vand other
mechanical devices that do not work well
as it is desired to neat; f'mayiiave
" "red to the
inflél‘ face thereof one or more electrical‘ eéltiflg
units of the desired area. These heatiif' units
are preferably ‘formed iiomasheetoi fab ié ‘hav
extremely cold temperatures of high altitudes.
Di?iculty has been experienced heretofore ‘in
operating aerial cameras- in airplanes ?ying at
high altitudes where the temperature maybe as
ing a su?‘icient amount of-eléctroeoohduetive i-‘Iib- _
low as -=-60° F. The reason for this is that ‘most
aerial cameras are constructed to operate‘ auto
element when a differenteelectrical potential is
maintained across the sheet. The arrange‘ ent
ber wsecured thereto to i‘énd'éi‘tlie fabric aton
duetorof' the .pioperiesis'tance to fo‘riii'a heating
matically and are provided with gears and slid‘
ing parts that require lubrication. When ex
tremely cold the lubricating oil or ‘grease upon
these mechanical parts cong'eals' and this is likely
to cause such parts to operate slowly and inac
is 's'uohthat each heating element has a large
not surface in 'eontactwitha metal "surface of‘th'e
gun tole?ectively heat the gun‘, or inlcontact with
the other casing to be heated i ‘
operating current is preferably supplied to this
curately if they operate at all.
Furthermore the rated Speed of the unexposed
camera ?lm varies with the temperature, the ?lm
being more sensitive to light at higher tempera
electro-conductive sheet by securing spaced par‘
allel conductive wires; lengthwise" of the sheet.
When a heating unit of this type is employed it
is unnecessary to use heating wires the fabric
tures and has its sensitiveness seriously reduced
cover Where they might be injuredgb‘y ‘the flex
by extreme cold‘
20 mg‘ of the cover, and are otherwise objection‘
It is also found that aircraft machine guns
ab e.
do not operate properly at high altitudes due
to the tendency of the intricate parts to stick
The various features .of the‘ présent invention
will‘ be more ‘fully understood from the'following
description when read in connectioniz‘with‘ the ac;
or move sluggishly when extremely coldwan‘d to
the formation of ice upon the gun parts when 25 companying vdra'v'vings“illustratinga two‘go‘od prac- a
moisture condenses thereupon and then ‘freezes.
Likewise aircraft instruments, bomb sights and
tical embodiments of the present invention‘
lngthe' drawings:
other delicate mechanical devices may be adverse
Fig.’ ,1 is a perspective view of a machine‘ gun
ly affected by extreme cold.
of a type ad‘aptedto be mounted in‘ the wing-'siof
Having in mind the foregoing, the present .in_ 30 an airplane, and‘ having the electrically heated
vention contemplates electrically heated covers
cover of the present invention secured abbut‘t‘he
or jackets formed of connected fabricated sec
tions shaped to ?t about the casing of ‘the cam
era, gun or other mechanical device to be heated,
gun casing.
_Fig.r3 is an ven'largfe'd sectional view .taken'oii '
the _line'3i—'3' of Fig. 2.
Fig. 4 is a perspective view ofan'aerial vcaiiiéra
that is completely‘ enclosed in an electrically
heated cover constructedin accordance with‘ the
enclosed device warm.
the enclosed mechanical device from the cold and
con?ne the heat supplied thereto.
