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Патент USA US2404853

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July 30, 1946;
w. SQ-LANDON
, 2,404,353
FLUID CONTROL 'FOR OIL BURNQRS
Filed April 24, 1944
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2 Sheets-Sheet 1
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INVENTOR.
wear,” ,J. M
BY
~
Y
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J4‘,
’
AT'Toam-w
July 30, 1946.
w. s. LANDON
' 2,404,853
FLUID CONTROL‘ .FOR‘ 011. BURNERS
‘Filed April 24; 1944
g Sheets-Sheet 2
FIG.4, '
» l"F163
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"INVENTOR.
BY
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M ATTORNEY
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Patented July30,l945
2,404,853
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,404,853
FLUID CONTROL FOR
BURNERS
Walter S. Landon, Detroit, Mich, a'ssignor to
Detroit Lubricator Company, Detroit, Mich, a
corporation of Michigan
Application April 24», 1944, Serial No. 532,428
'4 Claims. (Cl. 158—38»)
1
2.
The ‘invention relates to fuel burning appara
tus, and it has particular relation to devices for
controlling the ilow of oil in oil burning equip
ment.
present invention ‘the burner may be ignited re1~a
atively late after ‘the oil is fully turned on, and
the operator can leave at once without any rie-I
quire'ment of further observation. The present
invention further contemplates obtaining these
advantages in a "single ‘pot or receptacle type of
nection with different types of oil burning equip
burner. Additionally, the invention leonter'ii
ment, one form is particularly applicable in ‘a
plates a safety control for completely cutting (iii
pot type oil burner of the multiple level type.
the supply of oil in the event the operatordoes
In this design of burner using two levels, a larger
pot is supplied with a larger supply of oil for high 10 not ignite the burner ‘within a reasonable time.
One object of the present invention therefore
?re operation, while a smaller pot below the
is to provide means for controlling the supply of
larger one is supplied with ‘a smaller quantity of
fuel oil to a burner so as to permit initial ignition
oil for low ?re operation. In connection with this
of the burner at any time during a reasonable
type burner, the flow of fuel to the larger and
smaller pots has been controlled by valve de 15 period after‘ the fuel oil is fully turned on. ‘with ‘
the assurance that proper ‘combustion will auto
vices, which, during normal operation of the
matically occur without further attention on the
burner, permitted a larger quantity of oil to ?ow
part ‘of the operator.
to the larger pot and a smaller quantity to the
Another object of the invention is to provide
smaller pot during high ?re operation and only
the smaller quantity of oil to continue ?owing 20 an arrangement and control ‘which will at ?rst
to the smaller pot during low ?re operation. One
reduce the ?ow of :fuel to the burner after it is
objection to this manner of operation has been
ignited so as to match the‘ combustion rate, which
that the fuel did not burn satisfactorily in the
will then increase the ?ow" after ignition until full
smaller pot during the high ?re stage. Further
and proper ‘combustion is occurring and ‘which
more, considerable di?iculty was encountered in 25 willstop the flow altogether if ‘the burner is not
ignited within a predetermined period of time.
initially starting the burner in the event the op
erator failed to ignite it rather promptly when
Another object of the invention
to provide
oil appeared in the pot. If ignition dit not occur
equipment of
‘character which includes means
promptly the burner became undesirably ?ooded
for completely cutting off the supply of oil. :in the
with oil and the operator had to watch the burner
event the burner becomes ?ooded for any reason
and especially if the operator ‘does not ignite the
and work with it for a substantial period of time
before good and regular combustion occurred. It
burner within the reasonable period mentioned
was practically impossible to ignite the burner
Another object of the invention is to provide
after too much ?ooding occurred and then leave
improved control means for allowing a small
it immediately.
quantity of oil to ‘flow to a smaller pot in a mul
.In applicant’s copending application for patent,
tiple level burner in the low ?re stage and for
increasing the supply to the smaller pot during
Serial No. 505,744, ?led October 11, 1943, fuel
- the high ?re stage.
burning equipment is provided which‘ eliminates
the ?rst objection of unsatisfactory burning in
Another object of the invention is to provide a
the smaller pot during the high ?re stage, and 40 simple and compact arrangement for accomplish=
this objection is overcome by supplying a smaller
ing the aforementioned results.
and proper quantity of oil to the smaller pot
Other objects of the invention will become an‘
during low ?re and then automatically increase
p-arent from the following speci?cation, from ‘the
ing this supply to the smaller pot in the high
drawings forming a part thereof, and ‘from the
?re stage. It was found that by increasing the
claims hereinafter set forth.
supply to the smaller pot in the high ?re stage,
For a better understanding or the ‘invention
a generally constant vaporization of the oil in the
reference may be had to the accompanying
While the invention is adapted for use in con
lower pot and satisfactory combustion thereof in
the upper pot would occur.
