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Патент USA US2404808

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July' 30» 1946-
F. J. LowEY
METHOD OF MAKING BEARINGS
_ 2,404,808
,
Filed May 3l, 1943
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IN VENTOR.
/9 TTOENE Y.
2,404,808
Patented July 30, 1946
UNITED STATES PATENT ori-‘ICE
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METHOD oF MAKING, BEARINGS j
Francis J. Lowey, Olmsted Falls, Ohio, assîgiior"
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to The_S. K. Wellman Company, Cleveland,
Ohio, a corporation of Ohio
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Application May 31, 1943, seriaINo. 489,132y
2 Claims. (Cl. 29e-149.5)
1
,
This invention relates to annular bimetallic
members and in particular to bearings of the
type having sintered powdered metal facings in
tegrally bonded to a reinforcing member of solid
metal such as steel or copper, and further relates
to methods of making the same.
Annular, cylindrical bearings of the type hav
2
,
,
,
I
dered metal bearings. This is particularly true
where a bearing of large diameter is desired.
While bimetallic bearings having only a cylin
drical surface to receive a facing can be produced
» by directly briquetting a layer of powder against
the cylindrical surface of the steel backing and
then heating the powder and `backing to a tem
perature sufficient to Sinter the powder and bond
it to the backing, the high pressures necessary
ing of bearing metal alloy are frequently called
upon to receive both axial and radial loads. 10 and the large presses required limit the process to
ing a backing member of solid metal and a fac
Therefore, it is customary to provide the backing
with cylindrical and radial lsurfaces in contiguous
theuproduction of small size bearings. Further
more, it has not been found practical to provide
relation and to Vprovide a lining of bearing metal
a lining for a substantially radial surface con
tiguous to a lined cylindrical surface of the back
for each surface. Thus, large annular, cylindri
cal bimetallic bearings used for the main or con
necting rod bearings of Diesel engines are pro
vided with a flange or shoulder at one or both
ends thereof to receive end thrust from the shaft
that is journaled in the bearing. Similarly, an
ing and joined to the latter lining by a smoothly
rounded corner.
It is an object of this invention tofprovide a
new and improved bimetallic bearing which has
the advantages and desirable characteristics of ~
nular flat washers of the type known as thrust 20 the sintered powdered metal bearings and which .
bearings are often provided with a lining of bear
is provided with a bearing facing on two con
ing material on the inside diameter as well as on
‘tiguous surfaces thereof.
the radial faces. While the lining on the in
It is a further object of the invention to pro
side diameter may not have a cylindrical bear
vide a new and improved flanged, bimetallic bear
ing surface, it is utilized to receive the radial 25 ing having sintered powdered metal integrally
componentsk of loads imposed on the bearing. In
bonded to the inner Surface of the bearingr and to
most of these bearings, _it is either essential or
the` face of the flange and having the bearing
desirable that the two bearing surfaces which
surfaces meeting in a smoothly rounded corner.
are at angles to one another should meet or join
Another object of the invention is the provi
in a smoothly rounded corner for conformity with
sion of a new and improved method by which
the shaft journaled in the bearing and to reduce
the improvedr bearings can successfully be pro
the danger of 'chipping of the corner during han
duced and that is capable of producing bearings
dling and installation.
of large size.
The production of these two contiguous bear-`
Other and further objects and advantages of
ing surfaces, while not a simple matter, has been 'f the invention will be apparent from the follow
Vsatisfactorily solved in the case of Steel-backed
ing description taken in conjunction with the
bearings having a cast lining of babbitt or other
accompanying drawing in which:
bearing alloy. However, for certain applications Fig. l is a longitudinal section of an annular,
involving poor lubrication and excessive heat, a
cylindrical, bimetallic bearing;
’
40
cast alloy lining has not been found to be suit
Fig. 2 is aplan view on a reduced scale of` a
able, and it would be desirable to resort to a
bimetallic blank suitable for forming the cylin
newer type of lining formed by sintering a pow
drical portion of the bearing of Fig, l;
dered mixture of metallic and nonmetallic mate
Figs. 3-5 are sectional views on a reduced scale
rials. These sintered bearing materials have
of the flange of the bearing of Fig. 1 illustrating
been quite satisfactory in bearings having a fac
the progressive steps in the manufacture of the
ing on a single surface, but their use .on two con
same;
~
tiguous surfaces has not been possible heretofore
Fig. 6 is a sectional view of a modification.
due to the difficulties of manufacture.
