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Патент USA US2404785

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“FY
3%
A0435
L. G. BOSTWICK ET AL
ELECTROMECHANICAL DEVICE
Filed June 5, 1942
'5 Sheets-Sheet 1
FIG. 2
.
‘L. a. ' aosrw/c/r
m/l/EA/mgs J: H KING _
BY
@W
L. e. BOS-TWICK ETAL
2,404,785
ELECTROMECHANICAL DEVICE‘
Filed June 5, 3.942
5 Sheets-Sheet 2
6.9
‘ INI/E/WURS
L. G. BOSTW/CK
J h’; KING
* WWW/1
July 30, 1946»
L. G. BOSTWICK ET AL
, 2,404,785
ELECTROMECHANIOAL DEVICE‘
Filed‘ June 5,1942
5 sh'éets-sheet 5
FIG. 4’
. 1.. a. Bosrmck
INVE/WURS J HK/NG
July 30, 1946.
|_. e. BOSTWICK ETAL
2,404,785
ELECTROMECHANICAL DEVICE
Filed June 5, 1942
5 sheetsesheet 4
L. Ci BOSTW/Ck
J H. KING
064,61 9
Patented July 30, 1946
2,404,785
UNITED STATES Pram" ~ orrlcs "
ELECTROMECHANICAL DEVICE
Lee G. Bostwick and John E. King, Ghatham, ,
N. J ., assignors to Bell Telephone Laboratories,
incorporated, New York, N. Y., a corporation of
New York
Application June 5, 1942', Serial No. 445,974 ‘
'15 Claims, (01. 181-405)
i
2
devices and, more particularly, to submarine sig
naling devices.
.
5 tion that follows taken'in conjunction with the
This invention relates to electromechanical
appended drawings, wherein:
v
,
Fig. 1 shows a front elevational view of a sub
_
An object of the invention is to improve the
marine signal wave projector or radiator em- . bodying the features of the invention;
~
~
structure and. the operating characteristics of
c Fig. 2‘shows a side elevational view ofthe
such devices and, more particularly, of sub
device of Fig. 1;
—
,
marine signal wave projectors or radiators.
Fig. v3 shows a cross-sectional view, taken
Submarine signal devices are known in which
along the line 3-3 of Fig. 1, of the electro
the hydrostatic pressure on the moving system
or diaphragm of the device is compensated or 10 mechanical transducer and its enclosure em
bodied in the device of Fig. 1;
'
V
balanced, for example, by gaseous pressure on
the non-exposed side of the diaphragm. The
Fig. 4 shows, partly in section and partly
broken'away a fragment of the’ hydrostatic pres
means enabling such pressure compensation or
sure compensator or balancing means included
balancing has customarily been relatively closely
'
associated with the structure including the dia 15 in the device of Fig. 1;
Fig. 5 is a plan view of the diaphragm of the
phragm, particularly when the hydrostatic pres
sure has been availed of to develop the balancing
transducer shown in Fig. 3; g
i
"
Fig. 6 is a cross-sectional view of the ‘diae -
gaseous pressure in a system involving a com
pressible member, such as a bellows or a col
phragm and associated diaphragm-area restrict
lapsible container or bag. Such arrangement 20 ing bowed flange‘, member of the transducer of
Fig. 3, taken along the line 6;—% of Fig. 5;
limits the ef?cierrcy of radiation of the projector,
particularly at the low audio frequencies be
Figs; 7 and 8;show,front and side elevationalj
views, respectively, of another embodiment of'
cause of the signal wave power absorbing tend
ency of the compressible member.
the invention;
and'
, I
.
v
.
One feature of this invention comprises so 25
Fig. 9 is a cross-sectional view of the hydro
staticpressure compensator or'balancing means
arranging the components of a submarine signal
included in the device 'of Figs. 7 and 8;
device that there is always a positive pressure
or force acting on the surface of the radiating
Figs. 1 to _6 illustrate one embodiment of this
invention. ‘Such embodiment is a wide fre
member or diaphragm that is exposed to the
water.
