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Патент USA US2404747

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Patented July 23, 1946
‘ Columbus
R. Sacehi-ni, Euclid,MOTOR
.Cihio, rassignor to
The 'Marquette Metal
Products, Company,
Cleveland,.0liio,a,corporation of Ohio‘
Application January‘ ‘10, 1944, 'Seria‘l'No. 51796341‘ ‘ ‘ ‘
1 Claim.
Still ‘another object is to provide ,a ?uid oper
ated motor having ;a rotatable valve ,yieldably grew
i This invention ‘relates to fluid operated motors,
and more particularly to 'a ‘hydraulic motor de
signed primarily for use-asia primemover for win
dow and windshield wiping mechanisms but also
strained .inian operating ‘position by a “ball and
shafts. ‘
Although vthe motor of the present invention is
ideally 1 adapted ‘for ‘driving windshieldlwip'ers on
aircraft ‘and meets themany exacting require
ments'of suchinstallations?t is so simple'in con-J
struction and compris’e'sso fewlmoving parts that
slip stream and against ice accumulation. The
efficiency of-the motoris-high, vthereby keeping oil
consumption at a minimum and the extremely
rugged construction and few component parts in
sure loner continued ‘trouble-free operation and
reduce maintenance ‘costs. The motor can be eco
nomically manufactured due to the simple geo
, metric con?guration of'most of the machined sur
faces and, since sub-assemblies can be used, the
?nal assembly is easily ‘and speedily accom
Provision ismade ina novel ‘manner for adjust
ment .of'the extent of wiper blade ‘sweep both in
:Fig; l is :an elevational view of the motjorxof
this invention in ‘combination with ‘a Windshield
wiper mechanism associated ‘with atypical air
Fig. 2 is a sectional view taken along the_,-line
25-2 of ‘Fig. “1 and illustrating a preferred ,ar
it is also commercially feasible’to use'it-fo‘r al-simi- ‘i
lar ‘purpose on all types of land vehicles. The
motor develops a large torque in (relation to its
size‘ and weight ‘and -‘»therefore can be installed
conveniently in crowded ‘airplane codiepits. ‘ Sum
cient‘power is available eVen-"inAun-its of very small
size *toroperate‘the wiper ‘blade or blades in ‘high
Other objects andadvantages ‘will becomerap
parent from .the following zdescription wherein
reference is made to the drawings, :in which
having :many other applications ‘requiring ‘oscil
rangem'ent of thes-fiuid‘ssupply conduits; i
j x .
Figs.‘ 3 and '4 are-sectional view‘sttaken along the
lines i3—3 and 4-4, respectivelmzof Fig. 2 :in‘the
direction of the arrows; "
Fig.‘ '5 is a fragmentary rse‘ctiona1 View ‘taken
along‘the line ‘5-45 of Fig. 3in the direction ‘of‘the
Fig. 6 is 1a relatively enlarged ‘sectional’ view
taken along the line B—-'6 oflFig. 4'in the direction
‘Fig. 'Z'is a‘perspec'tive viewo‘f apartof'thevalve
' ‘
Fig. ‘8 is a detail view‘illustrating amodi?cation
of one feature of the invention. ‘
‘ "
As will "become apparent'hereinafter, the motor
operates properly ‘in any turned position, ‘hence
30 terms such as front, rear, upward, landldownward
are not ‘to be considered‘restric'tive in'any sense. ‘
Referring ‘to the drawings, an ‘integral tubular
teriorly and exteriorly of_ the ‘housing and for
varying the angular-travel ‘of the wiper blade or
blades onopposite sides of the center line of the
projection or bushing lllteof‘ ‘a igenerallyhollow
unit by a ‘simple, easilyjaccessible adjustment i111
teriorly of the housing. The motoralso incorpo
rates means for ,drivingthe power outputshaft
of adjacent typical iii'r-indshield ip‘ahels [Alli-‘Elie
bushing’ Ill is‘preferably caste‘x'tra long and then
suited to installation conditions. Also the wiper
sition _by_ cooperating splines and secured‘ against
element orblade is forcibly but impositively‘held
in the selected ‘,‘parked” position against likeli
< the end of thelshaft r5. "Thelmotor is'p'reierably
body' member "I l for ‘the ‘motor is-shown in ‘Fig. l
as passing'lthrough an openingiina framework‘ 12'
machined ‘to the length'required byvtheacharacter
to a“‘parked” position of the wiper element or
o'f anyparticularinstallation. {-Apowe'r takeeoff >
blade beyond-the end of the normaljst-roke of such
element or blade; and the construction enables 40 shaft 15 rotatablysupported by the bushing ‘10
.may receive oniasplin'ed outer end'iportion' a wiper
either of two such parking positions to be used se
blade drivearm l 5 held infan adjustedv turnedp’o
lectively whichever is more convenient or better
hood of disturbance by slip stream forces.