The present invention obtains the advantages .
drawings wherein:
.
Figure '1 is a vertical, sectional ‘View of a me!
burning arrangement and control apparatus con‘
of the copending application and also avoids the
structed according to one form of the ‘invention;
other objection by increasing the supply to the
Figure 2 is a crossesectional view ‘taken sub
smaller pot during high ?re operation and allow
stantially along the line
of
'1 with
ing a longer period of time in which the operator
certain parts broken away for the purpose-‘oi
may ignite the burner. In other words, with the 55
clarity;
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2,404,853
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3
4
Figure 3 is a detail view on a large scale show
wardly into a pipe 42, and the end of this pipe
ing the valve position when the burner is being
supplied with fuel at a full ?ow rate; and
Figure 4 is a view on the order of Figure 3,
but showing the valve in a position where only
a small quantity of fuel is supplied as in the
event the burner is not ignited soon after full
?ow is initiated.
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Referring to the Figures 1 to 4, the burner
joins a four-way connectionv or valve casing 43
having intersecting openings or passageways 44
and 45 with the passageway 44 horizontal and
the passageway 45 vertical. The passageway 44 »
is connected to the pipe 42 at one side of the
connection, while at the other side it is con
nected to a pipe 46 in turn connected to the
larger pot l0.
comprises a larger pot I0 and a smaller pot ll
below the larger pot and opening thereinto. The
At its lower end the vertical passageway 45
is enlarged as indicated at 41 and then com
bottom wall of the larger pot has an opening
municates with a ?oat chamber 48 which is part
of the connection 43. Substantially midway
between the top and the bottom of the ?oat
chamber, a, pipe 49 is connected thereto and
[2 overlying the open upper end of the smaller
pot, and such ‘bottom wall around the opening
is ?ared upwardly, as indicated at I 3, so as to
‘permit proper combustion, guidance of vapor
leads to the smaller pot II and the connection
ized fuel, and also to provide a small dam for
between the‘ pipe and the smaller pot is slightly
holding a slight level of oil in the larger pot
above the bottom of the latter.
before it can over?ow into the smaller pot.
For controlling the flow of ‘fuel oil through
Openings I4 are provided in the side walls of 20 the connection 43, a valve stem 50 is vertically
both pots to allow air to enter for combustion
reciprocatory in 'the‘vertical passageway 45 and
purposes.v The larger pot is open at its upper
extends downwardly through the ?oat chamber
end; as indicated at Hi, to .allow the burned
gassesto escape to a flue or other connection.
48 where it has a smaller end portion 5| slid
able in a vertical opening 52 forming part of a
Air, will be supplied through the openings M
by means ofsuitable draft equipment.
. cover 53 on the lower side of the ?oat chamber.
A screw 54 in the opening 52 serves as a means
For‘supplying fuel oil to the burner, a ?oat
valve casing 20 is provided having an inlet 2|
which is adapted to be connected to afuel line
so that fuel oil may flow into the casing. The
casing above the connection 2| has a projection
22formed with'a valve seat 23 which is adapted
to cooperate with a vertically movable valve
of adjusting the vertical position of the stem‘ 50.
Within the chamber 48, a hollow metal ?oat 55
is slidable on the smaller portion 5| of the
I stem and when the ?oat rises suf?ciently it en-.
stem 24.
Flow of fuel oil into the casing is
gages a shoulder 56 at the junction of the two
stem portions so -as.to move the stem therewith.
The stem 55 ?ts closely but slidably in that
part of passageway 45 above the enlarged part or
controlled'by ‘vertical movement of the stem 24,
space 4? as best seen in Figures 3 and 4, and has
andisuch'movement is in turn controlled by a
an axial groove or slot 51 extending from its
?oat 12-5 connected to a lever 26 which in turn
upper end to a point which allows the slot to be
is connected to the valve stem. The lever 26
in communication with the space ‘41 when the
ofithe?oat has an extension 29 disposed under
. Theislower
in itspart
lowermost
of the pipe
position.
46 provides a dam
a; trip v‘arm 30 forming‘ part of a tripping device 40: stem
indicated generally at 3| and which includes
or wall of slight height, as indicated at 59, in
a "tripping lever 32 overlying the valve stem 24.
the opening 44, so that oil ?owing through the
If the ?oat rises'too high, the trip operates to
passageway 44 cannot enter the pipe 48 until the
strike-the valve stem 24 and forcefully close it. e
oil level or rate of ?ow is high enough to ?ow'
The detailed construction of the ?oat control and 45; over the pipe ‘end. Thi relationship is effected
tripping .device shown need not be described
by having the center of the pipe 45 above the
here, .as it is substantially .the same as that
center of the passageway 44.
shown in Russel Patent No. 2,317,556.