Referring now to Fig. 1, there is illustrated a
It is a relatively simple matter to produce a
as
small bearing having two bearing facings at an 50 large bimetallic bearing, designated generally
I, of annular, cylindrical configuration. This
gles to one another from sintered powdered ma
bearing is made up of two parts which comprise
terial alone, but the present practical necessity
the shell or circular portion 2 and the end flange
of using a steel backing for the material to pro-`
3. The shell 2 and flange 3 are disposed in con
vide the strength required is responsible, tor a
great extent, `for the limited application of pow
55 tiguous relation at the joint 4, a, tongue 6 on the
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3
2,404,808
shell 2 fitting in a groove 'I in the ñange 3 to locate
the parts in proper relation.
The shell 2 and flange 3 are formed from solid
metal such as steel or copper, and each is provid
ed with a facing or bearing surface of sintered
4
an inside diameter equal to or less than the inside
diameter of the cylindrical facing IT.
The assembled unit illustrated in Fig. 4 com
prising the flange 3 and facings I'I and 2| is then
heated in a protective atmosphere, preferably
while pressure is applied to clamp the facing 2I
shell 2 having a, lining 8 and the ñange 3 hav
to the flange 3, to a sufficient temperature and
ing a lining 9. The lining 9 is made up of the
for a sufficient length of time to sinter the facing
annular, cylindrical facing Il and the annular,
2l and cause the facings I'I and 2l to unite and to
radial facing 2l which meet in a rounded inner 10 integrally bond to the surfaces I8 and I9 of the
corner I I in conformity with the shape of the
flange 3_ This bonding step may be accomplished
usual fillet on the shaft to be journaled in the
inl any suitable heat treating furnaces in which
bearing. The nange 3 and its lining 9 are adapt
the proper conditions for sintering and bonding
ed to be engaged by a radial surface provided by
may be produced; however, I prefer` to utilize a
a shoulder on the shaft. As is clear from Fig, l, 15 furnace such as described in Wellman Patent No.
the inside diameters of the sintered facing of the
2,258,431, issued October 7, 1941. This furnace
ñange and shell are identical so that the inner
is adapted to receive a vertical stack of assembled
surface of the cylindrical portion I‘I of the flange
solid metal backing members and powdered metal
forms a continuation of the inner surface of the
facings and to apply pressure and heat thereto
facing 8 of the shell.
20 in a protective atmosphere to sinter the powdered
The cylindrical portion comprising the shell 2
metal and bond it to the backing member, As
and its lining or facing 8 may be formed in any
disclosed in that patent, each unit comprising a
suitable manner, but I prefer to construct it
backing member and facing is separated from the
from a fiat bimetallic blank, such as shown in Fig.
adjacent units by a sheet of graphite-covered
2, which is provided with a point I3 at one end 25 steel or other suitable material adapted to prevent
and a notch Id at the other end thereof. The
sticking together of the units.
blank 2 is readily formed by the methods of pow
The next step is illustrated in Fig. 5 and com
der metallurgy since it is a relatively simple mat
prises the machining of the completed article to
ter to produce a flat bimetallic blank, One suit
finished dimensions, the major purpose being to
able method is disclosed in Wellman Patent No. 30 provide the rounded corner II. In some in
2,178,527, issued October 3l, 1939, in which a thin
stances, this step may be omitted as where a right
angle corner is not objectionable.
fiat briquet is formed from a suitable powdered
mixture and placed onto a properly prepared sur
While I have described the cylindrical facing
face of the steel backing. The unit is then heated
I 'l as being sintered before insertion in the flange
under pressure to sinter the powdered material 35 3 and the radial facing 2 as merely being bri
and integrally bond it to the facing. The result
quetted, it is obvious that in both cases the facing
ing bimetallic blank may be cut to the shape
may be merely briquetted or may in addition be
shown in Fig. 2 and rolled to cylindrical form, the
sintered if desired. However, I have found that
point i3 engaging the notch I4 to form a V
sintering of the facing I7 before insertion in the
shaped joint I6. If desired, the two ends of the
iiange is desirable so that it will have sufficient
segment may be secured together by welding or
strength to withstand the forces imposed upon it
brazing, but this is not essential since the tongue
when it is pressed into place. The unexpected
6 and groove 'I will serve to retain the shell in
result of the process is that the finished article
cylindrical form. The point I3 and notch I ll
shows no line of demarcation between the facing
serve not only to align the ends of the blank but
I'I and the facing 2l, the sintering and bonding
powdered material integrally bonded thereto, the
also to eliminate a straight axial joint. While a
V-joint is shown, it is obvious that any diagonal
operation serving to completely obliterate the
joint.
joint that will serve to gradually distribute the
As a suitable mixture for the powdered metal
load from one end of the blank to the adjacent
facings of the bearings, I contemplate the use of
50
end can be used, This subject matter is described
any of the usual mixtures employed in the art of
in greater detail in copending application S. N.
powder metallurgy. As an example, I have found
484,734, filed April 27, 1943, of Nathan M, Law
that the following mixture of powders is satis
factory:
less.