An objectofthisinvention is to provide a fluid
operated motor incorporating all of the foregoing
features and which meets the “various practical
requirements of aircraft installations and others.
Another object is to provide an improved ‘?uid
operated motor.
A further object is to provide a ‘fluid operated
motor incorporating a cantilever spring as a snap
act'ion driving means for a valve mechanism.
outward ‘axial movement by-a-nut is threaded on
held in “mounted positionvby suitable ‘ studs‘ ‘or
mounting bolts Knot shown) passing into or
through the framework ‘12 and screwed ‘into ‘the
body‘ H, as onopposite sides of the bushing illl.
3 Although a single drivelarm l1~6>is shown in Fig‘. 1,
it islobvious'that suitable (e. .g. flexible?) isharfting
and cooperating means could be used to=permit
additional drive arms .to be .operated'zby the mo
.As .shown most .clearlyyin Fig‘. 2, :Diston sleeves
l9 and 20 are pressed respectively into aligned.
openings in opposing side wall portions of the
wall of the body “to escape into the interio .
of the body through a passage 43 communicat
ing the forward end of the bore 4|a with a low
pressure space of the body | I.
body II, and have their outer ends extending a
short distance into outer counterbored portions
of the openings. The counterbored portions are
threaded to receive ?anged cylinder-head-con
Excessive axial movement of the valve cylinder
46 is prevented by abutment of the rear end face
' thereof against a cover plate 44 ‘(see Figs. 3 and
stituting plugs 2| and 22, respectively, which, when
screwed into sealed positions against suitable
4) secured to the body ll'at a svuitajbleygasketed
gaskets 24, have their inner ends spaced from
joint 44a as by screws 45.
the outer ends of the cylinder sleeves l9 and 20, 10, In order to insure that the valve cylinder 40
will, at cessation of operation of the mechanism,
A central rack portion 26 of a piston 25 inter
always occupy one of two relatively reversed posi
' connects opposing piston head portions 28 and 29
which are slidably receivedwithin the ‘sleeves I9
tions and not some position between those two,
whereby uponvresumption of supply of working 7
and 20, respectively. Piston chambers .23 and
15 pressure the motor will be certain to operate, a '
21 are thus formed within the sleeves l9 and 20‘
between the outer faces of the head portions 281 ‘
novel snap action‘ drive mechanism is‘ provided‘
between "thev‘pistonv 2,5 and the valve cylinder.
Thedriving connection between. the piston 25
The lower surface of the rack portion 26 is ' and the valve cylinder 40 comprises a ?at'ca’nti
curved complementary to the inner surfaces of 20 lever spring 46 having its lowermost end secured
and 29 and the plugs 2| and 22, respectively. ,
the sleeves |9 and 20 and said rack portion has
within a diametrical slot in a reduced rear end
a flattened rear surface provided with a trans
portion of the cylinder 40, as by a rivet'48, and
verse gro‘ove33, extending vertically as shown in
Fig. 2,v in which groove 2. channel-shaped trip
member'or saddle 30 (Figs. 3 and ‘5) may be
rigidly secured as by a single screw 3|. The
extending upwardly freely through ‘an open
longitudinal slot 4|c (Fig. 5) in the sleeve 4|‘. As
will become apparent hereinafter, engagement of
the spring 46 with the edges of the slot, 4| 0 pre-.
