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Патент USA US2404743

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July 23, 1946.
Filed Oct. 22, 1940
s Sheets-Sheet 1
/- /,/
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‘July 23, 1946.
R_ pRAusE
7 2,404,743
Filed Oct. 22, 1940
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5 Sheéts-Sheet 2
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23066»? 73rd use
July 23,1946.
Filed 001:. 22, 1940
5 Sheets-Sheet 3
fiber 7“ Pl'a, ‘Q66
Patented July 23, 1946
' 2,404,743
‘:Ro‘bert Prause, Augsburg. Germany; vested in
the lAlien“"Property Custodian
Application October 22,1940, Serial-No.“36\2;2‘79
.In?ermany June. 10, .1938
(Cl. 170-463)
This invention relates‘ to 'apropeller adjustment
Certain devices for the‘adjustment of the pitch
of air propellers while in operation areknown
in which the blade adjustment is carried out by
come apparent from ‘a considerationottheyan
nexed drawings and the following description,
the inventionconsists not only inthe structures
hereinpointe‘d outl‘and illustrated bythe idraw- '
ings, but includes .furtl-rer r-structure-s coming
within the scope of the claim.
_ .
means of a bushing'or sleeve mounted to slide on
The character of the invention. however, .may
the propeller shaft. The sliding‘ operation , of
be best understood by reference .to certainofsits
said bushing (or sleeve is effected by means of an
structural forms, .as illustrated .by, the‘naccome
adjusting lever or traverse which surrounds the
V '_
l ‘- ‘
bushing and at one end is mounted to swing on 10 panying drawings in which:
Fig. 1 shows a schematic, perspective-view-jof
a stationary point of the aeroplanethe other
the essential parts of an ‘adjustment ,device'hav
end being connected by a simple link with an
adjustable system ‘ofjrods leading to’the pilot’s
seat. The sliding ‘motion received‘by the sliding
bushing is transferred ‘to the base of the propel 15
ler blades, which are turnably mounted, by means
of jointed levers. ‘Although this known ‘device
enjoys the advantage of great simplicity as com
pared with other designs of‘ blade adjustment, it
ing the invention applied thereto.‘ ‘
, 1
Fig. 2is a side elevation, partly in sec1ion,..of
the same adjustment device.
Fig. 3 is a plan view,;partly in section, online
III-—III of *Fig. '2.
Fig. 4 is a section accordingto line IV-.-IV of
Fig. 2.
found that the suspension arrangement which
Fig. 571s a-section-similar.toFig. 4, but shoW~
ing another design-of the .gimbal mountingof
allows the adjustment traverse surrounding the
the adjustment device.
sliding bushing'to swing around one axis only, or
As here shown, I provide means between the
stationary‘points for ‘the suspension of the de
vice ‘and the sliding bushing or sleeve for gp?r
mitting a Cardan motion, ‘or relative swinging
has not proven useful in actual practice. ‘It was 20
around two‘ parallel axes, showed considerable
wear ‘and tear, especially at the‘ sliding bushing, ‘1
after only a few ‘flying hours. '
It is an importantobj'ect of the present inven- ,
tion to'provide means in the‘ adjustment device
for avoiding such premature wear. In the course
of the ‘investigations leading'to the present in
vention it has been found that‘this defect of-the
known device'is 'mostlytdue to thefact that .the
propeller shaft and ‘the axis'for the swing adjust;
ment of the traverse while in operation deviate
imperceptibly from ‘their ‘original position at ,
right angles to each other. Such deviation is
brought about ‘by certain forces during the ?ight.
The relatively rigid connection of the adjustment
of the parts aroundrtWo axes at right anglesto
each other. The traverse lever for adju'sting'the
sliding ‘bushing is suitably designed as‘ a ring
surrounding the .bushing. Said ring at one “end
is mounted at a stationary ‘point ‘of the aeroe
plane, preferably by means of .a link or swing
member, so as to. move around two perpendicular
axes, :while at .its :other end .the adjustment
spindle is connected, movable, also around two
perpendicular axes, ‘by‘meansof the spin‘dlenut.