The cover is constructed to conform closely to
the contour of the device upon which it is to be
shown spread out;
and having attached to the sections electrical
heating units adapted to be supplied with elec
tric energy from the aircraft generator,- batteries
or other source of electrical current to keep the
The cover is preferably formed of relatively
thick heat insulating material, such for example
as pads of felt having a protecting sheet of duck
fabric secured to each face thereof, to protect
Fig; 2" is an inside view :of' the cover of
Fig.5 is a_ similar viewshowir'ig the cover partly
removed so as to disclo‘seth'e aerial camera; and r
_Fig'. 6 is an inside view of the cover of, Fig 5
shown spread outi'but with the seams/ingthe' up
per_portion of the cover not i?nishfed- and the slide
fastener elements not applied; v
It is contemplated» that electrically‘ heated
used and to this end is formedrwith sections
covers constructed in- aceordance with the pres";
shaped to ?t the different faces of the casing to
ent invention ‘may be employed upon various me- '
be heated, and these sections are preferably con 50 chanical devices that are house-din a" casing of
nected by hinge-like lines of fold so that they
de?nite contour ‘so that: the cover‘ may lbelsrh’alped
may be folded snugly about the casing. Slide’fas
to conform accurately thereto; The present‘cover
tene-rs or other securing means are provided for
however has been developed primarily for‘ use
removably securing the cover about the casing.
upon aerial cameras and gun casingsiin conned;
Each cover section, or as many of the sections 55 tion with which it will now be ‘described: :
The machine gun of Fig. 1 in itself forms no
part of the present invention and may be of well
known construction. As shown it comprises the
machine gun casing l0 and barrel H. These
guns usually are not adjusted while the airplane
is in ?ight but are rigidly mounted in the air
plane wings so that they may be aimed at the
target by directing the airplane itself at the tar
which will now be described. These heating ele
ments extend over a substantial area of each sec
tion and have the construction best shown in Fig. 4
3. Each heating element is preferably formed of
a sheet of woven fabric 30 such for example as
cotton sheeting having adhesively secured there
to or deposited thereupon a ?lm of electro-con
ductive rubber to render the-fabric sheet an elec
tric conductor of sufficient resistance to produce
get. The gun is therefore shown as having the
supporting brackets l2 and [3 which are rigidly 10 the desired heating action. The operating cur
secured to the wing structure I4.
The gun cask " ‘ rent is conveniently supplied to this conductive
sheet by folding the longitudinal side edges of the
ing II) is provided near its forward end with the
sheet around the conductor wires 3| and 32 so
slotted opening I5 adapted to receive the belt
that these wires extend longitudinally of the fab
which supplies the cartridges to the machine gun.
ric in direct contact with the longitudinal side
Near the rear end of thergun casing 10 there is
edges, whereby when these two wires are main
provided the rectangular opening I6 for 'an elec
tained at a di?erent electrical potential, current
tric solenoid unit that operates the gun.
will flow across the conductive sheet 30 from one
A machine gun is a relatively intricate piece
wire to the other to generate heat uniformly
of mechanism having numerous cooperating
parts that need to be lubricated, and when the 20 throughout the entire conductive sheet. These
heating elements may be made as long and as
gun is exposed to the extremely cold temperature
wide as desired but are preferably rectangular in
to which an airplane is subjected when it is ?y
shape so that the conductor wires 3| and 32 will
ing several miles above the earth, it may oper
extend parallel to each other throughout the
ate improperly when the_ lubricant is congealed
by the cold or fail to operate at all.
25 length of the heating element; It will be’noted
that some of the heating elements shown in Fig.
The presentinvention seeks to avoid this dif
2 are wider than others, but this condition is
ficulty by providing the gun casing with a thick,
taken care of by increasing or decreasing the
snugly, ?tting cover of heat-insulating material
electric resistance of a particular fabric sheet
which is adapted to protect the operating parts
of the gun from extreme cold, and also to supply 30 by varying the conductive properties of the con
ductive rubber applied thereto. ,
sufficient electrical heat thereto to maintain the
It will be noted that the cover shown in Figs.
gun operating parts at the desired temperature.