30, quency range sound source, projector or radiator
It, adapted; to be immersed in, and to radiate
Another feature comprises enclosing the com
pressible member of the hydrostatic pressure
compensating means in a rigid container, and
audio frequency or supersonic energy into, a.
liquid medium, for example, the water of a river,
spacing the latter from the structure enclosing
the diaphragm and its associated components at
lake, sea or oceang
, .
The sound projector It comprises an energy
‘radiating device or portion II, a, hydrostatic
pressure compensating= or balancing device or
portion l2, and rigid means I 3 interconnecting
the devices ll, 12 whereby the projector I0 con
stitutes aunitarygstructure that may be sup
a distance approximately equal to or greater
than one-quarter of the wave-length of the fre
quency at which the, rigid container maybe
resonant.
:A further feature comprises mounting the
diaphragm in the opening of a water-tight hol
low enclosure with a ?exible inwardly bowed
?ange member or portion constituting a seal be
tween the diaphragm and the enclosure, and
also functioning to restrict the diaphragm area
exposed to the water.
Still another feature comprises an arrange
ment such as is referred to in the preceding
paragraph in which the bowed ?ange member 50
ported under water at the end of suitable wires
or cables M engaging with the ears or projec
tions IE on portion I 2.
'
I'
.
The device ll comprises a casing or container
l6 and a front plate or. cover member H, each.
being of a cast bronze alloy and of rigid con
struction. The planar rim portion of the casing‘
it includes an annular ridge l8 that ?ts into an
annular recess 19 in the member H, the latter
being secured to the casing by a plurality of .
is clamped or loaded to compensate for or to
annul any inherent tendency to develop para
fastening members 29. The recess l9 contains
a gasket 2| of elastic material, such as rubber,
sitic vibration.
that constitutes a ‘seal against the ?ow of water
,
A more complete understanding of the inven
tion will be derived from the detailed descrip
into the casing, or therelease of gaseous pres1
55 ,surethat'may be developed within the ‘device ll.‘
I
2,404,785
3
4
The cover member constitutes a support for an
supported on an annular form 52, for example,
electromechanical transducer of the moving coil
type that is enclosed by the casing 16 and cover
of a material such as Viscoloid, is secured to the
inner or convex surface of the portion 49 of
member 33, along a line approximately midway
between the lines of contact of portion 49 with
the diaphragm and with the support or annulus
The electromechanical transducer comprises a
53 to which the rim portion 48 of member 38
magnetic structure that may consist of an annu
is secured, for example, by being soldered or
lar plate pole 22, for example, of magnetic iron;
welded thereto. The support 53 is clamped to
a center pole member 23, for example, of a low
carbon magnetic steel, the member 23 having a 10 the cover member by the member 43, such that
the ridge 54 is forced into the recess 55 contain
cylindrical portion 24 projecting into the cen
ing a suitable water-excluding gasket 56. A plu
tral aperture of the plate pole 22 and de?ning
rality of spaced members 5‘! secure the clamping
an annular air gap 25 therewith; and an annular
ring 43 to the cover member. With the mag
permanent magnet 23, for example, of an alumi
num-nickel-cobalt steel, clamped between the 15 netic structure and the vibrating system of the
transducer arranged as described, the coil 36 is
plate pole and the peripheral portion of an out
member II, but that is mounted on the cover
member independent of the casing.
wardly projecting ?ange portion 21 forming part
of the center pole. A thin plate member ‘28, for
positioned and centered in the air-gap 25 and
example, of brass, with a central opening to en
closed by the diaphragm and the member 38.
the central opening 58 in the cover member is
able it to make a sliding ?t with the center pole 20 The leads 59 for the coil are brought out to ter
minals 60 mounted on the underside of the plate
portion 24, is fastened to the under side of the
plate pole by a plurality of spaced members 23
that project through oversize passages in the
member 28 to permit accurate centering of the
center pole in the plate pole opening before the
members 29 are tightened into place. The plate
28 closes one end, that is, the inner end of the
air-gap, the gasket 33, for example, of soft rub
ber being inserted between the plate 28 and the
spacer 31 to prevent air ?ow through the space
between the plate 28 and the center pole. The
magnetic structure described is suspended from
or mounted on the inner surface of the cover
member I‘! by a plurality of fastening devices
32.