With the valve stem 31 in its lower position so
.Forallowing oil to ?ow from the casing 20
that a small quantity of fuel such as 2 c. c. is
to. the burner, the casing has a tubular projec 50 ?owing downwardly, the fuel will flow through
tion 33 extending upwardly from its‘ bottom wall,
the pipe 42 and passageway 44 until it- reaches
and this projection substantially above the bot
the vertical passageway 45, and then it will ?ow
tom wall has a tubular valve seat 34 provided
downwardly through the slot 51 as seen in Fig
with a cylindrical valve opening 35. The cylin
ure 3 and into the ?oat chamber 48. When the
drical part of the valve opening cooperates with
level in the ?oat chamber 48 is high enough the
the lower, generally cylindrical end 36 of a valve
fuel will then ?ow into the lower pot II, and if
stem 31 which isadapted to be moved vertically,
the latter is ignited, the stated amount of- fuel
and for metering the ?ow of oil through the
will be constantly suppliedso as to maintain low
opening, such cylindrical part 36 has a slot 38
?re. Under these- conditions, no oil will ?owv
tapering to a V form at its upper end. When 60 through the pipe 46 primarily because the oil will
the stem 31 is in the position shown, a metered
?ow downwardly through the slot 51 before itv
and small quantity of fuel oil is allowed to ?ow
can flow into thepipe ‘46, and furthermore, be; '
downwardly through the valve opening, and as
cause the oil would have to be high enough inv
an example, the quantity allowed to flow may be
the passageway 44 to ?ow over the lower pipe‘v
2 c. 0. per minute.
When the valve stem 31 is 65
raised tov expose the straight part of the slot, the
amount ‘of oil‘allowed to flow may, as an ex- ,
ample, be 40 c. 0. per minute. No means is
,Sh-OWHL‘fOI' raising and lowering the valve stem
31,,but as is well understood in'the art, a cam
arrangement may be used, including a handle
39 on the upper end of the stem 31 for raising
and lowering the stem upon turning of the
handle ‘between two _ limiting positions.
Oil ?ows through the valve opening and down.
edge~59.
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Now, if the operator wants the burner‘to 0p
erate at high ?re,-the valve stem 31 will be raised
to allow, for instance, 40 c. c. to ?ow downwardly
through the pipe 42. With this set of conditions,‘
the oil will ?ow on through the passageway 44
and into the pipe 46 and then into the larger pot
where it will ignite due to the ?ame in the lower
pot. Some additional-oil will flow downwardly ]
through the slot 51 due to the'greater flow and
height'of fuel in pipe 42. It "may. be desirable ='
2,404,853‘
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to so arrange these conditions that twice as much
fuel voil, that is 4 c. -c., will ?ow downwardly
through ‘the slot 51!, While the remainder, or 36
c. 0., will flow into the larger pot. As stated
earlier, this additional quantity of fuel oil in the
The existing'condition now is that the lower
pot H has 011 up to ‘the line F2, but this level is
still noti-so high as to prevent ignition and proper
combustion. It should ‘be understood ‘that the
levels ti and ‘62 may be varied and that the valve
is de?nitely desirable to provide for even com
and float 1 movements may be so arranged and
related as to obtain a desired level v6Q with-the
bustion.
valve in the position as seen in ‘Figure ‘4.
lower pot during combustion in the upper pot
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Up to the vtime that the valve reaches ‘the posi
and he raises ‘the valve stem 3? fully so as to 10 tion shown by Figure 4, and eventhereaf‘ter, the
burner is not so flooded as to prevent properigni
allow full ‘?ow of ‘oil into the burner and fails to
tion and combustion.‘ Hence, at any time during
ignite the burner promptly when oil ?ows ‘into
this period, the operator may throw in a lighted
the pots, the level of the ‘fuel will rise in the
the event the operator ‘is starting the ?re
piece of paper, or the like, and then leave the
lower pot 1! l and
the float chamber ‘Ii-3. When
the level of the fuel oil in the pot l-l rises a 15 burner alone with the assurance that combustion
will occur and continue in‘ the proper manner.
small amount, the ?oat 5'5 will pick up the valve
After burning begins, the temperature will in
stem 51? and raise it, and upon sufficient move
crease thereby resulting in better vaporization ‘of
men-t of the float the stem will move entirely
across the passageway 1.14 and ‘close ‘it. During
fuel and as more and more oil is consumed, the
this movement, the upper end of the stem grad 20 ?oat ‘55 will gradually drop and ?nally 'a full ?ow
will occur with a part, as mentioned previously,
ually closes off the oil ?ow to the pipe at leading
going to the lower pot and a larger portion going
to the upper pot Ii).
to theupper‘pot.