opposing legs of the saddle 30 ?t snugly against
vents excessive rotary movement of the cylinder’
40. The free portion of thespring 46 is prefer
the side walls of the groove 33,Ythereby to ‘prevent
turning of the saddle‘ 30 with respect to the pis
ably of uniform thickness but .of gradually ire
ton 25. ‘Said legs at their'upper ‘ends have re 30 duced-width and terminates in a widened-portion
spective rearwardly extending projections or arms
or lip 45a disposed between the arms 32a and
32b of the saddle so.
. "-
The sleeve 4| has diametrically opposed ports
A sealing nut 34 having a recess in which is
received. a suitable" annular ‘packing'35 surrounds
49 and 50 which, as shown for instance in Fig. 2,
the shaft I5 and is threaded into a counterbore 35 open respectively into chambers 5| and 52 de?ned
at‘the inner end of the opening through the
by the inner wall surface of thesleeve 4| and
bushing l0. Axial movement of ‘the shaft |5
opposed chordal slots 54 (Fig. 7) in the cylinder
rearwardly of the body II is prevented‘ by inter
4D,"and also has diametrically opposed ports; 55
engagement of an annular shoulder 31, de?ned
and 56 displacedninetydegrees from the‘ports1
by an enlarged portion 36 of the shaft,~and a 40 49 and 50 and which open alternately intoathe
washer 38 vinterposed between the nut 34 and the
chambers 5| and 52 dependingupon the turned
shoulder 31. Axial movement 'of the shaft 15
position of the valve cylinder 40.
l 7. Q
forwardly of the body II (to the left, Fig. 3) is
As shown in. Figs. ,4, 6 and 7, a tubular plunger
prevented by a: pinion 39 received on a reduced,
58 reciprocably received within a bore 59 in aside
non-circular (e. g. squared) inner end-portion ' wall of the body | I has a generally spherical pro.
of the shaft | 5 and bearing together'with the end
jection or “ball” 58a formed integrally with. and
'of the shaft l5 against the front surface of the
extending outwardly from the closed inner end of, ‘
bight portion 30a of the saddle 30. Rotation of
the plunger 58. As shown the inner ball sup-t
the washer'38 may be prevented by forming the
porting end of the plunger 58 is chamfered adjae.
washer'of a suitable bearing metalsuch as bronze 50 cent the ball formation and ‘said end is received
so that a- low-friction bearing-surface with. the
within a complementary opening?oin thesleeve
shoulderi31 is provided, the shaft‘ l 5 being formed
preferably of bronze or stainless ‘steel, whereas
4|. Aportion of the ball extendsthrough the
opening 60 and is normallyubiased by .a coiled
the bearing surface,-indicatedat 38a, between the
compression spring 6t alternately. into spaced,
semi-cylindrical, longitudinal grooves-62 and ‘.64.
formed in the surface of the froritend portioniof
the cylinder 4|l_and' de?ning therebetween .an
' washer 38 and thevbodyll I has ,aimuch higher
coemcient of frictionparticularlyif the body I I
is of ‘cast aluminum or aluminum alloy.
tendencyeof‘the' washer 38 to turn may, also be
elongated rib or ridge 63 spaced. from the sleeve
reduced, for example; by roughening the abut?
' ting surfaces at 38a.
The pinion 39is in con
stant mesh with the teeth of the rack 26 and is
thus, ‘driven upon reciprocation of the piston 25
to effect‘oscillating motion of the shaft I5.
A- valve assembly for the motor comprises a
valve _ cylinder 40 ‘rotatably received within a
sleeve 4| pressed into a complementary socket or
4|. 7 .It should be noted that provisionis-made
for slight axial movement of the cylinder 40. by
forming the slots 54 slightly wider than the asso
ciated parts and by having the ballformation 58a
cooperate with the elongated grooves. Hand 64
instead of spherical recesses.