1 and 2 is provided with the openings 33 and
The electrically heated cover of the present in
34 near its forward end. This is to clear. the
vention can be variously constructed and is pref
cartridge belt, not shown, but which enters the
erably so made that it can be readily applied to
opening [5 above mentioned. -The cover also has
the gun casing and removed therefrom, it being
the opening 35 to clear the solenoid in the open
desirable to remove the casing when the gun is
ing IE above mentioned, and it has ,afourth
to be serviced before the airplane takes off, but
opening 36 shown only in Fig. 2. The heating
the cover remains upon the gun while it is in op
eration and throughout the airplane ?ight. The 40 elements 36, it will be noted from Fig. 2, are .50
arranged that they clear the openings 35 and
cover is therefor provided with such openings
36 and extend over a large area of each of the
as may be needed to clear the electric cables lead
cover sections 20 to 23. ‘Theconductive sheet or
ing thereto and to permit ammunition to be sup
heating element 30 is preferably sandwiched be
plied tothe gun.
tween two sheets of non-conducting rubber to
In the construction shown the gun cover is
thereby house the conductive sheet 30 between
formed primarily of a relatively thick sheet of
two protecting non-conductor sheets, The entire
insulating material H such as sheet felt sand
heating element thus formed is preferably vul
.wiched between two woven sheets of fabric l8
canized to or adhesively secured to the inner
suchas duck. The cover is preferably construct
ed so as to form thick sections having the con
tour of the various walls of the gun casing to
be covered, and these sections are connected by
fabric seams 19 formed by sewing the sheets l8
together at spaced intervals to provide hinge
like lines of fold so that the padded cover may
be folded snugly about the machine gun casing.
fabric sheet l8 of the cover as shown in Fig. 3.
Operating current may be supplied to the vari
ous heating sheets 33 by the conductor wires 3'!
and 38 leading from the airplane batteries or
other source of electric energy, and‘ the electri
cally heated cover is preferably provided with a
thermostat 39 adapted to turn‘ on the current
when the temperature drops below a selected
point and to turn o? the current when the tem
perature rises above this point. The cover is also
The cover shown in Figs. 1 and 2 comprises a
bottom section 20 which ?ts the bottom or under
neath wall of the machine gun casing, two side
sections 2| and 22, and a top section 23 that en 60 provided with a condenser 40 to reduce sparking
when the thermostat operates. 'It will be noted
gages the top wall of the gun casing. The cover
that one of the conductor wires such as 31 is'co'n;
is further provided with the end sections 24 and
nected to one wire 32, of each heating unit 38
25 adapted to enclose the rear end of the gun. It
whereas the other conductor wire 38 is connected
is also provided with the straps 26, 21, and 23
to the thermostat and condenser just mentioned,
near is forward end having the snap fastener 29
and is then connected by the conductor 4| Ito the
for securing the cover snugly about the forward
end of the gun casing and enlarged portion of
the gun barrel. The bottom section 20 of the
cover is cut away to a substantial degree as shown
to clear the supporting brackets l2 and l3.~
Each of the sections 20 to 23 inclusive is pref
erably formed throughout of the two sheets of
duck 18 having sandwiched therebetween the
thick padding I1, and each of these sections has
secured to its inner face thehe'ating element 75
remaining wire 3| of each heating element 30. >
The forward end of the cover has a pad 42 of
increased thickness adapted to engage the lower
face of the gun casing to improve the‘ ?t of'the
The cover is shown as provided with the
slide fastener 43 and slide fastener elements 43’
extending upwardly along the rear end of ‘the
cover and then forward over the top wall of‘ the
gun casing as will be apparent from Fig. l. -
One example of a good practical electrically
conductive cement which may be used to coat
the fabric of the heating element 30 is the fol
Parts by weight
Rubber _____________________________ __
Conducting carbon black ____________ __
_______________________________ __
________________________ __
Accelerator _________________________ __
Deodorant __________________________ __
Softener ____________________________ __
Vulcanizing agent ___________________ __
___________________________ __
vided with such other openingsas are needed to
permit access to the portions of the camera that
need to be operated while the cover is in place.
The cover shown in Figs. 4, 5 and 6 of the draw
ings preferably has the same construction in cross
section as is shown in Fig. 3, and is provided with
electrical heating elements such as shown in Fig.