The annular ‘traverse lever Whichsu-rroundsi-the
sliding bushing and the propeller shaft‘is con~
traverse on one side and the play of the parts'beé
longing to‘ the adjustment device on the otherside
tend to cause a sort of wabbling motion of‘the
traverse ring, or of the sliding bushing, causing
the latter to deteriorate and to wear out "rap
nected with the sleeve'eifecting the blade adjust
idly, since the adjustment traverse owing to its
ball bearing‘by means of trunnions.
rigid connection cannot give ‘way "to the oscillat- -
ing movement. Moreover, ‘the sliding motion of
the adjustment sleeve causes an edgewise pres
sure stress which, in ‘cooperation with the
wabbling motion, tends to wear out the sliding
"Therefore, the present "invention has for its
object to provide a constructionof a-propeller
ment by means .of a ball bearing .whichlprefer
ably ‘is of a type to receiveaxial forces. ‘The
traverse ‘ring is swingably connected iwith :the
outeruring, ‘or with thesupporting ,ring "for the
‘By arranging the ‘component parts‘or elements,
as above described, ‘which. make possible a ‘gim
bal movement of the adjustment sleeve, great
improvement in the stress conditions tofithenid
justment device has "been obtained and, ‘as ;:a
consequence, ‘the number of "flying ahonrs “could
be considerably increased. ‘Preferably, andxas
here shown, I may ‘obtain a further improvement
of ‘the ‘stress conditions by manufacturing. the
adjustment sleeve and/or -a sliding rbushing
of the parts without any substantial wear. With
these and further objects in view, :as may be 55 mounted on the i‘ propeller shaft "from‘synthet'ic
adjusting *device which permits wabbling-mot'ion
material, especially synthetic resin with tex
22 at the right-hand end, Fig. 3, of the spindle
tile inserts or admixtures. This material may
consist of various kinds of synthetic compressed
material such as phenol-aldehyde condensation
products which are known as “Bakelite.” Also
2| permits rotation thereof as well as swinging
through a certain angle, but prevents axial
movement of the spindle which carries a nut 23
mounted to swing in all directions, with respect
to the traverse ring I4, at H; bymeans of a self
aligning ball bearing 24.1 ,The nutf23 is prevent
resin impregnated fabrics, hard wood and hard
paper of all ‘sorts as well as any pressing mate
rial from' paper and textiles in‘ layers in‘ non‘
ed from turning by an arm 25 and a bolt 26.
laminated form may be used after having been
’treated with a suitable binding substance. The
The nut 23 is also prevented from sliding with
relation to the traverse ring I4 by means of the
sliding bushing mounted on thepropeller shaft
» threaded rings "21 and 28, the ?rst ring being
can sleeve
be made
of such
can be material,
madeof metal.
screwed together with the traverse ring I4 and
By manufacturing the bushing and/or lsleeve ' . serving as a frame for the ball bearing 24, while
.thesecond ring is mounted on the other side of
from any of the synthetic materials mentioned, '
a longer life of the device is’obtained than would. '; y ,,the ball bearing 24 and screwed together with
the‘ nut 23.‘ 'The' free end of the spindle 2I is
be the case if it would be manufactured “ex
clusively from metal or metal alloys. vEven if ., provided with a safety-and-stop ring 29. Dis
. placed by 90° in relation to the suspension points
metal alloys of the highest abrasion resistance
I and II. the traverse ring I4 carries 'tr'unnlons
30 and 3| (Fig. 4), betweenwhich rests the sup
porting ring 32'for the ball bearing 33. The in
ner ring 34 of the bearing 33 ‘is mounted on ‘the
are used in the manufacture of said bushing and
» sleeve, undesirable quick wear have been-found
to be unavoidable. Applying‘ the experience so
far made‘with slide bearings of arti?cial‘mate
rial, it was surprising to ?nd out that by using
synthetic vmaterial ‘in 'the'device, according to the
' invention, the dangerous stresses at the edges
of, the‘ sleevecould be met.