The spring 6|. fits
65 freely within the tubular plunger 58v and has its
opposite ends bearing respectively against the
bore 4la intersectingthe innerface of the front. \ inner end wall of the plunger 58 and the inner
wall of ‘the body II. The front end portion of
face of an adjusting; screw 65 threaded into the:
the sleeve 4| has an enlarged internal diameter
outer end portion of the bore 59.
as indicated at Mo to provide clearance for a
As will become apparent hereinafter, merelyj.
tool 'used to grind accurately the inner surface
turning the screw 65 to vary thecompressioniof
of the sleeve 4| after‘ the sleeve has been pressed
the spring 6| adjusts the angularv travel of the.
into place, and is provided also at its front end
wiper/blade drive arm l6. An opening 51 maybe
with a longitudinal slot MD to permit ?uid
provided in the inner end wall of the; plunger 58‘
trapped between the cylinder 40 and the front 75 to prevent entrapment of operating ?uidlor-air;
within the bore :59. Trapped?uid which escapes
throughtheiport 151 enters an elongated groove
62 ord?laas the erase 'Jnay beandis .discharged
‘throughlthe s‘lotjihiport A3 and into the housing
chamber of the piston 25 betweentheendsofsaid
‘ :Andnlet :port :68 ‘for high :pressure operating
?uid ‘communicates with :the‘ port 56 through a
passagei??. ‘Passages iilaand llzextend from the
portswAS ‘and 5.0, respectively, to thepiston cham
bers 23.;and‘51,‘ respectively. It should benoted
that fluid may pass ‘from, the passages '10 land'll
of the yalvecylinder “would ordinarily ‘be zap
proximately that indicated by the broken‘ iineszin
Fig.‘ 5. .“Ifherestraining force of ‘the .ball‘ 58wwhi1e
in {the .groove 162 101’ groove 16:4 prevents ; any
tendencyrfor the: valve cylinder .41! to :rock while
thexspring: 46 :is being ‘de?ected preparatory to
performing itsisnap. action operation. At :the fin.
stanttof disengagement of the ball 2156a and the
groove 62,1v the waive ‘cylinder 1,4,0‘ ,turns and :is
fo‘rcedzhy the spring‘ 612 intoxthegroove: 64 tohold
the. cylinder in its turnediposition withithe ports
56 and .55 opening into the valve chambers 15]
between'the plug-21 and the sleeve 19 i and be
rimamw ?ows ‘from 17136901711 .56 intozthe. cham
tween‘thesplug 22-‘and the sleeve ‘20, ‘respectively,
into‘the piston chambers, thus obviating ‘the
necessity forithewforming of ports in the sleeves.
‘ ber s5|~and therefrom throug-hithe port.“ and
Azcut-away >portion"12 ofthe front wall of the
body ‘1L1 :above the port '55 “permits v:i‘luid'to ?ow
fromutherport‘55 into the interior of theibody 1|
25 to (the right to 132E681‘, :counterclockwise {'Fig. 2')
the. passage 1 l lljinto ,the piston. chamber :23, High
pressurerfluid inithechamber 23 forms the ‘Piston
rotation ofthesshaft I35 andgradual reversesben-d
ing of the spring 46 by engagementlof‘thesaddie
armt?z'btandzthelip 46a~ofithe spring ‘46. The
spring '46nowexerts1a igraduallyiincreasingzturn
where it serves to lubricate the moving parts. ‘An -
exhaust or discharge passage 14, Figs. 2 and 4,
extends vfrom the :motor‘iinterior (at the region
in :which 1 {the sleeve 41 protrudes 'rearwardly ‘from
its vguide ébore) : to an outletport ‘I5.
ing moment .on?the cylinder 40, which, at .a pre
determined point in thetra-vel ‘of the piston
forces fizhezcylinder illiltowreturn to its initialzposi:
' ‘tEach‘sof the cylinder head plugs 21 and 22 ‘is
*a central, ‘pipe-threaded opening .