3. The heating elements in the construction of
Figs. 4, 5 and 6 are designated by the numeral
50 and as shown in Fig. 6, three of these heating
elements are provided in the cone area, four in
the body area and two in the top or magazine
The cover area for they magazine 44 has
the back wall 5|, front wall 52, right side wall 53
and two half side left walls 54. These walls in
It will be seen from the foregoing that an elec
the finished cover are united by seams which are
trically heated cover such as shown in Figs. 1 and
only partially formed in the incompleted con
2 provides a simple and practical means for main
struction of Fig. 6, and when these seams are
taining a machine gun at a desired temperature
formed the upper portion of the cover will have
even when the airplane in which it is mounted
is ?ying at a high altitude where the tempera 20 the box-like shape shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The
right side wall 53 is provided with the outwardly ..
ture is extremely cold.
extending pocket 55 adapted to enclose the
Another important use of an electrically heated
camera operating motor 56.
cover such as contemplated by the present in
Operating current is supplied to the electrical .
vention is to maintain aerial cameras at the de
sired temperature when they are operated at high 25 heating units 50 of the cover by the conductor
wires 51 which lead to the thermostat and con
altitudes. These cameras are usually constructed
denser 58 that ?t within the outwardly project
ing pocket 59 of the cover. One of the current
tures, and it is found that the extreme cold to
supply wires for each heating element is con
which they are subjected when the airplane
carrying the camera is ?ying at high altitude 80 nected to the wire 60 and the other is connected
to the wire 6| leading to the thermostat or one of
seriously interferes with the proper operation of
the conductor wires 51 as will be apparent from
the mechanical part and also reduces the sensi
Fig. 6.
to operate automatically to take successive pic
tiveness of the unexposed ?lm as above men
It will be seen from the foregoing that an elec
85 trically heated cover such as herein disclosed and I '
There is shown in Figs. 4 and 5 of the draw
formed of independently heated sections shaped
ings one type of aerial camera which has been
to fit the different walls of the gun casing, camera
used heretofore and which is adapted to operate
or other mechanical device that will not operate
automatically to take pictures. This camera may
be brie?y described as having the magazine sec 40 properly when very cold, forms a highly practical
means of keeping such device warm.
tion 44, body 45 and cone section 46. The cone
The conductive sheet 30 while above described
section 46 is provided with the opposite extend
as preferably formed of a fabric sheet treated
ing trunnion 41 adapted to support the camera
with conductive rubber, may be formed of a con
so that it may be manually pointed towards the
object to be photographed while the airplane is 45 ductive rubber sheet or conductive plastic sheet
alone, and the reference to rubber herein is to be ,
in ?ight, or the camera may be set so that it
construed broadly as covering natural rubber,
points in the desired direction with respect to
synthetic rubber and rubber-like materials.
the airplane before the latter leaves the ground.
Having thus described my invention, what I
In this latter case its setting need not be changed
and desire to protect by Letters Patent is:
while the airplane is in ?ight. The camera is 50
An electrically heated cover constructed to
provided at its lower end with a large lens not
enclose a machine gun having an outer casing
shown and through which the camera may scan
formed with walls disposed at an angle to each
the earth below through an opening in the lower
other, said cover being formed of fabricated ?ex
wall of the airplane.
This camera as will be apparent from Figs. 4 55 ible sections of a corresponding size to the respec
tive walls of said casing and connected by hinge
and 5 is provided with a cover that is constructed
like lines of fold of reduced thickness and also
to ?t neatly over the entire camera casing and
having side openings providing access to the
is held in snug engagement therewith by the slide
casing, electrically operated non-metallic heating
fastener 48 which cooperates with the slide fas
tener elements 48' that extend along the top of 60 units secured to the inner face of said sections
and disposed so as to clear said openings and.
the magazine casing 44 and then vertically down
having conductor wires leading thereto, and
wardly along the magazine casing, body and cone
means for fastening the cover in folded relation
to the lower end of the camera as shown. The
about the casing,
cover is provided with the openings 49 through
which the trunnions 41 extend, and may be pro
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