Referring now'to the drawings in greater de
, tail, ‘and ?rst‘to Figs. l'toi‘l, it "will-be seen that
adjustment sleeve I3, being forced against the
stop 36 of the adjustment ring II] by Ineansofa
threaded ring 35.1 Another threaded :;rin'g-.3l
which is screwed ‘intothe supporting v‘ri'ng'f'32
helps to hold. the outer ring of the ball bean
ing within the supporting ring. .A key 38;.en-1
gaging in a suitably dimensioned slot of: the slid~
the propeller blades land 2_ of a two blade pro
peller are tu'rnably mounted‘ in the propeller hub
ing bushing 8 prevents the adjustment sleeve In
from turning with relation 170717118 bushingpB. ‘I _
Instead of the Cardan-like‘connection by pro—
The hub '3 is coupled. with a hollow propeller
shaft 4 by means of 'two mutually engaged
vision of self-aligning ball bearingshbetweenthe
held together by a threaded member 6. The 35 traverse. ring‘ I4 and the guide member ~-I5Tas
well as the ‘spindle 2i, the traverse ring .can also
propeller shaft 4 at its other end is shapedv to'?t
be connected Cardan-like or gimbal-fashion with
thedi?erent motor connections and is connect
toothed portionsindicated at 5, both parts being
the adjustment sleeve or with the supporting
,ed with the motor ‘shaft by bolts ‘I. An anti
ring 32 of the ball bearing 33 by‘means'of‘an
friction bushing or sleeve 8 consisting of "syn
thetic resin on a‘ phenol-aldehyde basis with 40 auxiliary ring 32* (Fig. 5). This ring. 32" can
" textile admixtures is fastened on the hollow shaft
be swung around the trunnions 3t! and 3|, while
4 by means of screw bolts 9, for reception of an
adjustment sleeve I0 mounted to slide on the
bushing 8, and provided with eyelets II which
have the guide members I2 jointed to them for ‘
connection with adjustment levers I3 which are
rigidly screwed to the base of the‘ propeller blades
by means of their female thread so‘ that any
‘swinging of, the levers I3 will also cause the. pro- r
peller' blades land 2 to be turned correspond
ingly. The adjustment sleeve I 0 is surrounded
the supporting ring 32 can be swung perpendicg I
ularly thereto around- the t_ runnions‘ 30’ and‘ 3_I' g
of the ring 32’.
- 1
When in operation the. propeller ‘revolves
around the propeller .or motor axis III->—III
jointly with the hollow shaft 4,.the antifriction
bushing 8 mounted‘ thereon, the adjustment
sleeve I0 and the inner ring 34 of the ball bear;
ing 33, with relation to the outer/ring of the ball
bearing and the remaining parts of the adjust
bythe ring-shaped adjustment traverse lever I4
ment traverse. 'The position or pitch of the pro
which at its extreme opposite ends I and II is
I9 and a trunnion I8 as shown in Figs. '3 and 4.
peller blades is dependent upon the axial posi~
tion of the adjustment sleeve I0, and conse
quently upon the position of. the nut 23 on the
spindle 2| which can be turned in the self-align
ing ball bearing 22 by means of a Cardan drive
40, as indicated by the broken line on Fig. 3.’
Rotation of the spindle 2I causes the nut 23
to be moved axially and, since the latter is ?xed
immovably in the traverse ring I4, it is bound to
take along the traverse ring swinging same
around the trunnionIS of the suspension point
I. Through this swing movementthe adjustment,
The other end of the rod I5 is connected at I6 to
a ?xed bracket which is ‘rigidly attached to some
part of the areoplane such as the motor for pro
sleeve I0 is moved on the bushing 8 by means of
the ball bearing 33 adapted to carry an. axial
load. This movement is transferred by way of
connected by means of a ‘Cardan or universal
joint to connecting members which in turn are
suspended at stationary points of the ‘aeroplane.