The movable portion or structure of the trans
pole, through insulation-lined passages 6| in the
member 43 and. recess 6 in the cover member.
The space or chamber 4! connects with the space
or chamber 62 in the casing through the pas
sages 3! and recess 6, and also through the re
stricted passage or slot 63. The casing has a
tapped aperture 64 to which is coupled the
threaded extremity 65 of the rigid tube or pipe
66 constituting a component of the means l3 for
interconnecting the devices H, !2. The casing
also includes an outwardly projecting ?ange 6?,
tapped interiorly for engagement by the threaded
extremity 68 of a second rigid tube or pipe 59
concentric with and enclosing the tube 66. The
tube 63 provides a conduit for the wires or con
ductors connecting the terminals of the trans
ducer with suitable electrical equipment and cir
cuits (not shown) constituting the source of the
spherical or dome-shaped diaphragm, for exam
ple, of thin sheet metal 34, having an integral. 40 signal to be translated by the transducer and,
through its vibrating system, radiated into the
planar flange portion 35; a moving coil 36, for
liquid medium. The tube 65 also provides an air
example, of insulated, edge wound aluminum rib
or other gas passage between the devices ll, l2.
bon, secured to an annular coil form 31, the
The device I2 may comprise a rigid casing or
latter being fastened to the diaphragm; and an
container 70, substantially cylindrical in shape
annular ?ange member 33, for example, of me
with rounded end portions and of a material such
tallic sheet material, whose inner peripheral por
as a bronze alloy. The container 10 has a passage
tion engages with the outer surface of the dia
‘H in its cylindrical wall portion, de?ned in Part
phragm and restricts the area of the latter that
by the internally threaded ?ange ‘I2 with which
is exposed to the liquid medium.
the upper threaded end 13 of the pipe 58 is in
The diaphrgm 34 may be of a beryllium copper
engagement. The upper extremity '14 of the in
alloy and be formed from sheet material .012
ducer is mounted on the cover member within’ a
circular recess 33. It may consist of a hemi
plurality of equally spaced circular apertures 39,
ner pipe 66 threads into a tapped bore in a valve
coupler ‘F5 of which more hereinafter. IA cover
pads or discs 40 of acoustic damping material,
member 15 is removably attached to the container
such as silk cloth, being secured over the aper
13 over an opening 1'! therein through which a
cylindrical bag or bellows 18 of an elastic mate
rial, such as rubber, may be introduced into the
container. This bag is provided with a valve 19
coupled to the valve coupler 75 by metal tubing 80
and a suitable union 8i whereby the interior 82
inch in thickness.
It may be provided with a
tures on the inner surface of the diaphragm.
These apertures and cloth discs interconnect the
space or chamber 4| between the diaphragm and
the center pole with the space or chamber 42
formed by the outer surface of the diaphragm,
the ?ange member 38, and the clamping member
or ring 43. The integral ?ange 35 comprises an
annular ?exible portion formed by removing some
of the material to provide ?exible connectors 44
of the bag is connected through such tubing, the
passage 83 of the coupler 15 and the pipe 66 with
the chamber 62 of the device I l and, consequent
ly, the chambers 4|, 42.. The bag 18 and the pas
65 sages and chambers connected with its interior
joining the stiffened central portion of the dia
82 may be ?lled with air or other gas at atmos
phragm and the planar mounting or rim portion
pheric or other pressure, the petcock 84 on valve
45, the latter being positioned between insulating
‘!9 being provided to enable the desired adjust
washers 5 and clamped against the member 43 by
ment in these respects. The liquid medium may
the clamping ring 45 and fastening members 41.