tion "with §.a snap .action ‘caused :by "the ,yieldable
restraintzof the "ball $5811. in. the igroove??. ‘
and,.=a;s ishown, .a socket‘headed plug ‘I’! 6‘ effectively
, Movement-cfthe :piston 25 ;.to the leftforces
seals'the‘opening in the =plugi:2i‘,-whereas a tube
?uidrfrom ithe pistonehamber. 23 .throughthe pas_
coupling:_‘|8 screwed into thelcentral opening in
the 1plugri22 is connected'toa lfluid supplyconduit 30 sage if! D,‘ the .port 1119, the valve chamber L5| , ‘and
the .port55 into a the interior of the body H; and
"I9 .ileading toamain supply conduit ‘86 through a
movement of'theapiston =25 to ‘the right :forces
suitabletwmwayvalve '81. The other outlet ‘port
?uid .‘f-romilthe piston ichamber 12] ‘through the
of the lvalveu81 ‘is. connected» through a conduit ‘82
passage '1'], the‘zportifimthe valve.,chamber 52i-and
an‘dta tube :coupling ‘84 secured in‘ the ‘inlet :port
66. When the valve 8| is in the position shown 35 thezport t55 zintmthelinteriorof thelbody | |.' Ex
cess ?uid within the body || flows throughrrthe
bysolidlines in Fig. 2,‘:?uidrmay flow from the
passage ‘M to the discharge port 15.
conduit 80 through the valve 8| and the conduit
From the foregoing description it will be clear
82 to the inlet port 68 for normal operation of
that if the adjusting screw 65 is turned farther
the motor; and, when the valve is in the turned
position indicated by the broken lines, fluid may 40 into the bore 59 to increase the compression of
the spring 6|, the ball 58a retards the turning
?ow from the conduit 80 through the valve 8|
movement of the cylinder 4|] until the piston 25
and conduit 19 directly to the piston chamber 21
has moved farther in either direction from a cen
for wiper blade “parking” as will be more fully
tral position, whereas if the compression of the
described later.
Additional structural features of the motor and 45 spring 6| is reduced, a shorter stroke of the pis
ton 25 results. There is‘ thus provided a simple
cooperative relation of the parts are explained in
means accessible from the outside of the body
the following description of operation: With the
and providing for adjustment of the piston stroke
piston 25 and valve cylinder 40 in the position
and consequent movement of the wiper drive arm
shown in Fig. 2 and the two-way valve 8| in the
solid line position, high pressure ?uid in the main 50 l6.
supply conduit 80 passes through the valve 8 I, the
conduit 82, the coupling 84, the port 68, the pas
sage 69, the port 56, the valve chamber 52, the
port 50, and the passage '|| into the piston cham
ber 21. The pressure of the ?uid in the chamber
21 on the face of the piston head 29, since flow
of ?uid from the chamber through conduit 19 is
blocked by the valve 8|, forces the piston 25 to
the left (Fig. 2), and the teeth on the rack 26
consequently drive the shaft l5 clockwise. Dur
ing movement of the piston 25 to the left, the arm
32a of the saddle 30 engages the lip 46a of the ?at
spring 46 and bends the spring, as suggested by
broken lines in Fig. 5, causing a turning moment
to be applied to the cylinder 40.
The turning moment increases uniformly with
increased displacement of the piston 25 and is
yieldably opposed and restrained by the ball 58a
in the groove 62. When the moment exerted by
the spring 46 increases to a predetermined value
depending upon the adjusted position of ' the
spring supporting screw 65, the plunger 58 moves
outwardly against the bias of the spring 6| to
enable the ball 58a to move out of the groove 62.
Normal operation of the motor is arrested by
turning the valve 8| into the “parking”__position }
indicated by the broken lines in Fig. 2. Fluid
from the conduit 80 is now blocked from ?owing
55 into the conduit 82, but ?ows instead through the
conduit 19 and the coupling 18 into the piston
chamber 21 forcing the piston 25 to the left.