.
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The general operation of the burner may best
If the operator should not ignite the burner
be approached by considering two different con
within a reasonable period of time, a ?ooded con
ditions, In the first place, if the burner is op
dition might eventually occur in the event of
erating normally it will be governed by the con
leakage past the ‘valve stem and in order to pre
trol 33. If the control 39 is in a position for low
?re operation, oil will be ?owing ‘downwardly
vent this ?ooded condition, the upper end of the
valve stem 50 is in engagement ‘with astems65 ex
through pipe 152 at a low rate of about 2 c. 0. per
tending on upwardly through a tubular projection
minute, through the slot 51 in the valve stem 5%,
66 in the casing l2 where it is engageable with
into the ?oat chamber 4-8, through pipe t9 and
a projection 6'! on the trip element 30. This trip
into the smaller pot ii I. Oil will not ?ow through
element when pushed upwardly, will completely
the pipe d6 into the larger pot it and hence after
the oil in the larger pot has burned following the
out off the supply of oil entering the casing 2-0
previous high ?re operation the burning "will be 35 and is of such character that it must be reset‘
manually ‘before the supply of fuel again ‘is turned
con?ned to the smaller pot ‘I l and a low ?re will
be obtained.
Now, if the operator moves the control 39 so as
on.
i
In general, it will be apparent that if the burner
is not ignited after the fuel is ‘turned on or if
to allow full flow of oil through pipe 42, the oil
will ?ow on through the passageway 4% into the 40 combustion is poor or improper for any reason,
larger pot and will be ignited from the smaller
the ?oat valve will gradually cut off or decrease
the supply of oil and ?nally cut it ‘off altogether
pot. At the same time, a slightly greater quan
tity of oil will flow‘ through the slot 51 due to the
if the concentration of unconsumed oil reaches
greater supply in pipe 42 and greater head of oil.
a certain amount or level. If consumption and
This increased quantity of oil ?owing through 45 vaporization should be poor, as it might be for a
~ the slot 5?‘ will supply a larger quantity, for in;
period of time after initial ignition, the supply
stance 4 c. c., as indicated previously, to the
would be gradually reduced until the oil supplied
smaller pot ll. Good combustion will be ob
approximated that consumed and then as
vaporization and consumption increased, the sup
tained under these circumstances.
The foregoing concerns normal operation. If 50 ply would increase and keep pace with the con
sumption until a predetermined rate of ?ow
the operator, however, should turn the control
39 to high ?re or full flow and then not ignite
existed along with uniform and good vaporiza
the burner promptly, the present invention would
tion and consumption. In the event the burner
become operative to prevent an undesirable or
were not ignited, the oil would be ?nally shut off
?ooded condition for a substantial period of time 55 but after that if it were ignited, the rate of ?ow
and allow the operator more time in which to
would gradually increase in accordance with
ignite the burner without incurring any undesir
vaporization and consumption until the predeter
able results. Assume then, that the operator
mined rate of ?ow would occur.
does not ignite the burner promptly after turning
Although the invention has been illustrated
the control for full ?ow. The oil would ?ow into
and described in detail, it will be apparent to
the large pot I0 and soon over?ow therein into
those skilled in the art that various modifications
the smaller pot H and raise the level of the oil
may be made without departing from the scope
in the smaller pot and in the chamber 48. As
of the appended claims.
soon as the level in the ?oat chamber 48 rises
What is claimed is:
to the line 6|, for instance, as seen in Figure 1, 65
1. In a liquid fuel burning'apparatus having a
the ?oat 55 will begin to move the valve stem 50
constant level device for supplying fuel to a main
upwardly thereby gradually cutting off the supply
burner pot and to a low ?re burner pot opening
of oil through the passage M. The level of the
upwardly through the bottom wall of said main
oil in chamber 48 will continue to rise but pro
, pot so that liquid fuel can over?ow from said
gressively slower as the oil is gradually cut off by 70 main pot into said 10w ?re pot, safety means
the moving valve stem and upon the level of the
controlling the ?ow of liquid fuel from the con
oil reaching the line 62, for instance, the valve
stant level device to both of said pots and com
stem 50 will have moved into the position shown
prising a ?oat chamber, a conduit connecting said
by Figure 4. With the valve stem in this position,
?oat chamber to the low ?re pot for ?ow from
the supply of oil is cut off.