The member 38 may be of beryllium copper a1 70 have access to the interior of the container 10
(but not to the interior of the bellows) through
loy formed from a sheet material approximate1y
an opening 85; obviously, suitable spacer mem
.0015 inch in thickness. It has an outer planar
bers could be inserted between the container 70
rim portion 48 and an inner, inwardly bowed or
. and the peripheral portion of the cover member,
concave portion 43. A damping unit 50 compris
ing a metallic ring 5|, for example, of copper 75 or the latter could be suitably shaped, to provide
2,404,785
5
6..
one or more passages for the ingress of_water.'
embodiment of’ the invention, above about 4000
With such alternative construction the conduc
tors 90 might be brought out through a suitable
gland attached to the cover ‘it. The opening 85,
thejradiated energy. The association of damp- .
ing. means 5% ‘with the concave portion 43 com
or such other openings as are provided for the
same purpose, preferably are proportioned so as
to offer a high impedance to signal waves in the
ing’ a_ compressible dissipative element and the‘
ring 5| a mass element. For frequencies of vi
frequency range that the projector is intended to
radiate, It is not objectionable if some of the liq
uid medium enters the space between the pipes
66, 68; the outer pipe constitutes primarily a
rigid mechanical connection between the devices
II, l2, The conductors 98, for connecting the
cycles per second, and thereby to cause loss in
pensates for this tendency, the ring 52 constitut
bration below that at which the portion 49 would
tend to break up, the means 50 tends to move
’ as a whole with the portion 49;}at higher ‘fre
quencies the Viscoloid acts as a cushion or ab
sorber with respect to parasitic vibrations that
tend to develop in the portion 49. The annulus
38,.may be considered as stiff to compression, flexi-~
transducer with a source (not shown) of signal
current outside (for example) of the liquid me 15 ble at its articulations or hinges with the dia-.
dium, may pass through the opening 85 and,
where they pass into the pipe 56 through the
coupler 15, are surrounded by a water tight
gland 9|.
The vibrating system of the transducer of this 20
invention is adapted and intended to move sub
stantially as a whole, that is, like a piston, when
signal current is caused to ?ow in the moving coil.
An electromechanical transducer of this type is
disclosed in the pending application of L. G. Bost
wick, Serial No. 339,261, ?led June '7, 1940, for
Acoustic devices. As pointed out in that applica
phragm and the support 53, and damped. In a
speci?c embodiment, the added mass of the damp
ing means 58 was of the order of 3 grams, as com
pared with about 25 grams for the vibrating sys
tem. The resonant frequency of the vibrating
system is at the lower end of the audio frequency
range. The chamber sti?ness on the inner sur
face of the diaphragm is maintained low as a
result.of the interconnecting of the chambers
4|, 42 through the passages 39, the discs 48 in
troducing damping at low frequencies.
ing coil and diaphragm of such proportions that
In Figs. 7, 8 and 9 is illustrated a submarine
signal radiator or projector l0’ constituting a
modi?cation of the arrangement of Figs. 1 to 6.
the area of the diaphragm may be too large for U
It comprises an energy radiating device or por
the most efiicient transformation of energy be
tion H’, a hydrostatic pressure compensating or
balancing device or portion l2’, and rigid means
tion, an efficient magnetic system requires a mov
tween the vibrating system and the water, and it
is demonstrated that the most e?icient transfor
!3’ interconnecting the devices ll’, l2’, where
mation is obtained when the ratio of the radia
by the projector Ill’ constitutes a unitary device
tion masses of the water and of the moving sys 35 thatmay be supported'under water at the ends
tem is of the order of two to one. By restricting
of suitable wires or cables M’ engaging with the
the area of the diaphragm exposed to the water,
eyelets l5’ at the upper ends of the parallel rods ,
this relation may be attained, In the device de
or pipes Hi0 constituting the means IS’. The
scribed with reference to Figs. its 6 herein, the
device H’ is supported between the lower ends
diaphragm area exposed to the water is restricted 4.0 of the rods I09, and may be arranged for ad
by the annulus 38, the inclusion of the preshaped
or preformed grooved or concave portion in the
justment through a desired angle from the verti~
cal by rotation on the threaded projections‘ in!