When the piston 25 reaches the extreme left hand
position, the Wiper drive arm I6 is “parked” in
predetermined position pending return of the
valve 8| to its initial position. Assuming‘, for ex
ample, that, at the time the valve 8| was turned
to the‘ broken. line position, the valve cylinder 40 '
was in the position thereof illustrated, said valve
cylinder will berotated to its alternate position
by the snap action mechanism hereof as the
piston 25 is forced leftward, Fig. 2. Consequently,
?uid'introduced through the conduit 19 continues
to be vented through passage ‘H, port 56, cham
70 ber 52 and port 55, ?nally through the discharge
ori?ce 1-5 of the body | I. The venting of ?uid
from the piston chamber'? is through a passage
way which is restricted relative to the ?uid intro
duction passage, so that kinetic force is main
The position of the spring 46 just prior to rotation 75 tained as “back pressure” against the piston head
29 so long ascthe valve‘ 8i remains in the park;
ing position. 1
’ "It should beinoted that, with the piston-25 in
the‘ parked-position, the piston 25'has travelled
beyond'the length of its normal maximum stroke,
the piston head 28 ‘being indirect engagement
with ‘the inner face of the-plug -2I.' Therefore,
assuming the parking valve 8| is turned to parks
ingposition while the motorvpiston—25 is moving
toward theleft and only‘to' the left as shown in
Fig-2, :a wiper blade attached to the wiper drive
arm’1l6‘ is “parked” slightly beyond the usual _
maximum area of clear vision. ‘The kinetic force
of ‘the ?uid against the piston 25 holds the-wiper
blade in its “parked” position with a force su?ii
cient- to resist the force of high slip stream. The
coupling ‘18 and'the plug ‘it may be interchanged,
as desired, so that the wiper drive arm 1-6 may be
“parked” on either side‘ of its normal working’
area, as desired.
?ed saddlestructur'e providing means for adjust
ing‘the ‘extent. of Wiper blade travel in additionto
that effected by change‘ in the compression of the
‘ spring‘ GI, and which also permits for. adjustably
causing‘ the extent of wiper blade travel on oppo
site sides of- the. center line to be unequal in addi
tiongto the usual adjustment provided by the
splined ‘connection between the shaft l5 and the
Wiper'drive arm 16. 'The saddle 30 of Figs. 2 to 7 I
- may :be replaced‘, preferably in motors of larger
size, by alisaddle‘ 84- having side ?anges 85 and 86
cut off at the top as ‘at 88 to provide clearance for
a pair of overlapping L-shaped trip members 89
and 90 having co-aligned slots 9| and 92, respec
thick‘. enough to receiveinia threaded socket
therein a'screw 94- passing through thels‘lots 9|
and 92 to ‘hold the trip members '89 and-99in
adjusted position.
The members 89 and 98 have rearwardlyrpros
jecting' arms 95 and 96; respectively, vbetween
which. the lip 46a of the spring“ may be -'dis1
p0sed;:=-The arms 95 and 96 thus functionras‘the
arms. 32a and’ 32b of the saddle 30,:By‘moVing
the members 89 and 99 inwardly toward the ceni
terof the saddle 84, the stroke of the piston*25
may be shortened, and, by movin'gthevmembers
89 and 99 ‘outwardly, the piston stroke mayibe
lengthened. Furthermore, by'causing the" arms
95 and 96 cto‘be at unequal distances‘ from the
center of the saddle 84 movement of the piston
25 and the Wiper’ drive ‘arm l6>maybe caused-to
be unequal on opposite sides of the- centerline'
of the motor.
- Referring to Fig. 8, there is illustrated a modi- '
> The bight portionof. the saddle 84 is preferably
'l a
In a hydraulic motor‘; a reciprocating ‘piston;
a‘ reversible valve system-operated through a snap
action mechanism bythe piston, a supply line_:forl
?uid, a valve :arranged to' divert -,the"supplied
?uid. into‘ one of two paths selectively, and con
duit‘means constituting said paths‘ and leading;
respectively, from thelvalve to‘ said valve‘system
and directly to the pistonv working space,” said 7
valve system including means for exhausting vfluid
from the piston working space so‘ long as ?uid ‘is
supplied directly to said working space’ but
through va relatively restricted passage; whereby
the piston is. kinetically. held at one end of its ‘
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