The connection at II is adjustable in such a Way
' that‘ the traverse ring during’the adjustment can
be swungaround the‘ point I.
The suspension
of the traverse ring I4 at I is movable but not
adjustable. 'The traverse ring I4 is connected
to a fork-shaped end I‘! of a guide member‘ or
rod I5 by means of a self-aligning ball bearing
pelling the plane. Said bearing! 9 is mounted
in the eye 20 of the traverse ring I4 so that the
traverse ring can be turned around two perpen
dicular axes with'respect to the guide member
I5. The traverse ring I4 can be swung around
the suspension at I by means of the adjustment
spindle» 2I connected at II, thus producingthe
adjusting motion. A self-aligning ball bearing
the guide members I2 to-the adjusting levers I3
along _ the
blades and cause them to turn in their ‘bearings.
Owing to the Cardan-like' or gimbal'mo'unt
ing of the traverse ring by means of self-aligning
ball bearings, all parts'of the adjustment device
can follow up any possible “skewing”- which
might emanate from the forces taking effectduiu
ing the ?ight, so that premature wear and tear
of the adjustment sleeve ID or the bushing 8,
will be largely avoided. By manufacturing the
sliding bushing 8 from synthetic material it is
possible to preclude any appreciable wear even
in continuous operation. It is contemplated
within the purview of this invention that the
shaft; means operatively connecting said sleeve
with said blades and adapted to rotate said blades
upon axial movement of said sleeve; a ?xed
bracket; a link pivoted at one end on a horizon
tal pivot pin in said bracket, and having a fork
at its other end; a traverse ring disposed about
said shaft; a ball-bearing having its outer race
pivoted in said traverse ring for movement about
an axis transverse to the axis of the shaft, and
antifriction bushing 8 as well as the adjustment
sleeve ID or either of said parts may be made of
resin-impregnated fabric or any similar mate 10 its inner ring ?xed about said sleeve; a boss on
said ring; a self-adjusting ball bearing in said
boss; a trunnion in the fork of the link, on which
The adjustment of the propeller blades is ac
said ball bearing is mounted, the link and ring
complished, as described above, by turning the
being so connected by the ball bearing that the
threaded spindle 2| by means of the indicated
Cardan drive member 48, which can be done 15 ring is capable of movement about two axes per
pendicular to the axis of the link; a second ?xed
manually, mechanically or electrically. In place
bracket; a second self-adjusting ball bearing
of an electric drive with rotating screw spindle
mounted in said second ?xed bracket; a rotat
a hydraulic drive can also be employed.
able, threaded spindle journaled in said second
The present invention has been described in
detail with reference to speci?c embodiments. It 20 ball bearing; means ‘for rotating said spindle; a
nut threaded on said spindle; and a third self
is to be understood, however, that the inven
tion is not limited by such speci?c reference but
is broader in scope and capable of other embodi
ments than those speci?cally described and il
lustrated in the drawings.‘
I claim:
In an adjustable pitch propeller for aircraft,
the combination of a propeller hub; propeller
blades mounted in said hub to be adjustably ro
adjusting ball-bearing mounted in said traverse
ring diametrically opposite to the said boss and
in which said nutis carried, the spindle and
traverse ring being so related that when the
spindle is rotated the traverse ring is moved
about one of the axes perpendicular to the axis
of the link, to slide said sleeve axially of the pro
peller shaft, cause the link to pivot about the
tated about their longitudinal axes; a propeller 3° ‘ ?rst ?xed bracket, and cause the spindle to pivot
shaft on which said hub is rigidly mounted; a
sleeve mounted coaxially and slidably on said
about the second ?xed bracket.
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