annulus 38 enabling the obtaining of an improved
engaged by the clamping members I82. Although >
radiation characteristic for the moving system.
the enclosure of the device ll’ may present an
To ensure that the grooved portion shall retain
appearance different from that of the device H
its shape, it is desirable that the force acting on
of Figs. 1 to 6, the transducer embodied in it
the exposed surface of the diaphragm and annu
may be the same as that of Figs. 1 to 6, and the
lus shall always be such as to force the diaphragm
enclosure itself be constructed in rigid, non-reso
inwardly, that is, in a direction toward the mag
The device l2’ comprises a rigid
. nant manner.
netic structure of the transducer. This is pro 50 container or casing ‘Iii’, cylindrical in shape with
vided for by positioning the hydrostatic pressure
removable end portions or caps I93, and secured
compensating means, that is, the bellows 82, at
to the rods Hill by clamps H11. ‘One end portion
such a distance above the device l I, that the gas~
eous pressure developed on the inner or non-ex
posed surface of the diaphragm by the compres
sive action of the water on the bellows is less than
the hydrostatic pressure at the device H by the
head of water between the devices II, l2.
The inventors have determined that, when
contains a restricted passage I04 for the ingress
_ of water to the inside of the container, the pro‘- ‘
portions of the passage being such, however, that
a. very high impedance is ‘offered to signal wave
disturbances in the water. A collapsible or com
pressible bag or bellows '58’ of elastic material is
enclosed in the container, the interior of the bel
hydrostatic pressure compensating means com
60 lows being connected through a’suitable conduit
prising a compressible body, such as the bag or
or tubing H35 and coupling let‘ with the interior
bellows 82, is employed, the radiation efficiency of
of the enclosure of the device ll’, whereby vol
the transducer is affected both by the resonance
ume change in the bellows 18’ because of hydro
characteristic of the compensating means and the
static pressure thereon produces gaseous pres
spacing of the latter from the transducer. The
sure within the device H’ to oppose the hydro
container 10, therefore, is so constructed as to be
static pressure exerted by the water on the ex
non-resonant over the low frequency band in
posed surface of the diaphragm of device if’.
which the device I I is designed to radiate signal
As with the arrangement of Figs. 1 to 6, the de
waves into the water; and is spaced from and
_ vices ll’, I2’ are spaced at a distance equal to
above the device H a distance approximately 70 or greater than approximately one quarter of the
equal to or greater than one-quarter of the wave
wave-length of the frequency at which the con
length at the higher frequencies when the con
' tainer ‘W is proportioned to'be resonant. Elec
tainer 10 may be resonant.
trical connection of the device H’ with a suit
The annulus 3B evidences a tendency to break
able source (not shown) of signal current to be
up in the signaling frequency range, in a speci?c 75 translated by the device H’ and radiated into
2,404,785
7
8
the liquid medium, may be made through the
is always less than that on the exposed surface
of the diaphragm,
conductors of a, cable I88.
Although this invention has been disclosed with
9. A submarine signaling device according to
claim 7 in which said transducer and said con
reference to particular embodiments thereof, it
tainer are so relatively positioned in the water
is to be understood that it is not limited thereto
that the resultant pressure on the diaphragm is
but is of a scope that is evidenced by the append
always such as to force said diaphragm inwardly
ed claims.
with respect to the enclosure.
What is claimed is:
10. A submarine signaling device comprising an
1. A submarine signaling device comprising a
diaphragm having a portion bowed outwardly 10 electronnechanioal transducer including a dia
phragm, a water-excluding hollow enclosure for
with respect to the water, and a centrally aper
said transducer having an opening through
tured member of sheet material secured at its
which one surface of the diaphragm is exposed
inner peripheral portion to said diaphragm por
to the water, a centrally apertured member of
tion to restrict the area of the latter exposed to
the water, said sheet member being bowed oppo 15 sheet material secured at its inner periphery to
said diaphragm to restrict the area of the latter
sitely to that of the diaphragm.
that is exposed to the water and secured at its
2. A device as claimed in the preceding claim
outer periphery to said enclosure, said sheet mem
in which damping means is attached to said sheet
her having a portion bowed inwardly with re
member.
spect to said enclosure, and means to maintain
3. A device as claimed in claim 1 in which
the hydrostatic pressure on said diaphragm and
damping means is attached to said sheet mem
ber, said means comprising a dissipative member
secured to said sheet member and a mass mem
sheet member such that there is always a pressure
on the diaphragm tending to force it inwardly
with respect to the enclosure when the latter is
ber supported by said dissipative member.