In Figs. 3-5, are illustrated the sequential steps
Per cent by weight
in the production of the iiange 3 and its facing 9. 55 Cu ______________________________________ -_ 80
As shown in Fig. 3, the flange 3, after machining
Sn _______ _„- _____________________________ __ l1
to suitable contour, is provided with a facing I'I
Pb ________________ _„1__-__- _______________ -_
3
on the inside diameter thereof, To accomplish
Graphite ________________________________ -_ 6
this, the inside or annular, cylindrical surface I8
This mixture when briquetted at a pressure of
60
and the radial surface i9 of the ñange 3 are
about Il tons per square inch and sintered in a
cleaned by pickling or Sandblasting and are pref
nonoxidiz‘ing atmosphere at a temperature of
erably given a thin coating of a protective metal,
about 145Go F. will produce a suitable sintered
such as copper or nickel. Then, a cylindrical
bearing facing. If it is held against a properly
facing Il of sintered powdered metal is pressed
prepared surface of a solid metal backing under
into the ñange. This facing I'I is prepared by
a pressure of about 1D0 pounds per square inch
sintering a compressed mixture of metallic and
during the sintering step, it will integrally bond
nonmetallic materials and has an outside diame
thereto.
ter such that it makes a tight iit with the inside
The bearing l of Fig. 1 has been shown and de
diameter i8 of the ñange.
70 scribed as made up of two parts, but it is con
The next step is illustrated in Fig. 4 and com
templated that a one-piece steel backing may be
prises the placing on the clean and plated radial
used. In other words, the shell 2 and flange 3
surface I9 of the flange 3, and in contact with
may constitute an integral member or iianged
the facing Il, an annular, flat, radial facing 2l of
annulal` cylinder. In this case, a separate long
briquetted powdered metal. This facing 2| has
cylindrical facing could be inserted in the bearing
27,404,808
5
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facing I 'I of the iiange.
f
,
It Will be understood that the various modiñca
ktions described above have been chosen merely
Fig. 1 is adapted for use other than With the lin- f
to illustrate the >invention and should not be re-~
garded in a limiting sense since other modifica
tions Will occur to those skilled in the art. It is
accordingly desired that the invention be restrict- `
For example, the member may be
used separately as a thrustWasher or it may be
used in combination with a cylindrical portion 2
having a cast metal lining.
f
machined for certain applications.
.
The flange 3 and its facing 9 of the bearing of
ing shell 2.
6`
parent that only one or neither corner need be
to provide both the facing 8 of the shell and the
t
ed in scope only by th'e following claims.
In Fig. 6, I have generally illustrated at l2l a
I claim:
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`
modified type of flange which is adapted to be 10
l. The method of lining annular, cylindrical
used alone as a. th'rust bearing. In this figure, a
solid metal backingl members having a'cylindrical
substantially flat annular core 22 of steel or other ‘
inner surface and a radial surface in contiguous
suitable solid metal is provided with radial sur
relation comprising the steps of pressing metal
faces 23 and 24 and a cylindrical or axial surface
26 at right angles thereto. These three faces are 15 powder to form an annular cylindrical facing of y
outside diameter slightly larger than ythe diam
provided with a bearing facing or lining 25 of
eter of said cylindrical surface; forcing said an
sintered powdered metal integrally bonded to the
nular facing into said backing; pressing metal .
core 22 by the method illustrated in Figs. 3_5.
powder to form an annular, radial facing of in
the only difference being that in the step illus
trated in Fig. 4, a facing is disposed on the lower 20 side diameter substantially equal to the inside di
ameter of said cylindrical facing; placing said
side of the core as Well as on the upper rside be
radial facing on the radial surface of the backing
member and in contact with the cylindrical fac
ing; and heating said assembled facings and
made vup of the separate pieces 21, 28,~and 29,
the dotted lines showing their contour at the end 25 ‘backing to sinter and unite the facings and bond
fore the unit is heated to sintering and bonding
temperatures. In other words,.the facing 25 is
of the sintering step and prior` to the final ma
them to the backing. .
,
.
»
~ sintering said pressed cylindrical facing prior to
The bearing 2 I, after the sintering and bonding
step, is machined to provide the rounded contour
3| on both upper and lower. corners, but it is ap
~
2. The method of claim 1 including the step of
chining step.
insertion in the backing member.
30
n
FRANCIS J. LOWEY. `
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