75 said ?oat chamber to the low ?re pot and for
2,404,853,
7
?owv from the low ?re pot‘to said ?oat chamber
7 so that the liquid level in said ?oat chamber will
correspond to the level in the low ?re pot, a
valve casing mounted on said ?oat chamber and
having an inlet and a plurality of outlets, a con
duit connecting said inlet to the outlet of the
constant level device, one of said valve casing
outlets discharging into said ?oat chamber,‘ a
conduit connecting another of said valve casing
outlets to said main pot, a valve controlling said
one outlet, a’ valve controlling said other outlet,
and a ?oat in said ?oat chamber and connected
8
such that increase of liquid level in the low ?re
pot above a predetermined level will correspond
ingly increase the level in said ?oat chamber, a
valve casing mounted on said ?oat chamber and
having intersecting passageways, a valve rod re
ciprocally ?tting one of said passageways and
operable on movement to interrupt ?ow through i
the other passageway, said other passageway hav
ing one end connected to the outlet of the con- ,
stant level device and having its other end con
nected to the main pot, said rod having 'a slot
for ?ow to said ?oat chamber, said slot having
to said valves and operable at a. predetermined
an end wall movable into said one passageway
liquid level in the low ?re pot to close said ?rst
to close on’ flow to said ?oat chamber, and a ?oat
named valve and at a higher liquid level in said 15 in said ?oat chamber operable to move said valve
low ?re pot to close said second-named valve.
rod to close ?rst said slot and then said other
2. In a liquid fuel burning apparatus having a
passageway.
constant level device for supplying fuel to a main
4. In a liquid fuel burning apparatus having a
‘burner pot and to a low ?re burner pot opening
constant level device for supplying fuel to a main
upwardly through the bottom wall of said main 20 burner pot and to a 10W ?re pot opening upwardly
pot so that liquid fuel can over?ow from said
through the bottom of said main pot so that fuel
mainpot into said low ?re pot, safety means con
can over?ow from said main pot into said low
trolling the ?ow of liquid fuel from the constant
?re pot, safety means for controlling fuel ?ow
level device to both of said pots and comprising
from said constant level device to said pots and
a ?oat chamber, a conduit connecting saidi?oat 25 comprising a ?oat chamber, a conduit connecting
chamber to the low ?re pot for ?ow from said
said ?oat chamber to said low ?re pot, a valve
?oat chamber to the low ?re pot and for flow
casing mounted on top of said ?oat chamber and
from the low ?re pot to said ?oat chamber so
having a horizontal passageway and an intersect
that theliquid level in said ?oat chamber will
ing vertical passageway discharging downwardly
‘correspond to the level in the low ?re pot, a valve 30 into said ?oat chamber, a valve rod reciprocally
, casing mounted on said ?oat chamber and having
?tting said vertical passageway and extending
an inlet and a laterally directed outlet and a
downward into said ?oat chamber, a ?oat in said
' downwardly directed outlet discharging into said
?oat chamber and engageable with said rod to
?oat chamber, a conduit connecting said inlet to
move it upwardly, said rod having a longitudinal
the outlet of the constant level device, a conduit
connecting said lateral outlet to the main pot, a
valve controlling said downwardly directed outlet,
slot for ?ow through said vertical passageway
into said ?oat chamber, said slot having an end
wall movable into said vertical passageway to
a valve controlling said lateral outlet, and a ?oat
close said slot, said rod having its upper end
in said ?oat chamber and connected to said valves
terminating adjacent the lower wall of said hori~
and operable .at a predetermined liquid level in 40 zontal passageway and movable upwardly by said
the low ?re pot to close said ?rst-named valve
?oat to close said horizontal passageway, a con
and at a higher liquid level in said 10w ?re pot to
duit connecting one end of said horizontal pas
close said second-named valve.
‘
sageway to the outlet of said constant level de
3. In a liquid fuel burning apparatus having a
vice, a conduit connecting the other end of said
constant level device operable to supply liquid . horizontal passageway to said main pot, said ?oat
fuel to a main burner pot and to a low ?re burner
- pot opening upwardly through the bottom of the
main pot so that liquid fuel can over?ow from
the main pot into the low ?re pot, safety means
receiving liquid fuel from the constant level de c.
vice and controlling ?ow of the liquid fuel to
both of the burner pots and comprising a ?oat
chamber communicating with the low ?re pot
chamber being positioned, laterally of said low>
?re pot such that upon a predetermined level in
said 10W ?re pot said ?oat will lift said rod to
close said slot and at ahigher level in said low
?re pot will lift said rod to close said horizontal
passageway.
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V
WALTER S. LANDON.
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