4. A submarine signaling device comprising a 25 in the water.
11. A submarine signaling device as claimed in
diaphragm having a portion presenting a convex
the preceding claim in which said means com
surface to the water, and a centrally apertured
prises a compressible hollow member connected
member of sheet material secured at its inner
through said enclosure with the inner surface of
peripheral portion to the convex surface of the
diaphragm to isolate a portion of the latter from 30 said diaphragm and sheet member, whereby vol
ume change in said hollow member because of hy
the water, said sheet member comprising a portion
drostatic pressure thereon produces pressure on
presenting an annular concave surface to the
said inner surface opposite to the pressure on the
water.
gxposed surface of the diaphragm and sheet mem
5. A submarine signaling device comprising a
diaphragm having a portion presenting a convex 35 er.
12. A submarine signaling device as claimed in
surface to the water, said diaphragm portion hav
ing a circular base, and a member of sheet ma
terial containing a circular aperture smaller than
the base of said diaphragm portion and includ
ing an annular portion presenting a concave sur
face to the water, said diaphragm portion pro
jecting through the circular aperture of the sheet
member and being secured to the latter.
claim 10 in which said means comprises a com
pressible hollow member connected through said
enclosure with the inner surface of said dia
phragm and sheet member, whereby volume
change in said hollow member because of hydro
static pressure thereon produces pressure on said
inner surface opposite to the pressure on the ex
posed surface of the diaphragm and sheet mem
6. A submarine signaling device comprising a
ber, said hollow member and said enclosure be
45
signal wave radiating member bowed outwardly
ing so relatively supported in the water that the
with respect to the water and a centrally aper
hydrostatic pressure on said hollow member is
tured sheet metal member secured at its inner
always less than on said enclosure.
peripheral portion to said radiating member to
13. A submarine signaling device comprising
isolate a portion of the latter from the water,
an electromechanical transducer, a rigid, hollow
said sheet member being bowed oppositely to that
enclosure for said transducer, a compressible hol
of the radiating member.
low member connected with said enclosure and
'7. A submarine signaling device comprising an
the volume change in which under hydrostatic
electro-mechanical transducer including a dia
pressure produces a pressure in said enclosure op
phragm, a water-excluding enclosure for said
posite
to that of the hydrostatic pressure on said
transducer having an opening through which one 55 enclosure, and a rigid container for said hollow
surface of the diaphragm is exposed to the wa
member, said enclosure and said container being
ter, means for compensating for hydrostatic pres
spaced at a distance approximately equal to one
sure on the exposed surface of the diaphragm,
quarter of the wave-length of ‘the frequency at
said means comprising a compressible hollow
which
the container is resonant.
member connected with the interior of said en 60
14. A device as claimed in the preceding claim
closure whereby volume change in said hollow
in which said container and said enclosure are
member because of hydrostatic pressure thereon
spaced apart by rigid members, said enclosure
produces pressure on the inner surface of said
being positioned below said container.
diaphragm opposite to the pressure on the exposed
15. A device as claimed in claim 13 in which
surface of the diaphragm, and a rigid container 65 said container and said enclosure are mechani
for said hollow member, said container being
cally connected by a rigid member of cross sec
spaced from said transducer approximately one
tion small compared to that of the container and
quarter of the wave-length of the frequency at
of the enclosure, the latter being suspended from
which the container is resonant.
the container by said rigid member.
8. A submarine signaling device according to 70
the preceding claim in which said container is
LEE G. BOSTWICK.
mounted with respect to said transducer so that
JOHN H. KING.
the hydrostatic pressure on said hollow member
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